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Author of " Pyramids and Progress " 
"The Sacred Beetle," Etc. 

By G. F. hill, M.A., of the British museum 


where er we tread, tis haunted holy ground, 
no earth of thine is lost in vulgar mould, 
but one vast realm of wonder spreads around 
and all the muses' tales seem truly told. 





KicHAUD Clay ank Soks, Limited, 




P.C., K.P., G.C.B., G.C.S.I., G.C.M.G., G.C.I.E., 
D.C.L., LL.D., F.E.S., 






Introductory Chapter xiii-xxvii 

The Old Greeks as Pioneers of Trade — Their Artistic and Literary Taste — Survival of 
Hellenic Types. 



Spain and Gaul 1 

Italy 1-20 

Sicily 21-55 

Makedon, Paionia 57-64 

Thrace 64-67 

Thessaly 68-70 

Illyris, Epeiros, Akarxania, Aitolia 70-74 

LoKRis, pHOKis, Boiotia 74-76 

Euboia, Attika, Megakis, Aigisa 77-81 

KoRiNTHiA, Peloponnese 81-88 

Krete, Kyklades, Melos 89-93 

PoNTOs, Paphlagosia, Bithynia, Mysia, Troas 95-103 

Aiolis, Lesbos, Ionia 103-110 

Karia, Rhodos, Lydia, Lykia 110-116 

Pamphylia, Kilikia, Kappadokia 117-122 

Kypros, Syria, Babylonia 122-135 

Persia, Baktria, India •' 135- 142 

EoYi^ 142-146 

Kyrenaika 14<i 148 

Libya, Karthago 148-150 

Supplement lol-154 

( vii ) 






Magna Graecia. Pakt 1 157 

(Spain — Gaul) — Cumae— Neapolis — Capua — Roman Campania — Paestum — Velia. 


Magna Graecia. Part II. — Lucania, Calabria, Bruttium 169 

Taranto — Heraclea — Metaponto — Sybaris — Thurium. 


Magna Graecia. Part III. — In the Bruttian District 179 

Croton (Cotrone) — Terina — Vibo— Caulonia — Locri — Scylla — Reggio. 


The Island of Sicily. Part 1 189 

Messina — Taormina — Naxos — Aci Reale — The Cyclops — Catania — Etna — Centoripa — 


The Island of Sicily. Part II 203 

Syracuse — Ortygia — Cathedral — Fort Euryalus — Latomiae, &c. 


The Island of Sicily. Part III 217 

Camarina — Gela — Girgenti (Akragas) — Himera — Selinus — Segesta — Panormus — Africa — 
Carthage — Numidia, &c. 


Hellenic Colonies of Turkey in Europe and their vicinity 239 

Byzantium — The Dardanelles — Thrace — Paeonia — Macedonia — Thessaly — Epirus — 
Corcyra — Acamania — Aetolia. 


Excursions in Old Greece. No. 1 259 

Euboea (Negropont) — Sunium — The Piraeus — Athens. 


Excursions in Old Greece. No. II 267 

The Sacred Way — Eleusis— Megara — Daphne. 




Excursions in Old Greece. No. Ill 277 

Eleusis to Boeotia by Eleutherae — Tanagra — Thebes — Chaeroneia — Phoeia — Delphi — 
Locris — Parnassus. 


From Attica to the Peloponnesus by the Isthmus of Corinth 285 

The Island of Aegina — Corinth — Sicyon — Phlius. 


In the Peloponnese. Part 1 29.3 

Patras — Olympia and its Discovery — Elis — The Olympic Gaines. 


In the Peloponnese. Part II 305 

Bassae — Phigalia — Pheneus — Phlius — Nemea — Mantinea — Megalopolis — Argos — 
Epidaunis — Hermione. 


The Isles of Greece 315 

Crete— Cnosos — Lyttos — Itanos — Rhaukos — Gortyna — Phaistos— Hierapytna — Aptera — 
Cydonia— Cheraonesus — Eleuthernal, &e. — The Cyclades. 


The Hellenes in Africa — Cyrenaica 327 

Cyrene — Barce — Hesperis — ApoUonia — Teuchria — Ptolemais. 


Asia Minor. Part I. — Pontus, Bithynia, Mysia, Ionia, &c 337 

The Euxine — Sinope — Amisus — Amasia — Amastris — Abydos — Troas — Lesbos — Pergamon 
— Smyrna — Teos — Chios — Ephesua — Clazomenae — Calymna — Miletus. 


Asia Minor. Part II. — The Mausoleum and other Monuments of Caria 355 

Halicamassus — Cnidus— Myndus — Rhodes— Lindus — Camirus — lalysus — Sardes— Lycia. 


Asia Minor. Part III.— The Kingdom of Croesus — Lydia, &c 367 

Sardes— Lydia— Lycia— Xanthus—Pamphylia—Perga — Cilicia — Aspendus — Tarsus— 


Cyprus 379 

Cyprus Ancient and Modern — Nicosia — Lamaca — Limaasol — Paphos — Famaguata — 
Salamis — Kyrenia, &c. 


The Seleuciu Empire — Phoenicia — Armenia, &c 393 

Syria— Babylon— Antioch—Seleucia— Tripoli— Tyre — Sidon — Damascus — Beyrout — 
Jerusalem, &c. 




The Asiatic Campaigns of Alexander the Great— The Founding of Alexandria . . 409 
Macedonia— Greece — Asia Minor— Syria — Eg3'pt — Babylon — Persia — Ariana — Parthia — 
Bactria — India. 


The Greeks in Egypt — Alexander the Great— The Ptolemies 423 

Alexandria — Naucratis — The Fayum — Ptolemaic Temples — Cleopatra VII. — Egypt 
under the Romans — Under British Guidance. 

Notes 4.39-450 

Indices — No. I. General Index 451^54 

„ „ II. Personal Names and Epithets 455-458 

„ „ III. Index to Imaginary Rambles 459-464 

Unknown Portrait. 

Bronze from Herculaneum. (Xaples Museum.) 


No. 290. 


No. 291. 






Syracusan Medallions, Enlarged FrmUiapiece 

The Python, By Lord Leiohton p. xiii 

A Vlsit to Aesculapicts To/ace xx 

The Maid of Athens ,, xxii 

Lord Byron ,, xxvi 


Portrait, Dk. B. V. Head To face p. xxxiv 


Map of Maona Graecia, &c 

Autotype Plate I. — Coins of Magna Graecia 
,, III. ,, Sicily 

Map of Greece and Archipelago .... 
AtiTOTYPE Plate IX. — Coins of Makedon 
„ XIII. 
Map of Asia Minor . 
Autotype Pi^te XV.- 
„ XVI. 
„ XVII. 

Makedon, Thrace, &c. . 
Thessalia, Epeiros, &c. 
Boeotia, Attica, &c. . . 

Elis, &c 

Arkadia, Krete, &o. . . 

-Coins of Mysia, Troas, &c 

,, Lesbos, Ionia, &c 

„ Karia, Rhodes, Lydia, &c. 

,, KiLiKiA, Syria 

( ^i ) 



Aptotype Plate XIX.— Coins op Syria To face p. 124 

XX. „ Sybia „ 130 

„ „ XXI. „ Baktria „ 136 

„ „ XXII. „ Egypt, Kyrbne ,, 144 




Portraits— Archytas, Hannibal, Aesop, Pindar To face p. 188 

SiMONiDES, Archimedes, Theocritus, Moschus ,, 214 

Solon, Aristophanes, Pericles, Aspasia ,, 263 

Socrates, Xenophon, Plato, Speusippds „ 264 

Antisthenes, Sophocles, Alcibiades, Thucydides ,, 265 

Demosthenes, Akschines, Aristotle, Menander „ 266 

Snapshots at Megara ,, 272 

Portraits— Aeschylus, Euripides, Hesiod, Themistocles ,, 276 

,, Pythagoras, Epicurus, Carneades, Galen ,, 336 

,, Hippocrates, Anacreon, Aratus, Zeno (of Cyprus) ,, 378 

Map of Alexander's Campaigns ,, 410 

,, Alexandria „ 424 

Portraits of Alexander ,, 426 

{For Illustrations in Text, see p. xxvii. ) 

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By the late Lord Leighton, P.RA. 

the property of the nation — purchased undf:r the chantrey bequest, 
exhibited in the tate gallery, london. 

( xiii ) 

"When the World was Young." (By Sir E. J. Poynter, P.R.A.) 
(By permission of T. McLean, Esq.) 


" Fair Greece, sad relic of departed worth I 
Immortal, though no more ; though fallen, great ! " — Byron. 

The Greeks of old, who gave us our Architecture, our Arts, and 
our Literature, were pre-eminently the men of business of their day. 
In this wonderful combination, of the Ornamental side of life with the 
Practical, they have never been equalled. To these qualities they 
added Statesmanship and Military skill. With all these engrossing 
occupations, they seem to have found time to make their homes 
beautiful, and even the decoration of their coins, the medium of' 
commerce, was not forgotten. And this was in the period of their 
highest mental development, and at a time when their fleets held the 
trade of the civilised world from East to West, from the Pillars of 
Hercules to India, from the Euxine to Gyrene. 

Their Colonies were trading centres carrying on extensive 
Vjusiness among themselves, and with their Parent Cities. These 
Colonies kept pace in arts and refinement with the mother country, 
and were able by their wealth to tempt philosophers, poets, sculptors, 
painters, orators, and soldiers from the lands of their birth to settle 
in the adopted homes of their kinsfolk. 

( XV ) 



The new settlements were not 
bound by old traditions as to their 
coin types, and the coins of Syracuse, 
Tarentum, Thurium, and others, far 
eclipsed, as works of art, those of 
Athens and Corinth, and their pieces 
became models for imitation by the 
cities of the old country. 

Money was struck for purposes of 
trade, but the Greeks were the first to 
beautify coinage and make the jjieces 
of metal into works of Art. 

Strange to say, however, the ear- 
liest coins of the Greeks were of rude 
archaic style. The element of beauty 
was introduced about the same time 
that their architecture suddenly came 
to the wonderful perfection of the days 
of Pericles. Beside the remains of 
the incomparable Parthenon, there has 

Peasants ok Capri. tit i i 

Descendants of Greek coioniBts. -lately bccu cxcavatcd thc ruius of the 

(Bypermi8siononhe^artistj^Mr.^E Barclay, and of older Tcmplc (uot VCry mucll oldcr) 

destroyed by the Persians. The sculp- 
ture of this temple was of rude archaic work. In the same manner 
the " Period of the High Art " of the coins came suddenly, and 
showed itself simultaneously at Hellenic places widely apart. 

We nowadays emulate the deeds of the emigrating Greeks in 
sending out new colonies and on a vast scale — but we make our 
pieces of money ugly and inartistic. With the glorious collection of 
Hellenic coins at our British Museum, which should be our models, 
we produce (in another Government Department in London) a 
coinage that becomes more unattractive every year ! If the Master 
of the Mint would request his designers to study the treasures of 
the Coin Room of the British Museum some improvement might 
result. They would see how much they are behind the times 
of Ancient Greece. 



Hellenic coins afford a fascinating study, interesting in several 
remarkable features beyond any medallic art the world has .ever seen. 
I was first attracted to them by their beauty and acquired a few 
pieces as specimens of an art, almost equal in aerit to fine Greek 
sculpture, although more of the character of gem-engraving. 

As I found that these, my first, treasures, had their origin in 
Sicily and Southern Italy, I thought I should like to see the lands 
that had produced such beautiful works, and I set out to visit them. 
The journey was successful as a delightful pilgrimage to ancient 
shrines, but I found that the old Greek coins were not now to be seen 
in any numbers in the lands of their origin, and that our own British 
Museum possessed a far finer collection than any to be found else- 
where. This led me subsequently to study Greek coins nearer home, 
and after some years of patient waiting to form gradually a fairly 
good collection of my own. 

Dr. Barclay Vincent Head, through the study of his monumental 
work Historia Numoriim, was my instructor. That deliglitful book, and 
frequent associations with its courteous 
author, taught me all I desired to know, 
and led me gradually to devote my atten- 
tion to the coinage of other Hellenic 
lands, and finally to visit Greece itself. 

I thus derived increased pleasure 
from my coins through visits to their 
"parent cities," and during my travels 
made important additions to the little 
collection. So when I was told by 
friends at the British Museum that I 
could do a useful work by publishing 
a Descriptive Catalogue of my coins, I 
willingly consented to do so. Mr. G. F. 
Hill, of the British Museum, kindly 
undertook the arduous labour of com- 
piling the Catalogue, a task which he 
has performed with much care and skill, 
deserving my wannest thanks, the arrangement being that of the 
British Museum and of the Historia Numorum. Mr. Hill also supplies 
elaborate Greek and other Indices for the use of numismatists. 

Classic 1'igure -with a Mask kkom 


(British Museum.) 



(lOLD Cups from Vaphio, Sparta. 
(Athens Museum.) 

As a rule numismatists do not concern themselves so much about 
the topography of the countries where the coins were produced as 
about the coins themselves. I have therefore supplied three sketch- 
maps which I hope 
may add to the use- 
fulness of the volume 
by showing the prin- 
cipal localities, in 
Magna Graecia, An- 
cient Hellas, Asla 
^IiNOR, and the 

As the work pro- 
gressed I was more 
and more impressed 
by the idea that no 
book had been pub- 
lished connecting ancient Greek coins with the interesting localities 
which had produced them. I therefore determined to embody in the 
volume notes of a series of Imaginary Rambles to the ancient sites 
and cities of the Hellenic race ; commencing with the best known 
western colonies and gradually work- 
ing eastward. Of those places that 
I had personally visited I had, in some 
cases, my own sketches and photo- 
graphs for illustrations. For the 
more remote regions I collected what 
interesting information and material 
for illustrations were obtainable. 

Short historical notices have 
"been inserted where they seemed to 
be appropriate to the coins them- 
selves, to the locaUties from which 
the}' come, or to the devices which 
they bear, with references to the 
great men of their time. 

The coins of the old states of 
Greece, Athens, Corinth, Thebes, 

Relief is Bronze hn a Mirror Case 
FROM Corixth. 
(British Museum.) 


Terracotta Figike niu.M 

(British Museum.) 

are comparatively uninteresting, and 
there seems little to say about them 
from an artistic point of view. And as 
to their cities there is not much left to 
depict, the hand of time having been heavy 
on them. The Parthenon is a confused 
heap of ruins, Corinth has disappeared 
entirely, and of Boeotia, no traces of its 
towns are left. But to pass them by with- 
out pictorial recognition would be unfair. 

At Corinth, Sparta, and Boeotia, 
though no ruins exist, wonderful specimens 
of ancient art have been turned up by the 
spade. The celebrated gold cups ofVAPHio 
were thus discovered — and disclose an art 
of high merit, possibly of a date long before 
the time of coins. 

The sculptures of the Parthenon 
are nearly all in the British Museum. Lord Elgin found the 
ruined fane of Athene in danger of being used for building jiur- 
poses or being burnt for lime. He no doubt saved the greater 
part of these sculptures from destruction by pur- 
chasing them and carrying them off to England : 
these glorious works of Pheidias and his school ^^^H^"^! 
are too well-known to need illustration here.* 

But we can conjure up the ancient Makers 
of Athens, by studying the many portraits 
that exist of the poets, orators, philosophers, 
dramatists and statesmen of the palmy days 
of the great city. No portraits are found in 
Greece, all were carried off to Rome to adorn the 
palaces of the rich dilettanti of two thousand 
years ago ; kind Nature in overwhelming Pompeii 
and Herculanetjm preserved many of these for 
us. When Rome was destroyed, thousands of 
works of art must have perished, the finest 
the world ever produced. 

' Note J — Shield of Athene with portrait of Pheidias. 

Lady with Sdnshade 
FROM Tanaora. 
(British Museum.) 

6 2 


Unfortunately of many of the greatest heroes and literary men 
of Greece no memorial remains. I have engraved about fifty of the 
best specimens of these antique busts that can be identified. Hundreds 
of fine Greek heads exist in the various museums, labelled " Unknown 
Portrait," and possibly some of the attributions of those I have en- 
graved, are doubtful ; still they are 
all interesting as memorials of the 
educated men of the time. 

Of the ordinary mortals of two 
thousand years ago, an interesting 
collection of portraits was found, 
some twenty years ago, in the an- 
cient cemetery of Tanagka, a small 
Boeotian town. These seem to have 
been the household gods of the de- 
parted, and portray the costume and 
everyday life of the simple folk of 
about 300 B.C., or earlier. 

Thus we have the portraits of 
philosophers, poets, and warriors of 
old Greece on the one hand, and 
of the well-to-do citizens of a country 
town, on the other, preserved for 
our study. A little group of 
girls in terracotta resembling these, 
is engraved on p. 168 ; it was 
found at Capua and possibly sup- 
plied the accomplished President 
of our Koyal Academy with the idea for one of his best pictures, 
which is engraved at the head of this chapter. Of the Tanagra 
figures those in ordinary costume are the most striking. The two 
ladies gossiping on a sofa (page 280), and the one enjojang an 
afternoon nap, those wearing sunshades, another hooded for an out- 
door walk, and the ballet-dancer, are not very diff'erent in their attire 
from the costumes of the present day, while some of them seem to be 
portraits of noted actresses of their time. 

The marbles and bronzes of the Greek sculptors were the finest 
the world has ever seen ; the bronzes have nearly all disappeared, the 

Girls of Capri. (Bv Benner.) 

(Luxembourg, Paris. 




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metal being too tempting a prize for barbarian hordes, and even for 
invaders from " civilised " nations. But the few antique Broijze 
works we have (or marble ones copied from the originals ihbronl'e) 
have called forth the emulation of modern artists. 

Of such one of the most successful was the Athlete struggling 
WITH A Python, of the lamented Loed Leighton, which is perhaps 
equal to an ancient work. 

Of ancient painting by such as Apelles and Zeuxis no specimens 

Grecian Coast Scenery— Cape Dccato, Corfu (Coecyra). 

are preserved ; all have perished. But no doubt the painting of these 
renowned artists of antiquity was of equal merit to the sculpture. 
Some of our modern painters have caught the classic vein. 

Sir Edward Poynter, P.E.A., to whose work I have already 
referred, shows the thoroughness of his classic knowledge in his 
picture, "A Visit to Aesculapius." It was painted in 1880, ten 
years before the discoveries at Epidaurus, and yet one would fancy 
that the artist had seen the enclosure of the ancient physician's 
dwelling outside the great temple as now uncovered. The head of 
Asklepios (as I prefer to call him) is like his authentic portrait 
recently found there, his attitude, and the dog under the seat, are 
all as depicted on one of my coins of Epidaurus. Aphrodite and 
her attendant maidens are not, however, to be found nowadays any- 
where but in the lovely ideals of their author's imagination ! 



This undoubtedly (as Lord Leigh- 
ton once remarked to me) is the finest 
picture of its class of our time. For- 
tunately it is the possession of the 
British nation (thanks to the Chantrey 
Bequest), and at last fittingly shown 
in the Tate Gallery, London. 

The Greeks were also masters of 
decoration, and that, too, at a very 
early period. Mr. Arthur Evans has 
discovered fresco paintings (ornament 
and figure, &c.) on the walls of the 
Palace of Minos, in Crete. In Greece 
itself all traces of internal decoration 
have perished. But in Eome, in 
Raphael's time, remains of wall-paint- 
ing were discovered on the ceiling of 
an Imperial palace, which was doubt- 
less the work of Greek artists. These 
designs were copied by Raphael in 
the decoration of the Stanze and 
Loggie of the Vatican. 
In modern times, ornament of a similar style was found at the 
Palace of the Caesars. Pompeii and Herculaneum have shown us 
decoration, also by Greek artists, but of rather a declining style. 
Doubtless the mural adornment of the celebrated temples of old 
Greece was of equal merit to their architecture. Some of the scenes 
lately found at Pompeii are interesting ; one, especially so for us 
numismatists, showing Amorini busily engaged in weighing out the 
precious metals, and in striking medals or coins (page xxvi.). 

Modern Greek Types. (By Hubert. 

Natives of Southern Italy. 
(Luxembourg, Paris.) 

It is a notable fact that almost every spot selected for the cities 
of the ancient Greeks, whether within their own native land or in 
their colonies, is remarkable for its picturesque beauty. The whole of 
the Coast Scenery of Greece and the Islands is extremely fine, 
and rendered doubly so by the exquisite hues of the sky and sea. 

We are told that the appreciation of fine scenery is quite a 
modern discovery. But the Greeks, who cultivated the beautiful in 
their literature and in their art, seem to have keenly appreciated 

*' ZttT; fioVf tras ayavw." 

roRTKAlT FROM LiFE, 1812. 

[p. xxii. 



landscape scenery as well, and have thus given much opportunity, by 
the selection of their sites, for illustrating a work such as the 
present volume. 

The enjoyment of a pilgrimage through such lands is greatly 
heightened when we find at unexpected places survival of classic 
times. The tall, dignified carriage of the women, their regular features 
and fair complexion, recall the ancient type, and in some districts the 
very costumes still are found. We happen on religious festivals little 
changed from those of old, though Hera or Demeter may be replaced 
by the Virgin Mary, in the honours paid to their ideal of what the 
best of womankind should be. 

In Italy, in old Greece and in the Islands (at Easter especially, 
and on other religious festivals), the peasantry, dressed in their best 
costumes, and wearing jewellery handed, down from mother to 
daughter, still join in dances which are evident survivals of the 

assemblages one 


ancient classic celebrations. Among these 
recognise the fair skin and fine eyes, and often the auburn tresses of the 
old Hellenic race.^ Among the upper classes also I have noticed the 
fair complexion and regular features of the "Maid of Athens " of to-day. 
When the recently 
discovered Delphic 
Ode to Apollo was 
performed l)y a so- 
ciety of amateurs 
at a concert in 
Athens, I was 
much struck with 
the fact, and also 
remarked the num- 
ber of tall hand- 
some men, of evi- 
dent Greek de- 

This and the 
fact of the Greek tongue being still the language of the country is 

' In Italy one sees much of a similar survival of Hellenic types of feature. Lord Leighton, 
who knew all these countries well, told me that the natives of the Islaud of Capri, were, he 
considered, entirely Greek in origin, for when the Greek towns of the mainland were overrun 
V,y invaders, Capri was spared, being too poor for pillage. To this day the natives will not 
intermarry with the people of the mainland. Thus their Greek element is preserved. 

Modern Greece— National Dances. 



extraordinary, after the vicissitudes through 
which that land has passed, and the many 
invasions of two thousand years, showing that tlie 
people did not intermingle with their conquerors, 
whether Roman, Slavonic, Venetian or Moslem. 

■ 4 V 

Dancing Girl from 
Tan AGRA. 

In the time of Richard Coeur de Lion, the 
British held Cyprus, and at a later date Malta. 
These islands are again British possessions, each 
having been an Hellenic colony, striking Greek 
money. Both of them now possess current 
silver coin, bearing the portrait of Queen 
Victoria. This shows how ancient numismatics 
bring us into touch with modern progress.^ 

The earlier Greek coins mainly exhibit 
heads of their deities, religious emblems and 
agonistic allusions, or representations of cele- 
brated statues of antiquity long lost to the world. After the time of 
Alexander i he coins become interesting proofs of history, bearing in 
many cases remarkable portraits, frequently 
the only ones known of important personages. 

My book, treating as it does of Greek 
Coins and their Parent Cities, is intended 
more for the use of the general public than 
for scholars, and therefore is written in a 
popular style. 

The Catalogue prepared at the British 
Museum, is arranged in the manner adopted 
there — i.e., the countries are made to retain 
their ancient names, and the cities are after- 
wards placed in alphabetical order. This 
plan is not suitable for the Imaginary 
Ramble, which constitutes my special part 
of the book, and the places are therefore 
mentioned as we come to them on our route. 
I have also, in most instances, made use of the ordinary spelling of 

1 Note A.— Imitations of Greek Money found in Britain. 

Lady of Tanaora, Indoor 

(British Museum.) 



well-known classical names, as being more familiar 
to tlie general reader than that adopted by the 
scientific expert. 

Greek coins are becoming every year more 
difficult to obtain, even at very high prices ; their 
importance as adjuncts to classical studies is being 
recognised, and most of the private collections dis- 
persed in recent years have found their way to the 
public museums. Our American friends are alive 
to their importance in this respect, and quite re- 
cently the entire collection of Canon Greenwell 
has been purchased, it is said, for a museum in 
Boston. This superb cabinet, the result of the 
experience and travel of a lifetime, was a pecu- 
liarly interesting one, and it is to be regretted that 
it has left our shores. 

Lady of Tanaora with 

(British Museum. 

The awakening of modern interest in Hellenic 
Lands was in a great measure due to the poetry of Byron, and I have 
therefore selected lines of his to head many of the chapters. 

No one can travel in Greece without the nervous poetry of Lord 
Byron coming back to recollection as each hallowed 
spot is visited. His descriptions are absolutely true 
and many were possibly written on the spot. His 
l)est and highest qualities were called forth by his 
genuine, unselfish enthusiasm for Greece. He vir- 
tually gave his life for her cause. His lonely death 
at Misolonghi was nothing short of a martyrdom for 
that freedom of Hellas from Turkish yoke, of which 
he did not live to see the realisation.^ 

I have to tender my warm thanks to the 
many friends who aided my efforts, particularly 
to Dr. B. V. Head and his brethren of the Coin 
Room ; also to Dr. A. S. Murray, Mr. Arthur H. 
Smith, and the other courteous officials of the British 
Museum, too numerous to name, I owe my deep 

Lady (if Tanacra, 
OcTDooR Costume. 

(British Muaeimi.) 


Note M. — Misolonghi, by Sir Rennell Rodd. 



Dr. Mahaffy most kindly undertook the troublesome task of 
reading many of the proofs. Mr. A. H. Hallam Murray gave 
me the benefit of his generous help and advice, and at every point 
his fine taste and great experience were invaluable. 

Wall- Painting from Pompeii. (A NnimsMATic Workshop ':) 

I was never able to visit Cyprus at the proper season, and I could 
find few who knew the place to tell me about its present state. 
The Right Hon. Joseph Chamberlain, however, in the midst of 
his arduous duties, found time to put me on the proper track, and by 
his kindness I found all I needed at the Colonial Office. 

Mr. E. C. Collins, of that busy Government Department, 
volunteered to supply me with the very interesting account of the 
modern aspect of the ancient isle, once before owned by the English 
nation in the days of our Lion-hearted King. 

In offering some novel aspects of " Greek Coins and their Parent 
Cities " it is hoped that this work may add a new interest to the study 
of those minute relics of old Grecian art and the wonderful people who 
produced them. 

It is a great advantage to give a book a good name. The title of 
this volume was chosen by Lord Dufferin, who helped me with the 
work and also encouraged me to publish it. To him, as to one who 
has indeed " done the state some service " in every land which I venture 
to describe (and in many more besides), I dedicate this volume.^ 


' Note B. — Lord Dufferin's Knowledge of the East. 

Kkom the Picture bv S. i'uii.LJi-i>, U.A.] 

[In the Possession of Mr. John Murray. 

' thy ftihie 

LlnL-ti a neic nutnori/ to each sacred nnnie," 


Died at Misoi.oNr,iii, 10 April, 1824. 

[ ,.. xxvl. 




Unknown Portrait x 

Head from Pergamon xii 

When the World was Young ... xv 

Peasants of Capri xvi 

CLA.SSIC Figures, Tanagra xvii, xix 

Gold Cups, Vaphio xviii 

Bronze Relief, Corinth xviii 


Terracotta Figures from 

Tanagra xix, xxiv, xxv 

Girls of Capri xx 

Cape Ducato, Corfu xxi 

Modern Greek Types, S. Italy . . xxii 

National Dances xxiii 

Wall-Painting, Pompeii xxvi 

Apollo Belvedere xxxii 




s OF Thurioi . . . 



Hyria . . . 
,, Metapontion 
,, Bruttium . . 

. . 3 




, Kroton , . . 
Akragas . . 



, Kentoripa 


, Syrakuse . . 
, Makedon 

36, 151 



, Apdera . . . 


, Maroneia . . 
, Ambrakia . . 



Delphoi . . . 
, Lakonia . . , 



, Pheneos , . 
, Krete .... 

, BiTHYNIA . . . 
, PER(iAM0N . . . 


. 89, 90, 91, 92, 152 

..... 97, 162 


, Tenedos . . . . 


A Oui 


Erythrai 107, 153 

Chios 109 

Karia 112 

Kos 113 

LiNDOs 113, 114 

Rhodos 114 

aspendos 117 

Mallos 118 

Syria 124, 127 

Baktria 137, 138, 139 

Egypt 146 

Kyrene 147 

Selinus 151 

Tauromenion 151 

siculo-punic 152 

AiNOS 152 

Abydos 153 

Kypros 153, 154 

A Quadriga 156 





Bbokze Statue, Poseidon 157 

Naples 159 

Marseilles 160 

Bruttian Scenery 161 

Grecian Statue, Boxer 162 

Capua, The Theatre 163 

Venus of Capua • • . 164 

Psyche ,, 164 

Paestum 165 

Paestum, Temple of Neptune .... 166 

,, ,, Ceres 167 

,, Basilica 167 

Lamp, Paestum 167 

Zeno 168 

Girls at Knuckle-bones 168 

Taranto (two views) 169, 171 

Terra cotta Reliefs 172 

policoro 173 

Bronze from River Siris 174 

Metaponto 175 

River Crathis 176 

Herodotos 176 

Castle, Cotrone 177 

Doric Column, Taranto 178 

,, ,, Cotrone ■ . . 179 

Pythagoras 181 

RocELLA Ionica 182 

Gioiosa 184 

Gerace 185 


Reggio 187 

Bronze Fragment 188 

Taormina 189 

Messina 191 

Taormina, Theatre 193 

,, General View 194 

„ Badia Vecchia 195 

,, Villa Catarina 196 

Distant View of Etna 197 

Fountain at Taormina 197 

Rocks of the Cyclops 198 

Aci Reale 198 

Catania 199 

„ Plain 200 


Wayside Fountain 



AND Persephone 


Cathedral, Catania 






, Latomiae 204 



Site of 




Only Greek Statue .... 


Bagno di Diana 


Damaretion (two cuts) . . . 


Fountain of Arethusa . . . 


Fort Euryalus 




Ear or Dionysius 


Greek Amphitheatre . . . . 


Great Altar 


Plan of Siege 


Papyrus, River Cyane . . . 


Akragas Hera 



, Temple of Concord 



Dekadrachm (two cuts) . . . 




Section of Temple of Zeus . 


FALI.EN Giant 




Temple of Hera 


Castor and Pollux . . . . 




Pelops and Hippodamia . . 









Terracotta Figure 



Temple of Herakles 



,, Apollo 



,, Athena 



Perseus and Gorgon . . . . 






Hercules and Hippolytus . . 



Actaeon and Hounds . . . . 



Athena and Giant 




Temple and Plain 






) Zaffarano 





Palermo Gardens 234 

„ Monastery of Eremiti . . . 234 

,, Cloisters, Monreale .... 235 

,, iloNTE Pellegrino .... 235 

Delenda est Carthago ! 236 

constantine, algeria 237 

Stromboli 237 

Malta 238 

Island of Samothrace 239 

Castle of Asia 241 

Europe 242 

Walls of Byzantium 242 

Constantinople, Golden Horn .... 243 

Ruins at Philippi 244 

Race-Torch 245 

Portrait of Philip II 246 

,, Alexander 246 

Yenidje 247 

Alexander the Great 247 

Vodhena 248 

Nike of Samothrace (three cuts) . . . 249 

Vale of Tempe 250 

Lakissa 251 

VoLo 252 

SuLi 253 

Gulf op Arta 254 

Citadel, Corfu 254 

Zante 255 

Cerigo 256 

Durazzo 257 

EuBOEA 259 

Eastern Coast from Marathon to 

SuNiUM 260 

Bay of Sunium 261 

Venetian Castle, Chalcis 261 

Terracotta from Eretria 262 

Monument of Lysicrates 262 

Straits of Salamis 263 

Athens, Acropolis 264 

Piraeus 265 

Temple of Theseus 266 

Map of Salamis 266 

Bay op Eleusis 267 

Sacred Way 269 

Dancers at Megara 269 

Monastery, Daphne 270 

Greek Prie.sts 270 

Bay of Salamis 271 


Modern Greek Islander ....... 272 

Girl of Parnassus 273 

Propylaea, Eleusis 274 

Woman of Eleusis 274 

Temple of the Mysteries, Eleusis . . 275 

Eleusinian Deities 275 

Cicero 276 

Bird's-Eye View 276 

Delphi 277 

Fort op Eledtherae 279 

Modern Greek Shepherd 279 

Terracottas, Tanagra (two cuts) . . . 280 

Chaeronbia 281 

,, Lion Monument 281 

Mount Parnassus 282 

Consecration of a Tripod 282 

Pedestal of Delphic Tripod 283 

Amphissa and Locris 284 

Aeoina — Temple 285 

Acro-Corinthus 287 

Abgina, Temple 288 

,, Dying Warrior 288 

,, Restoration of Temple . . . 289 
,, Figure, from Temple .... 289 

SiCYON 290 

Athlete 290 

Julius Caesar 291 

Marsyas, Patras 292 

Mountains of Aetolia 293 

Patras, Wooded Gorge 295 

Hermes of Praxiteles (two cuts) . 296, 298 

Bronze Figure from Cerigo 296 

Olympia, Palaestra 297 

,, Nike of Paeonius 299 

,, Temple of Zeus 300 

Aged Man 300 

Apollo (two cuts) .... 300,302 

,, Temple of Hera 301 

,, Knight Mounting Quadriga . 301 

,, Metope 303 

View in Peloponnesus 304 

Allegorical Relief 304 

Templf, at Bassae (two views) . . 305, 307 

Temple, Nemea 308 

Frieze from Phigalia 308 

Mantle of Demeter 309 

Theatre, Megalopolis 310 

Akgos 310 



I' Aim 
Ahooii, Tnmi'I.k or Hkiu 311 


Tkmi'i.k, Ki'iiiAirnt'N Hl'i 

Akni'ii.aI'H'n 'Ml 

TiiKATiiK, I'lriiurni'N 313 

llKliA or Allium 313 

Statub or AwcviupirH 314 

DlAM'MRNim 314 

DUKTK, I.l'TllO 315 

,, lllKHArVTNA 317 

,, MoiiNT Ida 318 

„ Faik HAVRNil 319 


„ roKo 321 

,, ('IIKKMONKMim -329 

,, Canka 328 

U>Hi> DurraHiN's Inmoriitionm . 324 

Mki.os, AksiM''Uis 32fl 

AiiiKoniTK or 32(1 

MASK^ OK 'rRAllKllY ANI> ('OMKl)V . . . 32(1 

Cthkmk, Wady Skiiaiatii 327 

^ „ Hraiw or Mahblb Statubs 328, 33fi 

,, Apiihouitk 329 

„ Ckntiui. \Vai)Y 330 

„ Fountain or AroLLo 880 

„ Dkkna 331 

,, 1*toi.kmaim 331 

„ Kntkani'k to Fountain .... 332 
,, ToMii K-ou 1()A SAuroi'iiAai . . 333 

,, Paintki* HiM'k Tomh 333 

„ Statiiis or Ai'oi.1,0 334 

„ Intrkioh or ToMii 834 

„ Ri'iN or Hi'iLT Tomb 33fl 

„ Sli.riintM Pi^NT 330 

1\)NTII» SCKN«KY 337 

Huoi'SNA . 330 

SiNoi'K 340 

D100KNK.S 340 

Abvihxs 341 

Tboas (Aijcxandrkia) 341 

MocNT Ii>A 343 

Hkad or Sai<piio 344 

1'khoamon, Rkstokation or Altak . . 34A 

,, KXOAVATIONS at 34fi 

Ursat Frisu (throe ouU) 340, 347 

Smyrma 348 

Tsos, IYan or TsMPUt 348 

Chios 349 


HOMIH 349 

Diana or Kriiiwim 'AKS 

Aktkmim or Hki.las 3.V) 

KriiKHt^H, Dui'M or Nkw Tkhi-lk . , . . Sfil 

„ TllKATRK 3.V2 

,, Rkktoiiation or Nkw Tkmi'i.k. . 3.VJ! 

Mll.KTIIN 3fl3 

Tkkaty Stonk, Atiikns and Samon . , . SM 

Vkni's or C;os (?) .V>4 

TiiK Mauhoi,kitm, Kkstoihtion . , 3.W 

,, Kkmai.k IIkai) .... 350 

„ 81.AB8 rHOM (throe outa) 

3.'57, 359, ,300 

,, MAiTfwoM,r« 357 

„ Aktkmisia ani> M. . . 3.W 

,, Kkik/.k krom IWS 

,, Portrait Hkad . . . 359 
KniRVM Cast;,k 3(1() 

('NIKl'S, AlMIRODITK 3(11 

l.ioN 301 

„ Dkmktkh 302 

„ Hkaii or GiKi 303 

Cl.KorATRA 303 

U11011K.S, Strkkt ok Knkiiit!) 304 

,, ArRoi' or L1NDV8 305 

,, LAIMtWN 305 

,, Nohtii Hardour, LlNDt-8 . . . 300 

,, Rhodian Scitlftvrb, Dikkk . 300 

SARncM, SiTK or 307 

Takxus, Fau.s or Oyiwus 309 


Sahukm, Tkmtj.k or Cybklr 371 

Lycia, Kkstoration or Tomb 37'J 

,, Nkkkii) MosrMKNT ;»7-.> 

„ Tomb or I'ayava, Xantiii's . . . 373 
Kkstokation or Nkrkid Monit- 

MKNT 373 

,, Nkrkip krom Monitmkmt .... 374 

AsPKSm'S, TllKATRK 374 

Pkkoa 375 

Cii.ioiA, Coast 370 

Tarsi's 377 

CAiTAnociA, AriiRoniTK 378 


,, LlMASSOL 381 

,, TOKSO KKOM 8ai..\mis 382 

„ „ Maublk 383 

„ Nicosia, Churoii 384 



Cmtos, iMiMJtcA 385 

„ NfoOMlA 385 

V,\n\ (pAruoM) 38« 

„ TcMyvt or Armurvm .... 387 

„ Statcb or Jcrtmt 388 

, , M»utnx CArvtAV 3W 

,, VAMAiitwrA 389 

„ KrKiR«u 391 

„ 0>i.<( (fntrcK nr EvaijurD . . 302 

„ ItMrtJt AT Paukmi 302 

Rri9» AT Latakia 303 

AsTifK-H, Dmtast Vnew 395 


Siixnt, BAmeoruAai (three eat*) 307 

,, FoKT 308 

Bavtumt, "Tms Kass" 399 

Bnrwxnr 4*>1 

BArri/zx, Thb MrjcLivK 4^fl 

Votervft or A»nocB 404 

Cliotatka VIL 404 

„ EoTfTiAji O/isr or ... . 404 

Damauccs, Clamic Rrnrs 4'>5 

Tkipom 406 

TrRB , 407 

H':i:i.yTrkrA> Hti'mn, iir.Yt-jti:! 408 

Thk IjfDTS 409 

StuA 411 

Battuc or 1mv» 413 

Pcxnstou* 4U 

HlMALATA* (Pl^ISS) 417 

Bactkia, Gold Akmlkt 4Ui 

„ HiDDoo Koom MocvTAin . . 419 

„ Khtrkk Pa«( 49) 

,. Ka.idahar 421, 422 

K«f.-»»TJtiAjr JfTATfj! or ALcxA.«f>ieM . . 423 

Alexasmua, Caxal 425 

Po«T 42S 

„ VoMrzfn PiuLAK 427 

TeMn.e, Dejtdiekah 4J9l 

„ Kmseh 4*; 

„ Pbilae 430 

Bmamicm 431 


Head* rocxD at Vavckatu 43B 

Thb Patcm, Bahk Yr»vr 434 

„ PoRTKAim (two eato) . . . 435 

PAmn (four eat*) , , 436, 437 

Ht:Ksr. ijr Ckkte 439 

innATiosn or VnitAt'% Com 439 

ATHB9r»— The Parthbxok— Thb Kkbch- 

THBTN 442 

SntAKoroKD HmriM 443 

Dblkmic TRirob (two coM) 445 

Ckbtb, Palacb or Misto* (four eitt*) 447, 448 

The Apollo Belvedere. 
Marble Statue. 

Copy of an antique bronze, possibly by Leochares, c. 350 b.c. (Vatican, Rome.) 





"... Taste, whose softening hand hath power to give 

Sweetness and grace to rudest things, 

And trifles to distinction brings,' 
Makes us full oft the enchanting tale receive 

In Truth's disguise as Truth . . ."— Pindar. 

Odt to Hieron I. of Syracuse, Victor in The Olympic Games, B.C. 470. 

1 Piwsilily alluding to the victorirm.s (|uadriga, one of the earliest fomis of decoration on coins. 

( .xxxiii ) C 





t p. XXXiT. 




The collection of Greek coins belonging to Mr. Ward comprises many 
fine and interesting pieces, and I am grateful for the opportimity afforded 
me by their owner's request that I should compile a catalogue of his 
cabinet. • 

All the most important specimens are illustrated by the autotype process, 
with the exception of a few pieces which were excluded for want of space 
or acquired too late for insertion in the plates; most of these will be found 
engraved separately in the text. 

In view of the increasing attention which is being paid to varieties of 
dies, I have, in nearly all cases, compared the specimens with others published 
elsewhere, and noted the results wherever I have established the identity of 
dies. In other matters, I have avoided the temptation to write notes on the 
coins, except where they throw new light on questions of interest. 

The metals are indicated in the usual way ; obliterations, or portions of 
type or inscription which are off the flan, are restored in square brackets. 
The sizes are given in millimetres ; the weights first in grammes and secondly 
(in round brackets) in grains troy. 

In the case of monograms, letters and sign.s of peculiar form, numbers 
are given referring to the table of drawings which will be found on p. 155. 
The provenance and pedigree of the specimens have been stated wherever 
they were likely to be of interest. 

G. F. H. 

October, 1901. 

( XXXV ) 



( xxxvi ) 

Xo. 7-2. 

No. 74. 





Third Century B.C. 

1 Head of king 1., with slight Elephant walking r. ; in ex. Phoen. 

whisker, wearing wreath and diadem letter (N) ; plain border. 

[Die of B.M. specimen, Head, Coins 
of the Ancients, vi. c 31.] 
Wt. 6"43 grammes (99'2 grains). For the attribution, see Head, Hist. 

entwined ; border of dots. 

Num. p. 3. [PI. I.] 

Third Century B.C. 
2 Head of Artemis r., wearing olive- | M A 2 S A above ; lion r. ; concave 

wreath and triple-drop earring ; border ' field, 
of dots. ' 


15'5 mm. Wt. 3''27 grammes (oOo grains). Phocaic drachm, 



(Italic Confederacy.) 
90—89 B.C. 

3 Oscan inscription (viteliii) ; head 
of Italia 1., laureate, wearing necklace ; 
border of dots. 


Warrior standing to front, looking 
r. ; he wears crested helmet and palu- 
damentum ; r. rests on lance, 1. holds 
sword in sheath, 1. foot on uncertain 
object ; beside him, to r., forepart of 
bull recumbent to front; in exergue 
51 (d) ; border of dots. 

-.5 mm. Wt. 3 '72 grammes (57 4 grains). Denarius. Friedlander (rf»e o«A'. 
Miinzen, p. 75) describes the object under the warrior's foot as "ein liegendes 
Feldzeichen " ; Garrucci (le MoneU dell' It. ant. , text to PI. XCI. 7, 8) as a 
vase or helmet. 




Fourth Century B.C. 

4 Female head r., wearing crested 
bonnet surmounted by eagle's head ; 
behind, dolphin downwards; border of 


Romano l. victory nude to waist, 
standing r., in 1. a long palm-branch, 
to the top of which she with r. fastens 
a wreath by a long tainia ; in field r., 
X///; plain border. 
19 mm. Wt. 6'51 grammes (100'4 grains). Campanian stater. [PI. I.] 

Third Century B.C. 

5 Head of Apollo r. laureate, hair 
flowing ; border of dots. 

Ro /v\[a] above ; horse galloping 1. ; 
border of dots ? 

JSi 19"5 mm. Wt. 6 '35 grammes (98 '0 grains). Campanian stater. 

6 Beardless head of Janus, laureate 
border of dots. 


ROMA in incuse letters on a raised 
tablet, below ; Jupiter r. in fast quad- 
riga with Victory as charioteer ; he is 
nude to waist and holds in r. thunder- 
bolt, iu 1. sceptre ; plain border. 

23 5 mm. Wt. 6'20 gramme.s (95'7 grains). Campanian stater. [PI I.] 

Circa B.C. 334 — 268. 

7 Head of Athena r. in crested 
Korinthian helmet ; between neck and 
crest, branch. 

J^ 21 '5 mm. Wt. 6'18 grammes (95'3 grains). Campanian stater. 

CAUENo in ex.; Nike in fast biga 
1., iu r. goad, in 1. reins. 

Third Century B.C. 

8 Head of Athena 1. in crested 
Korinthian helmet ; border of dots. 

CAUENo r. ; cock standing r. ; in 
field 1., star ; border of dots. 

JEi 21mm. Wt. 5'91 grammes (91 "2 grains). 

Third Century B.C. 

9 Head of Hera r., wearing dia- 
dem and veil, sceptre over 1. shoulder ; 
border of dots. 

Dni^>l 1.; ear of barley; in field r. 
traces of symbol resembling a tripod : 
border of dots ; concave field. 

J£, 16'5 mm. Wt. 5'91 grammes (91 "2 grains). 



Before B.C. 423. 

10 Female head r., wearing earring ; 
hair rolled. 

Traces of inscription ; mussel-sliell, 
hinge r. ; above, barley-corn ; border 
of dots ; concave field. 
JR Sit-") mm. Wt. 7-.37 grammes (113-7 grains?). Campanian stater. [I'LL] 


Circa B.C. 420 — 340. 

No. 11. \. 

11 Head of Hera nearly facing, in- 
clined to r., wearing broad Stephanos 
(decorated with palmette between fore- 
parts of two griffins), and necklace ; 
border of dots. 

AlilQY above; human-headed bull 
r. ; concave field. 

JR 24 mm. Wt. 7'32 grammes (113"0 grains). Campanian stater. 
Sale of Jan. 20, 1898 (3). 

\\k Head of Athena 1., in crested 
Athenian helmet adorned with olive- 
wreath and owl. [Die of B.M. no. 7 ] 

JR 21 mm. Wt. "'37 grammes (113'7 grains). 

From the Sale of a " Late Collector" (1900, 10). 

[PI. I.] 

[aJwisy above; human-headed 
bull r. ; concave field. 

Circa 400 — 340 B.C. 

12 Female head r., hair rolled. | NEof above; human-headed bull 

I r. ; incuse circle. 
JR 22 '3 mm. Wt. 7 '87 grammes (121-5 grains). Campanian stater. 

[PI. I.] 

Circa 340—268 B.C. 

Inscr. not visible ; human-headed 
bull r. crowned by Nike flying r. ; below, 

[PI. I.] 

13 Female head r., wearing triple- 
drop earring and necklace, hair confined 
by diadem ; behind, bunch of grapes. 

JR 20 mm. Wt. 7 '24 grammes (lir7 grains). Campanian stater. 

14 Similar head 1. ; behind, crane 

JR, 21mm. Wt. T'OS grammes (108-5 grains). Campanian stater. 
Third Century B.C. 

[NE]onoAITn[N] in ex.; similar 
type to preceding ; below | i. 

15 [NEJoPoaITHN 1.; head of 
Apollo laureate 1. ; behind, HI 

Similar type to preceding; below, 
IS ; in ex., -MA? 

JEi 19 num. Wt. 5-81 grammes (89-7 grains). 

B 2 


Circa 340 — 268 B.C. 

16 Female head r., wearing triple- 
drop earring and necklace, hair con- 
fined in broad diadem ; border of dots. 

NHAAinN in ex.; human-headed 
bull r. crowned by Nike flying r. ; con- 
cave field. 

^ 18 -5 ram. Wt. 7' 19 grammes (111 grains). 

Third Century B.C. 

17 mVH<l onr.[3TN0>IN IVIVMI03JVH 
on 1. Youthful male head 1. with flowing 
hair and ram's horn ; border of dots. 

Nude youth standing 1. ; with r. 
holds horse by bridle, in 1. short 

^ 20o mm. Wt. 7'1 grammes (109'3 grains). Campanian -stater. 


Circa 420 — 400 B.C. 

18 Female head nearly facing (in- Sl^tUVl^ above; human-headed 

clined to r.); flowing hair confined by bull 1. on double exergual line ; in ex., 
band visible on forehead ; wears neck- , dolphin 1. ; concave field, 
lace ; plain border. 

JR 19 mm. Wt. 7"i7 grammes (115',3 grains). Campanian stater. [I'l- I] 

Third Century B.C. 

19 Head of Apollo r., laureate. Be- 
hind, kithara. 

[SV]ESA[no] in exergue. Nude 
horseman (dcsultor), wearing pointed 
cap, riding 1., leading a second horse ; 
in 1. a palm-branch, tied with a tainia, 
over his shoulder. 

JH 21mm. Wt. 6 96 grammes (107 4 grains). Campanian didrachm. 


Circa B.C. 520. 

Wheel with four spokes; incuse 

20 2 AAA T 1.; Taras riding r. on 
dolphin, r. resting on its back, 1. ex- 
tended ; below, pecten-shell. Border 
of dots. 

JR 19 mm. Wt. 804 grammes (124-0 grains). Tarentine stater. [PI- I ] 



Circa B.C. 500. 

21 TARA8 r. ; Taras riding 1. on Winged sea-horse 1. Concave field. 

dolphin, both hands extended; below, 
pecten-shell. Border of dots. 

jjl 19'o mm. \Vt. 8"29 grammes (124'4 grains). Stater. 

22 TAPA^ r. ; type and symbol as 
on preceding ; border of dots. 

Youthful (female?) head l.(Satyra?), 
hair tied up behind, in thick linear 
circle ; incuse circle. 
JSi 19-5 mm. Wt. 8-55 grammes (124-8 grains). Stater. [PI- I-] 

Circa B.C. 460 — 420. 

TAPAN 1., Tl N[/x]M r. ; Taras 
riding r. on dolphin, r. resting on its 
back, 1. extended ; below, pecten-shell ; 
incuse circle. 

23 Youthful male figure (Demos ?), 
nude to waist, seated 1. on diphros ; in 
1. staff, in extended r. kantharos ; his 
r. foot on a basis, on which is a gar- 
landed altar or stele with pediment. 

JH 23 mm. Wt. 7 97 giammes (123'9 grains). Stater. 

Circa B.C 

24 TA 1. ; Taras riding r. on 

dolphin, r. resting on its back, 1. ex- 
tended ; beneath, the field filled with 
curling waves ; in field r., T ; dotted 
double circle. 

JR 2.3.) mm. A\'t. 8-13 grammes (125"5 grains). Stater. 


Nude horseman galloping r., r. rest- 
ing on horse's back, 1. holding the 
bridle ; concave field. 

Circa B.C 

25 Nude horseman on prancing 
horse ; with r. he strikes downwards 
with lance, in 1. shield and two lances ; 
beneath horse, €A 


[tJAPAS r. ; Taras riding 1. on 

dolphin, in extended r. kantharos, in 1., 

which rests on dolphin's back, trident ; 

in field 1. K ; below, small dolphin 1. ; 

concave field. 

Wt. 7'81 grammes (120-5 grains). Stater. Cf. Evans, The Horsemen 
- - - [PI. I.] 

T A PAS r. ; Taras riding 1. on dol- 
phin, in extended r. kantharos, in 1., 
which rests on dolphin's back, oar ; in 
field 1. KA, below EPA 
Al 21 mm. Wt. 7-92 grammes (122-2 grains). Stater. Cf. Evans, p. 103, v. 21 

JR 23-5 m 

0/ Tarentiim, p. 103, v. 12. 

26 Similar type ; in field r. Z 
below horse, API 

(I for Z). 

[PI. I.] 

Circa B.C. 302 — 281. 

27 Head of Aphrodite (or Perse- 
phone) r., wearing stephane and ear- 
ring; in field 1. K, r. [l-], tA and <{) 
[Die of Berlin specimen {Bcsckreihunq 
iii. 1. No.32, PI. X. 161).] 

[tap as] r. ; infant Taras seated to 
front on ground, head r. ; in r. distaff, 
in 1. clew of avooI ; below, small dol- 
phin r. [Die of Berlin specimen (see 

^ 10-5 mm. Wt. 1 -41 grammes (21 -7 grains). Diobol. 

[PI. I.] 



28 Nude youthful horseman r. TAPAS r. ; Taras riding 1. on 
crowning horse which stands lifting dolphin ; in extended r. tripod, 1. rest- 
off foreleg; above €A, below , ing on dolphin's back; below CAS ; 
APE I OiiN ' concave field. 

J^ 23 mm. \Vt. "'SI grammes (I20'6 grains). Stater. Cf. Evans, p. 13'2, no. 1. 

29 Similar. | • Similar. 

JS^, 22 mm. \Vt. 7 '76 grammes (119 '8 grains). Stater. 

30 Head of Athena r., wearing eai-- ■ TAP 1. ; owl stamlingr., head facing; 
ring and crested Athenian helmet in field r. horn, point upwards, and 
adorned with figure of Skylla r. hurl- I05 

ing a rock. 

M, loo mm. Wt. 2-14 grammes (33-0 grains). Drachm. Cf. Evans, p. 126 [PI. I] 

281-272 B.C. 

31 Nude horseman to r. on prancing 1 Taras riding r. on dolphin, in 1. bow, 
horse; with r. he strikes downwards \ in r. arrow ; below, A I and elephant r. 
with lance; in 1. shield and two lances; 
in field 1. FY, beneath horse A[PI | 

€Ti [ n] 

jjl 21'omm. Wt. 6-40 grammes (98"8 grains). Stater. Cf. Evans, p. 157, no. A 1. 

32 Nude boy riding to 1. on horse, ' T APAS 1. Similar type to preced- 
which is received and crowned by nude \ ing; below, elephant r. 
male figure. In field r. FY, beneath 1 
horse API | STI | P I 

M, 22 ram Wt. 6-22 grammes (96 grains). Stater. Cf. Evans, p. 158, no. B 1. 

33 Nude boy riding to r. on horse 
(which lifts near foreleg) which he 
crowns with his r. In field 1. IH, 
beneath horse NEY [ MH 

TAP AS below; Taras riding side- 
ways on dolphin 1., 1. resting on its 
back, r. holding out horned helmet; in 
field, on either side, star of twelve 
rays; r., PoAY 

JR 21 mm. Wt. 6-49 grammes (100-2 grains). Stater. Cf. Evans, p. 158, no. C 3. 

[PI. I.] 

34 The two Dioskuri on horseback 
cantering 1., with flowing mantles ; in 
field, above, V • beneath, between 
horses' hoofs, [SA]A fl N o s 

T A PAS r. ; Taras riding 1. on 
dolphin, hair bound with tainia; in r. 
Nike r. with wreath ; in 1. shield 
(device : hippocamp 1.) and two lances ; 
below, line of waves ; in field 1. FY. 

JR 21 mm. Wt. 6'55 grammes (101 1 grains). Stater. Cf. Evans, p. 159, no. D 1. 

[PI. I.] 





35 Horseman to 1. on cantering 
horse ; he wears crested conical helmet 
and carries shield (device : star of 
eight rays) and two lances ; in field r. 
in, beneath horse I- 1 1 [APjoAAJ.... o 

J^ 21 mm. Wt. 6-0-2 grammes (100-6 grains). Stater. Cf. Evans 

TAPA[s] below; infant Taras, wear- 
ing anklets, riding 1. on dolphin ; in r. 
holds out bunch of grapes, in 1. distaff. 

21 mm. 
F 1. 

36 Head of Athena 1., wearing 
triple-drop earring and crested Athen- 
ian helmet, adorned with figure of 
Skylla 1. hurling a rock ; beneath, EY 

JR 17 mm. Wt. 3'19 grammes (49 

p. 160, no. 
[PI. I.] 

Owl standing r. on thunderbolt, 
head facing, flapping wings ; in field r. 
Sn, below Al, above [TAPANTI- 

■2 grains). Drachm. Cf. Evans, p. 162, no. 6. 

[PI. I.] 

272-235 B.C. 

37 Nude boy 1. on horse, which TA PA[s] below; Taras riding 1. 

raises off foreleg ; with r. he crowns its on dolphin, chlamys on 1. arm, with r. 
head. In field r. CY, beneath horse brandishes trident. In field r., owl 1. 
AYKI |noS I 

JR 19-5 mm. Wt. 647 grammes (998 grains). Stater. Cf. Evans, p. 177, no. A 9. 

38 Nude horseman to r. on prancing 
horse ; with r. strikes downwards with 
lance, in 1. shield and two lances ; in 
field 1. A I, beneath horse API STo | 
KA H€ 

^l 21 mm. Wt. 6-31 grammes (97-4 grains). Stater. Cf. Evans, p. 179, no. C 1 

39 Female head 1. wearing earring 

TAPA? below; Taras riding 1. on 
dolphin, in r. kantharos, in 1., which 
rests on dolphin's back, trident ; in 
field r. head of nymph 1. 

and band in hair. 

TA below, r. ; nude horseman r. on 
horse which lifts off foreleg ; with r. 
he crowns horse's head ; in field 1. 
dolphin r., below horse, lion passant r. 

■^ 20 .^ mm. Wt. 7 "26 grammes (112 grains). Stater. Cf. Brit. Mus. Catal. 
Italy, p. 199, no. 290. 

Small denominations of various dates. ^ 

40 Head of Athena r. wearing 
crested Athenian helmet decorated 
with figure of Skylla r. 

JE, 12-5 mm. Wt. 109 grammes (16-8 grains) 

41 Similar to preceding. 

Herakles standing r. strangling lion ; 
between his legs K ? ; in field 1. club 
and bow. 

Herakles standing almost to front, 
weight resting on r. leg, head r., 
strangling lion ; in field 1. club. 

J& 13-5 mm. Wt. 1-19 grammes (18-4 grains). 

' In the al)3ence of any inscription, it is possible that nos. 41—43 may be coins of Herakleia 
in Lucania and not of Taras. No. 40 on the other hand may with certainty be given to Taras 
(cf. Berlin Beschreibung, iii. 1, p. .302, nos. 556 ff. ). 



42 Similar to preceding. I Herakles standing to 1., strangling 

I lion ; in field r. fly (?) 

J^ irO mm. \Vt. -97 gramme (15-0 grains). 

43 Similar to preceding, but winged I Herakles kneeling r. strangling 
sea-horse instead of Skylla. ' lion. 

JR 12'0 mm. Wt. 1'13 grammes (17"4 grains). 


Circa B.C. 380 — 300. 

44 Head of Athena r. wearing 
crested Athenian helmet (decorated 
with Skylla hurling rock), earring, [and 
necklace] ; in front A I K I [cb] Bor- 
der of dots. Die of B.M. no. 28. 

ja 23 mm. Wt. 7"79 grammes (120'2 grains). Tarentine stater. 

HH - - Herakles standing to r. 
strangling lion; in field 1. KAA and 
club ; between legs of Herakles, owl. 
Concave field. 

tPl. I.] 

45 [hHPAK] AHIHN r. Head of 
Athena r. wearing crested Korinthian 
helmet (decorated with Skylla hurling 
rock), earring, and necklace. Die of 
B.M. no. 36. 

l-HPAKAHinN r. Herakles stand- 
ing to front, quiver-strap passing 
across breast from r. shoulder down- 
wards ; he rests r. on club, and holds 
in 1. lion's skin, bow and arrow ; in 
field 1. oinochoe and AOA ; concave 
! field. 
M 21-omm. Wt. 7-83 grammes (120-8 grains). Tarentine stater. [PI- I-] 

Circa B.C. 300 — 268 

46 Head of Athena r. in crested 
Korinthian helmet; above AAE, be- 
hind EY, below I 

Inscription off the flan; Herakles 
standing to front, r. resting on club, in 
1. lion's skin and bow ; in field 1. owl 
flying r. Concave field. 

M. 19-5 mm, Wt. 6 29 grammes (97-0 grains). Tarentine stater. Cf. B.M. no. 39. 

47 [hHP]AKAE[inN] Head of 
Athena 1. in crested Korinthian hel- 
met decorated with griffin. 

Herakles standing to front, head r., 
r. resting on club, 1. holding lion's skin ; 
in field r. Nike flying towards him with 
wreath, 1. cf)| Ao 

J\\ 20 mm. Wt. 6"71 grammes (103'5 grains). Tarentine stater. Cp has the form 
DO. 1. 

Circa B.C. 550 — 480. 

48 MKTA r. ; ear of barley in high 
relief; guilloche border, raised. 

Ji^ 24 mm. Wt. 7'75 grammes (119'6 grains) 

Ear of corn and radiating border, 
all incuse. 

24 mm. Wt. 
no. 2. 

Italic stater. Insor. lias the form 


No. 48. 

No. 52. 

Circa B.C. 480 — 400. 

49 META 1.; ear of bailey ; traces I Young Heiakles standing 1., wearing lion's 
of plain border. [Die of B.M. no. oil skin over head and hanging behind him; in I. 
^ l- -' ! pliiale with wliich he pours hbation over altar 

before him, r. re-sts on club ; in Held 1. uncertain 
object ; guilloclie border ; incuse circle. [Die 
of B.M. no. .'51.] 

JR 22 mm. Wt. 7'.3o grammes (11.3'4 grains). Italic 6tater. The symbol in the 
field of the rev. has been described as a bucranium or a ram's head. M has 
the form no. 3. 

Circa B.C. 400 — 350. 

AAET[A] r., ear of barley with 
leaf on 1. Concave field. 

50 Female head r., wearing earringf, 
hair bound with double fillet, crossed. 
Plain border. 

,,51 23 mm. Wt. 7'43 grammes (1146 grains). Italic stater. 

51 Beardless male head 1. with ram's 1 Ear of barley, with leaf on r. ; in 
horn (Libyan Dionysos ? ). I field r., plough. Concave field. 

JR 13 mm. Wt. 1 '04 grammes (16 '0 grains). Italic diobol ? The hair of the head 
is treated in a peculiar fa.shion, suggesting the skin of an animal ; cf. B.M. 
no. 156. [PI. I.] 

Circa B.C. 


META 1.; ear of barley with leaf 
on the leaf, dove r., flapping 

to r 

i wings ; beneath it, AM Concave field. 

52 Head of Leukippos r. bearded, in 
Korinthian helmet ; behind, dog sitting 
1. ; below, 3 

JR 21mm. Wt. 7-73 grammes (119-3 grains). Italic stater. Cf. B.M. nos. 79, 80. 
The inscription AEYKIPPO? is off the flan of this specimen. 

53 Head of Demeter r., wearing META r. ; ear of barley, with leaf 
wreath of barley, earring, necklace and to 1. ; above leaf, tripod ; in field r. 
transparent veil; in field 1. A r. P i PPo 

Border of dots. I 

M 20-5 ram. Wt. 7-89 grammes (121-8 grains). Cf. B.M. no. 121. 

54 Head of Demeter 1., wearing 1 META r. ; ear of barley with leaf 
wreath of barley, triple-drop earring to 1. ; above leaf, tongs ; below it, 
and necklace. Border of dots. TaIoA Concave field. 

[Die of B.M. no. 106.] 

JR 24-5 mm. Wt. 7-74 grammes (II9-5 grains) Italic stater. 

55 Similar to preceding (border of I META r. ; ear of barley with leaf 
dots not visible). to 1. ; above leaf, griffin running r., be- 

i low it AY Shghtly concave field. 
JR 19 mm. Wt. 7-91 grammes (122-1 grains). Italic stater. Cf. B.M. no. 109. 


56 Head of Demeter nearly facing, 
inclined to r., wearing wreath of bar- 
ley and necklace. 

META 1.; ear of barley with leaf 
to r. ; above the leaf, bull's head facing, 
below A o A Slightly concave field 

JR 20-5 mm. \Vt. 7 grammes (108 grains). Italic stater. Cf. B.M. no. 117. [PI. I.] 

57 Head of Nike 1., wearing earring, 
hair in sphendone decorated at back 
with stars. Border of dots. 

META r. ; ear of barley; in field 
1., shell of gasteropod {Ajoorrhaiii). 

[Die of Loebbecke specimen (Imhoof- 
Blumer and Keller, Tier- u. Pfianzen- 
UldcrVl viii. 28>]. 

JSi 20 mm. Wt. 7'81 grammes {120"5 grains). Italic stater. [PI. I.] 

58 Female head r., wearing earring, I META 1.; ear of barley with leaf 
and necklace ; hair in net. | to r. ; above leaf, pomegranate (?) 

^ 20 '5 mm. Wt. 7'74 grammes (119'5 grains). Italic stater. 

59 Ear of barley, with leaf on 1. ; | [a]T3[m] ? 1. ; ear of barley with 
in field r., cross-headed torch. Border leaf to 1. ; in field r., poppy-plant in 
of dots. [Die of B.M. no. 58]. I seed. 

JR 21 mm. Wt. 7'81 grammes (120'6 grains). Italic stater. The symbol on the 
obverse somewhat resembles a. (jroma (see Arch. Anzeiyer 1899 p. 132); but 
what is undoubtedly a torch of similar design is often carried by Persephone 
and Hekate on S. Italian vases. See Walters, B.M. Catal. of Vases, vol. iv., 
nos. F 174, 277, 278, 332, 436. The same symbol occurs on a coin of Lokris 
Epizeph. in the (T. Jones— 1878-5-2-4). [PI. I.] 

After 300 B.C. 

60 Head of Athena r. in crested I META 1.; ear of barley, with leaf 
Korinthian helmet, wearing necklace. I to r. Slightly concave field. 

JH 18 mm. Wt. 3-95 grammes (61-0 grains). Italic half-stater. [PI- I-] 

61 Head of Demeter r., wreathed 
with barley. 

JR 15-5 mm. Wt. 1 -96 grammes (30'3 grains). Italic quarter-stater. 

META 1. ; two ears of barley with 
leaves ; in field r. A/ ? 

62 Pom 1. Poseidon, nude, to r., 
hair in long plaits, 1. outstretched, with 
r. wields trident ; .chlamys hangs over 
both arms and passes behind back. 
Border of dots between two lines. 


Circa B.C. 550 — 480. 

Mi^^[^] r. in relief Incuse type 
similar to that of obv., but seen from 
behind and turned to 1. Radiating 

border also incuse. 

JR, 29 mm. Wt. 7'19 grammes (111 grains). Campanian stater. [I'LL] 

63 Similar to preceding. | M^^l r. Similar to preceding. 

JR 19 '5 mm. Wt. 3 '5 grammes (54 grains). Campanian drachm. [PI. I.] 



64 ^3Mon r. Poseidon, nude, to r., 
1. outstretched, with r. wields trident ; 
chlamys hangs over both arms and 
passes behind b<ick ; in field 1. B 
Triple border of dots. 

JR 23 mm. \Vt. "'74 grammes (119 o grains 

Circa B.C. 480 — 400. 

■■AAai'3Mo[n] above; bull stand- 
ing 1. on double exergual line. In 
exergue, B 

Achaian stater. 

[PI. I.] 

65 Mon r. Poseidon, as on pre- 
ceding; behind, sprig of olive with leaf 
and fruit. Border of dots. 

Circa B.C. 480 — 400. 

3/v\on above; bull standing 1. on 
exergual line. In exergue, grain of 

corn. Incuse circle. 

JH 12-3 mm. Wt. 128 grammes (197 grains). Achaian sixth. 

Circa B.C. 480 — ^400. 

66 [n]oSEIAA[H] 1. Poseidon, as 
on preceding ; in field r. dolphin, r., 
head downwards. 

[nJoSEIA -- above; bull stand- 
ing 1. on single exergual line ; in 
exergue, dolphin 1. Slightly concave 

JBi 21mm. Wt. 717 grammes (llO'T grains). Achaian stater. 

Before B.C. 510 

67 VM in exergue. Bull 1., head 
reverted, standing on exergual line ; 
exergual line and border made by series 
of dots between two parallel lines 
(approximating to guilloche). 

.di 27'5mm. Wt. 7 ■52 grammes (116 grains). Achaian stater. 

68 [V]M in exergue. Similar to I Similar to preceding, 
preceding. [Die of B.M. no. 11.] I [Die of B.M. no. 11.] 

J£i 18 mm. Wt. 199 grammes (30-7 grains). Achaian third. 

Incuse type similar to that of obverse, 
but to r. ; exergual line and border 

[PI. I.] 

Circa B.C. 420- 


Head of Athena r. wearing crested 
Athenian helmet adorned with wreath 
of olive. 

Bull standing on exergual line, head 
lowered ; above, inscription ; in exergue, 


69 In front of helmet (f) ? 

OoYPIO[n]; exergual line dotted; 
type and symbol to 1. ; traces of incuse 

M 21 -.5 mm. Wt. 7(36 grammes (118-2 grains). Italic stater. 



70 In olive-wreath, one ivy-leaf. ©oYPinN ; exergual line plain; 

type and symbol to r. 
^ 19-5 ram. Wt. 7-75 grammes (119-6 grains). Stater. [PI. II.] 

71 In front of helmet V 

OoYPin[N]; exergual line plain; 
type and symbol to r., bull butting ; 
below, artist's signature <^ PY 

.3\, 21 mm. Wt. 7 '81 grammes (120 "5 grains). Stater. 

Circa B.C. 390 — 350. 

72 Head of Athena 1. in crested j GoYPinA/ above; bull butting r., 
Athenian helmet, adorned with Skylla, ! on exergual line (plain). In exergue, 

fish r. [Die of B.M. specimen 1889-8 

ja 25 mm. Wt. 15'44 grammes (238'2 grains). Italic distater. 

whose r. hand is raised. [Die of B.M 
no. 32, and 1889-8-5-3.] 

73 Similar to preceding, but type r. 
(Skylla's 1. hand raised), and behind 
neck A 

©oyPinN above. Similar to pre- 

JR 27 mm. Wt. 15 '75 grammes (24.3 '0 grains). Italic distater. 

[PI. II.] 

74 Similar to preceding, but no A, 
and Skylla holds trident in r. 

[OoypJinN iEYCJ)A above; bull 
butting r. on dotted exergual line. In 
exergue, thyrsos tied with fillets. [Die 
of Montagu specimen (I 56) now in 

-51 27 mm. Wt. 15"75 grammes (243'1 grains). Italic distater. 
Fro7}i the Mmitayu Sa/e 0/ Dec. 11, 1894 (24). 

OoyPiriN above; bull butting r. 
In exergue, fish r. Concave field. 

75 Head of Athona r. in crested 
Athenian helmet adorned with figure 
of Skylla, whose 1. hand is raised. 

JJH 22 mm. Wt. 7'91 grammes (122 grains). Italic stater. 

76 Another, similar, but in front of helmet, E, and exergue of reverse is 
marked by a double line. Same dies as B. M. no. 52. 

JS, 22'o mm. Wt. 7'42 grammes (114'5 grains). Italic stater. 

77 Head of Athena r. in crested 1 ooVPinN above; bull butting r. 
Athenian helmet adorned with figure On exergual line, [mJoA oCSos ; 
of Skylla, whose 1. hand is raised. ' in exergu'e, fish r. Border of dots. 

[Die of B.M. no. 61.] ] [Die of B.M. no. 01.] 

JR 19-5 mm. Wt. 7-71 grammes (119 grains). Italic stater. 

78 Another, from same dies as precedino-. 

JR 18-5 mm. Wt. 7-8 grammes (120-3 grains). Italic stater. 

PI. II. 



OoYP[inN]|SIM above; bull 
butting r. In exergue, fish r. 
[Die of B.M. no. 83.] 

79 Head of Athena r. in crested 
Athenian helmet adorned with figure 
of Skylla, who extends 1. hand and 
hurls rock with r. 

[Die of B.M. no. 83.] 

JR 23 "5 mm. VVt. 7'91 grammes (12'2'1 grains). Italic stater. 


Circa B.C. 540 — 500. 

80 Forepart of lion r. devouring 1 Quadripartite incuse square, 
prey. I 

JR, 14'o mm. Wt. .3'8 grammes (58'6 grains). Phocaic drachm. Attributed to 
Velia "not only on account of their type, but because they have been found 
in that district on more than one occasion" (Head, Hist. Ntivi. 74). But 
fabric and style suggest that they were brought from Asia Minor by the 
founders of Velia, and not actually struck in Italy. [PI. II.] 

Circa B.C. 500 — 450. 

81 Female head, hair taken up be- I V3AH 1. Owl standing to r. on olive- 
hind and fastened with tainia, wearing branch. Incuse circle, 
necklace. ' 

JH 15'5 mm. Wt. 389 grammes (60 grains). Campanian drachm. 

Circa B.C. 350. 

82 Head of Athena, nearly facing, 
inclined to 1. ; she has flowing hair, and 
wears necklace and crested helmet with 
wings at sides ; on front of helmet, 

[yJEAHTHN in ex.; lion 1. 
devouring prey; between hind legs- 
mon. no. 4. [Plain border.] 

M, 20 mm. Wt. 7 -oS grammes (116 grains). Campanian stater. Same dies as B.M. 
no. 70. 

Circa B.C. 350—268. 

83 Head of Athena 1., wearing 
crested Athenian helmet decorated 
with wreath of olive. 

VEA HTHN ].; lion bringing down 
stag to 1. 

JR 21mm. Wt. 7-54 grammes (116-4 grains). Campanian stater. 

YEAHTHA/ r.; similar type to pre- 
ceding. Concave field. 

84 Head of Athena 1. wearing 
crested Athenian helmet, decorated 
with pegasos ; on neck-piece, palmette ; 
in front, A ; behind, I E in square 

M 23 mm. Wt. 664 grammes (102-4 grains). Campanian sUter, 



YEAHTilN inex. ; lion walking r. 
Above, caduceus. Plain border. 

85 Head of Athena 1., wearing 
crested Athenian helmet decorated 
with pegasos; on neck-piece (p, be- 
hind mon. no. 5. 

[Die of B.M. no. 107.] 

JR 21 •5 mm. Wt. 7 '52 grammes (116 grains). Carapanian stater. 

86 Another, similar, but field of rev. concave. 
[Dies of B.M. no. 106.] 

JR 23 mm. Wt. 7 '52 grammes (116 grains). Campanian stater. 

[H. II.] 

87 Head of Athena r., wearing 
crested Athenian helmet decorated with 
griffin with curved wing ; in front A 

JR 21mm. Wt. 7'18 grammes (llO'S grains). Campanian stater. 

YEAHTHN in ex. ; lion walking r. : 
above, pentagram between ^ \ 

88 Head of Athena r., wearing 
crested Athenian helmet decorated with 
olive-wreath and curved wing ; in front 
P, behind (J) 

[Die of B.M. no. 98.] 

JR 23 mm. Wt. 7 '31 grammes (112 8 grains). Campanian stater. 

YEAHTHN in ex. ; lion walking r. ; 
above, bunch of grapes between <|) I 
[Die of B.M. no. 98.] 

89 Head of Athena 1., wearing 
crested Athenian helmet decorated with 
olive-wreath with fruit ; behind, mon. 
no. 4. 

[Die of B.M. no. 68.] 

JR 23 mm. Wt. 7"37 grammes (113'8 grains). Campanian stater. 

YEAHTHN inex.; lion standing 1., 
head reverted, holding ram's head in 
fore-paws; in field below, mon. no. 4. 
Plain border. 

[PI. II.] 

90 Head of young Herakles r. wear- 
ing lion's skin. 

YEAH r. ; owl standing 1. on olive- 
branch. Border of dots. Slight incuse 
I circle. 

JE 15 mm. Wt. 2"72 grammes (42'0 grains). 


Circa B.C. 282 — 203. 

91 Head of Amphitrite r. wearing 
stephane, veil, earring and necklace, 
sceptre behind shoulder ; behind, bu- 
cranium. Border of dots. [Die of 
B.M. no. 10.] 

JR. 19 mm. Wt. 5 03 grammes (77 "7 grains). Attic octobol 

BPETTinN r. ; Poseidon, nude, 
standing to 1., r. foot on top of fluted 
Ionic column, 1. resting on long sceptre, 
r. elbow on r. knee ; in field 1. crab, at 
his feet r. r Border of dots. 

[PI. II.] 



92 Bust of winged Nike r., wearing 
diadem, earring and necklace, hair tied 
in bunch at back ; behind, lock of 
hair ? Border of dots. 

BPETTinN l; youthful male 
figure with bull's horns on head 
(Dionysos?) standing to front, nude, 
chlamys hanging over 1. arm ; in l.long 
sceptre, right raised to head (crowning 
himself?); in field r. thymiaterion 
and uncertain symbol or letter. Border 
of dots. [Die of B.M. no. 23 ?] 

J\^ 19 mm. Wt. 4'76 grammes (7.3'5 grains). Attic octobol ? 

[H. II.] 

93 Head of Apollo r. laureate ; be- 
hind, anvil ; below F Border of dots. 
[Die of B.M. no. 33.] 

BPETTinN Artemis huntress 
wearing short chiton, hunting boots, 
and quiver at shoulder, standing 1. ; 
in r. arrow, in 1. flaming torch ; beside 
her, hound 1., looking up at her ; in 
field 1., star. Border of dots. [Die of 
B.M. no. 33.] 

No. 93. 
JSi 16-5 mm. Wt. 212 grammes (32-7 grains). Attic tetrobol ? 

94 Head of Ares 1., wearing crested 
helmet decorated with griffin running ; 
below, thunderbolt. Border of dots. 

BPETTinN 1.; Athena, wearing 
crested helmet and long chiton, ad- 
vancing to r., head facing, holding 
shield in both hands and spear under 
1. arm ; in field r., race torch. Border 
of dots. 

M 27 mm. Wt. 16-63 grammes (256-7 grains). 

[PI. II.] 

95 Similar 

to preceding, but no 

BPETTinN r. ; Nike standing to 1., 
in 1. palm-branch, r. crowning trophy ; 
in field, caducous. Border of dots. 

M 26 mm. Wt. 1330 grammes (205-3 grains). 

96 Head of Zeus r. laureate ; be- 
hind, thunderbolt. Border of dots. 

BP ETTinN 1.; nude helmeted 
warrior charging r., with spear in r., 
shield in 1., in field, at his feet, 

M 24 mm. Wt. 9-05 grammes (139-7 grains). 

97 N I K A 1. ; head of Nike 1., wear- 
ing earring and necklace, hair tied with 
fillet with falling ends. Border of dots. 

BPETTinN 1.; Zeus, nude, ad- 
vancing r., in r. thunderbolt, in 1. short 
sceptre. Border of dots. 

2K 20 mm. Wt. 4-60 grammes (71-0 grains). 



Circa B.C. 550 — 480. 

Incuse type : Apollo holding figure 
as on obverse, but to 1. (his branch in 
relief); in field 1. stag to 1. Hatched 

98 KAVA 1.; Apollo nude, hair in 
long plaits on shoulder, walking r. on 
dotted exergual line, r. raised holding 
branch; on extended 1. small running 
figure r., raised branch in r., 1. raised ; 
in field r. stag standing r. on dotted 
line, head reverted. Guilloche border. 
[Die of B.M. no. 9.] 

JSi 31 mm. Wt. 807 grammes (124-6 grains). Aehaian stater. A has the form 
no. 6. From the Montagu Sale (II. 80). [PI. II.] 

Circa B.C. 480—388. 

99 KAVA Apollo, nude, walking 
r. on dotted exergual line, r. raised 
holding branch ; on extended 1. small 
runnino; figure 1. ; in field 1. stag stand- 
ing r. on dotted line, head reverted. 
Plain border. [Die of B.M. no. 20.] 

J^ 21mm. Wt. 792 grammes (122'2 grains 

AVAK Stag standing r. on exer- 
gual line ; in field r., branch. Shallow 
incuse circle. [Die of B.M. no. 20.] 

Aehaian stater. 

[PI. II.] 

100 [KAVA]o[a/5ATAA/] I.; 
Apollo, nude, walking r., r. raised 
[holding branch], 1. extended ; in field 
r., stag standing r. ; 1., below r. elbow, 
CJ) ; [plain border]. 

[Die of B.M. no. 31.] 

JSi '22, o mm. Wt. 7'81 grammes (120o grains). 

[KA]VAoA/^[ATAA/] 1.; stag 
standing r. on exergual line of single 
cable pattern ; beneath, (p ; [in field 
r., crab ; plain border]. 

[Die of B.M. nos. 30, 31.] 

Acliaian stater. 

101 Apollo, nude, standing r., r. 
raised [holding branch], over extended 
1. hanging fillet ; in field 1. fibula -4-. 
Border of dots. [Die of B.M. nos. 27, 

AYA>I r. :5ATA|iin 1. ; stag stand- 
ing r. on dotted exergual line. Shal- 
low incuse circle. [Die of B.M. no. 


24 mm. Wt. 7 '43 grains (114'7 grains). Aehaian stater. For the form of tlie 
fibula, cf. the coin of Herakleia, Garrucci, PI. CII., no. 16. 

Circa B.C. 550 — 480. 

102 9 Pol. Tripod-lebes with lion's 
feet standing on double dotted exergual 
line. Guilloche border. 

Similar type to obverse, but incuse. 
Hatched border. 

JR 31 -5 mm. Wt. 8-05 grammes (124-3 grains). Aehaian stater. 

[PI. II.J 



Incuse type ; tripod-lebes ; on either 
side 2 in relief. Hatched border. 

103 9"^° r. Tripod-lebes with lion's ■ 
legs, standing on plain exergual line ; 
in field 1., crane standing r. on one leg ; 
above, ivy-leaf ; in exergue, uncertain 
object (bow ?). Border of dots. 

j5t 20 mm. \Vt. 8 08 grammes {124-7 grains). Achaian stater. 

[PI. II.] 

104 opcp 1. Tripod-lebes with 
lion's legs standing on exergual line. 
Border of dots between two linear 

JSi, 21omm. \Vt. 7'55 grammes (116'5 grains). 

Incuse type : eagle flying 1. ; pellet 
in centre of type. Hatched border. 

Achaian stater. 

Circa B.C. 480 — ^420. 

DA Similar type to obverse. In 
field r., thymiaterion. Border of dots. 
[Die of B.M. no. 47.] 

105 9P0 r. Tripod-lebes with 
lion's legs standing on dotted exergual 
line ; in field 1. kantharos. Border of 

[Die of B.M. no. 47.] 

jJt 21 mm. \Vt. 7 '40 grammes (114 '2 grains). Achaian stater. The letters DA 
may represent Zankle, but perhaps we should expect them to be accompanied 
by an appropriate type. [PI. II.] 

Circa B.C. 420 — 390. 

106 o^K^MTAM r. Youthful 
Herakles, nude, laureate, seated 1. on 
rock covered with lion's skin ; holds in 
r. laurel-branch filleted, 1. rests on 
club; before him, flaming garlanded 
altar, behind him, bow and quiver; 
exergue marked by plain and dotted 

[Die of B.M. no. 87.] 

J^ 23o mm. Wt. 7'58 grammes (117'0 grains) 

pPoT r. Tripod-lebes Avith lion's 
legs standing on plain exergual line ; 
in field 1. grain of barley ; in exergue 
E Border of dots. Incuse circle. 

107 Head of Hera Lakinia, nearly 
facing, inclined to r., wearing necklace 
and tall stephane decorated with honey- 
suckle ornament and foreparts of 
griflins ; in field r. A Border of dots. 

[Die of B.M. nos. 90, 91.] 

Stater. Buribury Sale (211). 

[PI. II.] 

KPoT-n. 1. Youthful Herakles, nude, 
laureate, seated 1. on rock covered with 
lion's skin ; holds in r. wine-cup, 1. 
elbow rests on rock ; in field 1., tripod ; 
above, bow and club crossed and M A 
Concave field. 

[Die of B.M. no. 90.] 

JR 22 mm. Wt. 7'65 grammes (118-0 grains). Stater. Bimbtiry Sale {21H). 

m 108 Eagle standing J. on olive- 

■ branch, flapping wings. Plain border. 
K, [Die of B.M. nos. «0, 81, and a third 

■ specimen Chester 1880-G-3-6.] 

JR 22 mm. Wt. 

KPo 1. Tripod-lebes with neck; in 
field r. A 

[Die of B.M. no. 80 (where the lebes 
is wrongly described as having only one 
handle instead of three) .] 
-52 grammes (1160 grains). Stater. 




109 Inscription off the flan. Eagle I Tripod-lebes on basis, with round 
standing 1. on olive-branch, flapping : cover and fillets hanging at sides ; in 
wings. Plain border. I field 1. ear of barley with leaf, r. ser- 

pent. Plain border. Shallow incuse 

[Die of B.M. no. S3 ? ] 

JR 22 mm. Wt. 7'89 grammes (121-7 grains). 

110 Eagle standing r., head 1. ; in 
field 1. mon. no. 7., r. uncertain 

Tripod-lebes with lion's feet ; in field 
r. Nike flying 1. to crown it. 

JR, 20-5 mm. Wt. 6-26 grammes (96-6 grains). 

[PI. II.] 

Circa B.C. 390. 

Ill KPOTHNIA r. 1 M. 1. Head of 
Apollo r., laureate, with flowing hair. 
Border of dots. 

Infant Herakles, nude, [crepundia 
over 1. shoulder and breast ? ] seated to 
front on bed, head 1., strangling a ser- 
pent in each hand. 
M, 20-5 mm. Wt. 7-46 grammes (115-2 grains). [PI. II.] 

112 Head of Apollo r. laureate, with 
flowing iiair. 

[Die of B.M. no. 98 and a second 
specimen (Rollin 1889-11-6-2).] 

Circa B.C. 370 — 330. 

Tripod-lebes with lion's feet. In 
field r. KPo, ]. laurel-branch with pen- 

dent fillets. Concave field. 

JR, 23 mm. Wt. 7-32 grammes (112-9 grains). 

113 As preceding, but on rev. KPO on 1., branch with fillets on r. 
M. -23-5 mm. Wt. 6-35 grammes (98-0 grains). 

[PI. II.] 

B.C. 269 — 189. 

114 Head of Jupiter r. laureate. 
Border of dots. 

Ro M A in ex. ; Victory r. crovvning 

a trophy ; at her feet, \5 . Plain 


JR 18 mm. Wt. 2-97 grammes (45-8 grains). Half- Victoria tus. Cf. Babelon, 
Monn. de la Rip. Eom. i. p. 57. 

Circa B.C. 300 — 280. 

115 Eagle to 1. devouring hare. 
[Border of dots ] [Die of B.M. no. 3.] 

AoKPHN T.; thunderbolt ; in field I., 
caduceus. Border of dots. [Die of 
B.M. no. 3.] 
JR, 21mm. Wt. 7-14 grammes (110-2 grains). Restruok on a coin of Korinth. 


Circa B.C. 480—466. 

116 Biga of mules (apene) walking 
r., driven by charioteer ; in exergue, 
laurel-leaf. Border of dots. 

N OA/ above, ID3fl below; hare 
springing r. Border of dots. Shallow- 
incuse circle. 

]R 26 mm. Wt. 17 '4 grammes (268 '5 grains). Attic tetrailrachm. 

From the Balmanno Sale (29). [PI. II.] 

117 Similar. 

JR 27 mm. Wt. 16 '72 grammes (258 grains). Attic tetradrachra. 

118 Similar type, without symbol. 
[Border of dots.] [Die of B.M. no. 6.] 

PEC I A/o/y around. Hare spring- 
ing r. Border of dots. [Die of B.M. 
no. 6.] 
JR 16 mm. Wt. 4"24 grammes (65"5 grains). Attic drachm. 

Circa B.C. 466 — 415. 

119 Lion's scalp. Border of dots. PECI 1. A^oS r. Male figure, 

bearded, nude to waist, himation over 
lower limbs, seated 1. on diphros, 1. on 
hip, r. on sceptre. The whole in olive- 
wreath. Incuse circle. 

M 31mm. Wt. 17-28 grammes (266-7 grains). [PI. II.] 

120 Similar, but PECI 1. A/oA/ r. 

^ 18 mm. Wt. .3-91 grammes (60-3 grains). 

121 Similar type; pellet in field r. 1 PECI in olive-wreath. Shallow in- 
Border of dots. I cuse circle. 

ja 13 mm. Wt. -73 gramme (11-3 grains). 

Circa B.C. 415—387. 

122 Lion's scalp. Border of dots. PH[riHo]hl r. Head of Apollo r., 

laureate, hair taken up behind; be- 
hind, spray of olive. 

M 24 mm. Wt. 167 grammes (257-6 grains), /'rom </ie Car/rae Sd/e (36). [PI. II.] 

123 Similar type and border. I PH between two olive-leaves with 

I berries. Border of dots. 

Ai. 10 mm. Wt. '49 gramme (7'5 grains). 

Circa B.C. 203 — 89. 

PHriNnN 1. Tripod-lebes ; in field 
!■■ [•]••• and mon. no. 8. Border of 

124 Heads of Apollo, laureate, and 
Artemis, wearing stephane and neck- 
lace, jugate r. Behind, arrow-head. 
Border of dots. 

JSi 27 mm. Wt. 981 grammes (151-4 grains). Triens. 

c 2 



Circa B.C. 440 — 400. 

125 Head of nymph Terina 1., wear- 
ing ampyx and necklace, in olive- 
wreath. [Die closely resembling B.M. 
nos. 5, 6.] 

TEPI [HAIoH] 1. Nike seated 1. 
on hydria lying on its side ; in r. 
wreath, in 1. caduceus. Incuse circle. 
[Die of B.M. no. 6.] 

j^ 22 mm. Wt. 7'43 grammes (114'6 grains). 

[PI. II.] 

126 [t]EPIHAIoH 1. Head of 
the nymph Terina 1., wearing ampyx, 
sphendone, necklace and earring ; 
behind, P [Die of B.M. no. 25.] 

j5i 22 mm. Wt. 7 '54 grammes (116 '4 grains). From the Boyne Sale {'b). [PI. II.] 

Nike seated 1. on bomos, 1. resting 
on seat, r. holding wreath ; in field 1. 
P Concave field. 

127 Head of nyrhph Terina r. in 
olive -wreath. 

[Die of B.M. no. 4.] 

Inscr. obliterated. Nike seated 1. 
on diphros, 1. resting on seat, r. holding 
wreath. Concave field. 

[Die of B.M. no. 4.] 

JSi 22 mm. Wt. 7'59 grammes (117'1 grains). 

128 [t]e[PI] 1. Head of nymph 
Terina r., wearing sphendone. 

J^ 15 mm. Wt. 3-24 grammes (34'5 grains 

128a Head of nymph Terina r. 

Nike seated 1. on bomos, r. resting 
on seat, on extended r. [bird ?]. 


[t]EP II. Nike seated 1. on bomos, 
1. resting on seat, r. extended holding 
uncertain object. 
11 mm. Wt. 1'07 grammes (16'5 grains). 

Circa B.C. 400—388. 

129 [T]E[PINAin]N r. Head of 
nymph Terina r., wearing earring and 
necklace, hair rolled. Plain border. 

[Die of B.M. no. 41 and a second 
specimen (Bank collection 6).] 

Nike seated 1. on bomos, 1. resting 
on seat, on extended r., dove r. Plain 

[Die of B.M. specimen. Bank coll. 
no. 6.] 

2R 19 5 mm. Wt. 765 grammes (1181 grains). 

[PI. II.] 

No. 107. 

No. 109. 

PI. in. 





Second Century B.C. 

130 Head of Persephone r., wearing 
wreath of corn and necklace. Border 
of dots. 

M 17 mm. Wt. 2-,53 grammes (39-0 grains). Hexas. 

[AljTNA 1. [iHNJr. Cornucopiae 
with pendent fillet ; in field r. ; Plahi 
border ; concave field. 

No. 135. 

No. ISoA. 

131 JOTV\A 1. DA5!>IA r. ; eagle 
standing 1. 

Circa B.C. 550 — 472. 

Fresh- water crab {Tel2)liusa Jluvia- 


JR 22 mm. Wt. 8-31 grammes (128-2 grains). Flat fabric. Obverse closely resem- 
bhng B.M. no. 7. [Pl. m.] 

132 AKRA above. Eagle standing 1. 
Plain border. 

Fresh-water crab. Incuse circle. 

M 20 mm. Wt. 8-96 grammes (138-2 grains). 
133 As preceding, but no border. I Crab : 

I circle. 
JR 20 mm. Wt. 8-75 grammes (1,35-0 grains). 

[PI. III.] 
below, helmet 1. Incuse 

Circa B.C. 472 — 415. 

134 AKRAC r. >OTi^A 1. Eagle I Fresh-water crab ; incuse circle, 
standing 1. on dotted line. I 

JR 28 mm. Wt. 17-42 grammes (268-8 grains). Same obv. die as B.M. no. 38. 
A on this and the two following has the form no. 11. [PI. III.] 

135 AKRAC r. iOTAA 1.; similar I Fresh-water crab; below, eagle 
type. I standing 1. ; incuse circle. 

JR -26 mm. Wt. 17-37 grammes (268-0 grains). Same obv. die as B.M. no. 40. 
3 has the form no. 9. From the Balmanno Sale (25). 

135a Similar to preceding. I Fresh-water crab ; below, dolphin 1. 

I on its back. Concave field. 

■^ 25-5 mm. Wt. 17-03 grammes (262-9 grains). Tetradrachm. 
Sa/e of 20 Jan. 1898, 36. 

136 AKRAC 1. AUTO? r. Eagle I Fresh-water crab; below, rose with 
standing 1. on dotted line. ' volute on each side. Concave field. 

J^ -24 mm. Wt. 17-,33 grammes (267-4 grains). Same obv. die as B.M. no. 43 
S has the form no. 10. [PI- IH-l 



137 AK r., AR {the last letter retro- 
grade) 1. ; eagle standing 1. on capital of 
Ionic column. Border of dots. 

JH, 10 mm. Wt. '67 grammes (10'3 grains). Litra. 

Fresh-water crab; below, A I Con- 
cave field. 

[PI. III.] 

138 AKPA above ; eagle standing 1. 
on rock, fighting serpent ; on the rock, 
•• Plain border. 

Circa B.C. 415 — 406. 

SIAA below; fresh-water crab. Plain 
joVA border. 

N 11 mm. Wt. 1 'So grammes (20'8 grains). 

From the Bunhury Sale (I. 259). 

[PI. III.] 

139 Galloping quadriga r. the 
charioteer crowned by Nike flying 1. ; 
in exergue, fresh-water crab. Border 
of dots. 

[h rvS] ITHA l[A9HA] around; 
two eagles standing r. on hare on rock. 
Incuse circle. 

.Al 29 mm. Wt. 17'33 grammes (267 5 grains). Tetradrachm. Same dies as B.M. 
no. 57. From the Sale of Jan. 20, 1898 (43). [PL III]. 

140 AKRAr A/MTIAlo/M around. 
Eagle standing 1. on hare on rock. 
Border of dots. 

Fresh-water crab and sea-fish 1. 
(Polyprion cerniuni) ; beside the crab, 
to 1. pecten-shell, to r. conch. 

JR 29 mm. Wt. 17 04 grammes (263'0 grains). Tetradrachm. Same dies as B.M. 
nos. 59, 60. From same Sale as preceding (42). [PI. III.] 

[AK] R a above ; fresh-water crab ; 
below, sea-fish r. {mugil ?) 

141 Eagle standing 1. on hare. 
Border of dots. 

JR 14 mm. Wt. 2'04 grammes (31 '5 grains). 

142 Eagle standing r. on hare. I A - - - around; fresh-water crab; 
Border of dots. I below, pistrix 1., holding fish in jaws. 

M 16 mm. Wt. 1-9 grammes (29-3 grains). [PI. III.] 

143 Inscription obliterated. Eagle 
standing r., flapping wings, on sea-fish 
(mugil '() r. [Border of dots.] 

Fresh-water crab, holding eel (?) in 
1. claw ; below, sepia and shell (Tri- 
toniuvi 1) ; in field * [*] Incuse circle. 

M 28 mm. Wt. 23 89 grammes (3687 grain.s). 

Circa B.C. 340 — 287. 

144 [A]K[p]ArAS 1. Head of 

young river-god Akragas 1., horned, 

hair bound with tainia. Border of 

Eagle with closed wings standing 1. 
on Ionic capital, head reverted ; in field 
1. fresh-water crab, r. ; ; ; Traces of 
incuse circle. 

.^ 26 mm. Wt. 17'56 grammes (271 '0 grains). 



PHINTIAS. Circa B.C. 287—279. 

145 Head of Artemis 1., wearing 
earring and necklace, quiver at 
shoulder. Border of dots. 

BAZIAE02 above, [ct)INTIA] in 
ex. Wild boar standing at bay 1. 
Plain border. 

M 20 mm. Wt. 6-03 grammes (930 grains). Same rev. die as B.M. no. 138 

Circa B.C. 279—241. 

146 Head of Apollo r., laureate, 
with flowing hair ; behind, A , [in front 
mon. no. 12 ; serpent partly hidden 
behind the face]. Border of dots. 

JEt 21 mm. Wt. 7"95 grammes (122-7 grains). 

A above ; two eagles standing 1. on 

147 Head of Apollo r., laureate, 
with flowing hair. Border of dots. 

AKPATAN 1., I [TINn] N r. Nude 
warrior fighting r., chlamys wrapped 
round 1. arm, thrusting with lance in r. 
Border of dots. 

M 25 mm. Wt. 899 grammes (1.38" grains). 


Circa B.C. 500 — 461 or later. 

[cJeAAS above. Forepart of human- 
faced bull (river-god Gelas) swimming 
r. Traces of incuse circle. 
M 23 mm. Wt. 17-46 grammes (269-4 grains). [PI. III.] 

148 Slow quadriga r. ; above, Nike 
flying r. crowning horses. Border of 

149 Slow quadriga r., above, Nike 
Hying r. crowning horses. Border of 

CEAAS {sic) above. Forepart of 
human-faced bull (river-god Gelas) 
swimminw r. Incuse circle. 

2R, 30 mm. Wt. 17-45 grammes (-269-3 grains). Tetradrachm. Restruck on a 
coin of Selinus similar to no. '235. The upper part of tlie altar and the phiale 
held by the god are plainly s-isible by the shoulder of the bull. [PI. III.] 

ISO^Similar type to preceding, but 
no Nike, and behind, meta (Ionic 
column). Border of dots. 

JR 26 mm. Wt. 17-22 grammes (265-8 grains). Tetradrachm. 

CEAAS above. Similar type to 
preceding. Incuse circle. 

[PI. III.] 

CEAAS below. Similar type to 
preceding. Slight incuse circle. 

151 Warrior, nude, with pointed 
helmet, r. on prancing horse, in raised 
r. spear. [Border of dots.] 

M 19 mm. Wt. 8.38 grammes (129-3 grains). Same obv. die as B.M. no. 24. 

152 Horse standing r., with hanging i CEAA above. Similar type to pre- 
bridle ; above, wreath. Border of dots. | ceding. Concave field. 

M 13 mm. Wt. -76 gramme (11-8 grains). [PI. III.] 


Circa B.C. 461 — 430. 

153 Slow quadriga r. ; above, Nike 
flying r. crowning horses ; in exergue, 
crane r. [Plain border.] 

-dv 26 mm. Wt. 17"04 grammes ("iBS-O grains). Tetradrachm. Same obv. <Ue as 
B.M. nos. 50, 51 ; same rev. die as B.M. nos. 48, 50. [PI. III.] 

TEA AS above. Similar type to 
preceding, but of more advanced style. 
Incuse circle. 

154 Warrior, wearing crested hel- 
met, riding 1. on cantering horse ; on 1. 
arm, shield. Plain border. 

JR 12 mm. Wt. -56 gramme {8 '7 grains). [PI. III.] 

CEAAS above. Similar type to 
preceding. Sliallow incuse circle. 

Circa B.C. 430 — 405. 

155 SnSIPoAIS 1. Female head 
1., wearing .sphendone with anipyx, and 
necklace. Plain border. 

rEAA[SJ above. Similar type to 
preceding, but to 1. ; plain border. 

■" 11 mm. Wt. 11.5 grammes (17'8 grains). Same dies as B.M. no. 2; same rev. 
die as Montagu specimen (Sale Catalogue II. 47). [PI. III.] 

156 r[E AH in] A/ above and r. 
Fast quadriga r., driven by Nike; 
above, eagle Hying r. ; in exergue, un- 
certain object. 

5AA3n above. Similar type to 
preceding, but to r. ; in field above, 
barley-corn. Incuse circle. 

JR 28 mm. Wt. 16'96 grammes (261 '8 grains). Tetradrachm. Same dies as B.M. 
no. 57. [PI. III.] 

5AA;[n] below. Similar type to 
preceding ; above, bai'ley-corn. 

157 TE [Anin]N r. Fast quadriga 
1. ; above, eagle flying 1. In exergue, 
ear of barley (?). Plain border. 

JRi 25 mm. Wt. 17'15 grammes (264'7 grains). Tetradrachm. Same obv. die as 
B.M. no. 59; same rev. die as B.M. no. 58. 

From the Salt of Jan. 20, 1898 (53). [PI. III.] 

After B.C. 241. 

158 Head of Artemis 1. wearing AAAISASJ r. APX 1. Bow and 
stephane. Border of dots. quiver; in field 1., cornucopiae. 

JSi 14 mm. Wt. 233 grammes (36'0 grains). 

Before 489 B.C. 

159 Cock standing 1. Border of I Mill-sail incuse, with hatched border, 
large dots. I 

JS^, 22 mm. Wt. 5-44 grammes (84 '0 grains). Aiginetic drachm. 

160 Cock standing 1. Plain border. | Mill-sail incuse, with hatched border. 

JR 12 mm. Wt. -96 gramme (14-8 grains). Montagxi Sale 11. ii. [PI. III.] 

1 E. Gabrici, Topoijrafia e Xumismatka dell' antka Imera (e di Terme). Nnpoli, 1894. 


161 Cock standing 1. Border of I Hen walking r. in plain square 
dots. I border in incuse square. 

^l 20 mm. Wt. 5-3o grammes (82'6 grains). Aiginetic drachm. 

[PI. III.] 

B.C. 489 — 472. 


162 HI ME PA 1. Cock standing 1. | Crab. Incuse circle. 
jJl 22 mm. Wt. 833 grammes (128'6 grains). Attic clidrachm. 

[PI. III.] 

B.C. 472 — circa 430. 

163 IMERAloA/inex. Slow quad- 
riga to 1. ; above, Nike flying r. crown- 
ing charioteer. Border of dots. 


Nymph Himera, wearing chiton 
and peplos, standing to front, head 1., 
sacrificing with phiale in r. over altar 
raised on steps ; to r., small Seilenos 
standing in stream of water proceeding 
from lion's head fountain. Shallow 
incuse circle. [Slightly double-struck]. 

27 mm. Wt. 17 '22 grammes (265'8 grains). Tetradrachm. Same obv. and 
probably same rev. die as Gabrici, PI. IV. no. 8 ; obv. closely resembles B.M. 
no. 2.3. [PI. III.] 

Type similar to preceding ; in field, 
above 1. arm of nymph, grain of barley. 
In exergue, fish ? Concave field. 

164 l/v\EPAl[oA/] in ex. Slow 
quadriga r. ; above, Nike flying 1., 
crowning the charioteer. Border of 

.51 28 mm. Wt. 17'06 grammes (263-2 grains). Tetradrachm. Rev. closely resem- 
bling B.M. no. 34 (Gabrici, PI. VI. no. 12) and probably from the same <lie. 

[PI. III.] 

165 Inscription obliterated. Similar Similar to preceding, 
to preceding. 

Si 27 mm. Wt. 15-26 grammes (235-5 grains). Tetradrachm. Much corroded. 
Probably from same dies as preceding. 

Circa 200 B.C. 

166 Veiled female bust (the goddess 
Hyblaia) r., wearing kalathos and 
necklace ; behind, bee. Border of 

JE 22 mm. Wt. "-69 grammes (118-6 grains). 

YBA AS 1. [METAAAZ] r. Diony- 
sos (?) wearing chiton falling as far as 
knees and himation, standing to 1. ; in 
r. holds amphora by the foot, 1. rests 
on thyrsos ; at his feet, panther (?) 
leaping up to him. Plain border. 

[PI. III.] 




Circa B.C. 495 — 485. 

167 KAMARll.,/MAIo/Mr. Athena, 
wearing crested helmet, long chiton 
with apoptygma, and aigis, standing 1., 
r. resting on spear, at foot of which 
shield. Plain border. 

Nike flying 1. ; below, swan 1. The 
whole in olive-wreath. 

.i5i 13 mm. Wt. "55 gramme (8-5 grains). 

168 KAMA 1. RIA/AI0A/r. Similar I Similar to preceding, 
to preceding. | 

JR, 12 mm. Wt. •62 gramme (9'5 giains). 

Circa B.C. 430 — 360. 

[PI. III.] 

169 KAMA[PIA/A]|oa/1. Bearded 
head of Herakles 1. wearino' lion's skin. 

Quadriga 1., driven by Athena, who 
is crowned by Nike flying r. ; horses 
cantering in step ; in exergue, crane 
flying 1. Border of dots. 

-3i, 28 mm. Wt. 16'54 grammes (255'2 grains). Tetradrachm. Same dies as B.M. 
no. 9. Frotn the Bunbury Sale (275). [PI. III.] 

170 Beardless head of Herakles r., 
wearing lion's skin. Plain border ? 

Quadriga r., driven by Athena, who 
is crowned by Nike flying 1 ; horses 
prancing; in exergue [KAJMAP IH 

Al[nN], the inscription divided by 
two amphorae. 

■^ 25 mm. Wt. 17'45 grammes (269'3 grains). Tetradrachm. 
From tht Sale of Jan. 20, 1898 (46). 

[PI. III.] 

171 Head of Athena r. in crested 
Athenian helmet decorated with wreath 
of olive ; in front, grain of barley. 
Plain border ? 

Swan to 1., flapf)ing wings ; below, 
conventional waves. 

JR 11 mm. Wt. '64 gramme (9'8 grains). 

From the Montagu Sale (II. 44). 

[PI. III.] 


Circa B.C. 461 — 430. 

172 Slow quadriga to r., charioteer 
holding long goad. Border of dots. 

KATAA/ r. AloA/ 1. Head of 
Apollo r. laureate, hair taken up be- 
hind. Concave field. 

Si 27 mm. Wt. 17'17 grammes (2650 gi'ains). Tetradrachm. Same obv. die as 
Evans specimen (Holm, PI. II. 7). [PI. IV.] 




173 Similar to preceding. I KATAA/AI r. o A/ 1. Similar to 

I preceding. 

-51 27 mm. Wt. 17'33 grammes {•263-4 grains). Tetradrachm. Same obv. die as 
B.M. no. 18. [PI. IV.] 

174 Head of bald and bearded 

Seilenos r. Border of dots. 

KAT 1. A r. Thunderbolt with 
straight wings. In field, imcertain ob- 
ject (mussel-shell ?). Incuse circle. 

Ji^ 14 mm. Wt. '86 gramme (13 '3 grains). 

From the Montayii Sale (II. 44). [PI. IV.] 

175 Similar. 

KAT A 1. HAl-n-H r. Thunderbolt 
with curled wings between two disks. 
Concave field. 

■^ 12 mm. Wt. "69 gramme (10'6 grains). 

From the Montagu Sale (II. 44). 

[PI. IV.] 

Circa B.C. 430 — 404. 

176 Slow quadriga r. ; above, Nike 
flying r. crowning the horses. Border 
of dots. 

[KATANAlo] S r. Head of Apollo 
r. laureate, hair rolled. Slightly con- 
cave field. 

J& 25 mm. Wt. 17'33 grammes (267 '5 grains). Tetradrachm. Same rev. die as 
B.M. no. 21. [PI. IV.] 

177 Similar type to preceding. In 
exergue, uncertain marks. Border of 

KATAA/AloA/r. Head of Apollo 
r., laureate, hair rolled. Slightly con- 
cave field. 

JR 28 mm. Wt. 17'06 grammes (263'2 grains). Tetradrachm. Same rev. die as 
-- [PI. IV.] 

B.M. no. 23. 

177a. KATAHAin|H in ex. Fast 
quadriga r. ; above, Nike flying 1. 
crowning charioteer. Border of dots. 

[Die of B.M. nos 37-39.] 

AME./^AA'o above. Head of young 
river-god 1., horned, wearing tainia ; 
below, artist's signature EYAI ; around, 
two fish and cray-fish. 

[Die of B.M. no. 38.] 


18 mm. Wt. 4'08 grammes (63 grains). 

Sale 0/ 18-20 Mar. 1901 (PariK), 374. 

[PI. IV.] 

Second Century B.C. 

178 Rivei'-god reclining 1., in r. 
horn, in 1. reed ; his 1. elbow on over- 
turned amphora. 

KATANAinN below. Caps of the 
Dioskuroi, surmounted by stars ; be- 
tween them, mon. no. 13, above which 
owl r. Border of dots. 

JEi 20 mm. Wt. 5'99 grammes (924 grains). 

179 Head of Zeus Sarapis r., 
laureate, [radiate], with crown of disk 
and horns. 

KATANAinN r. Isis standing to 
front, 1. on hip, r. holding sceptre ; be- 
side her, on 1., figure of Harpokrates. In 
field 1., two uncertain monograms ; r., 
sistrum. Border of dots. 

JE 25 mm. Wt. 998 grammes (1540 grains). 




B.C. 345- 

No. 180. 
180 Head of Persephone 1. crowned I KENTPinioN[nN] in ex. Leopard 
with barley; [around, four dolphins, i passant 1. Border of dots. 
Border of dots]. | 

JEi 32 mm. Wt. 27'57 grammes (425'4 grains). 

Sestruck on a coin of St/rakuse. 

Circa B.C. 241 — 200. 

[. ,.]|KENTo r., PiniNflN | ... 
1. Kithara. Plain border. Slightly 
concave field. 
JE 23 mm. Wt. 7 '58 grammes (117 "0 grains). Hemilitron. 

181 Head of Apollo r. laureate, with 
flowing hair. [Border of dots.] ' 

KENTo r., PiniN.n.N | [. . .] 1. 
Tripod-lebes. Plain border. 

182 Bust of Artemis r., wearing 
stepliane ; bow and quiver at shoulder. 
Border of dots. 

JE 21mm. Wt. 3'53 grammes (54 '4 grains). Trias. 

KENTO above, [PiniNnN] below. 
Plough r. ; on the share, bird r. ; in 

183 Bust of Persephone r., wearing 
wreath of barley ; behind, stalk of 
barley. [Border of dots.] 


field 1. 
JE 10 mm. Wt. 3'25 grammes (50'2 grains). Hexas. 

Circa B.C. 500 — 461. 

Plain border ; concave 

184 Slow quadriga to r., the horses 
crowned by Nike flying r. Border of 

JR 25 mm. 

A Eo A/TIA/ OA/ around. 
Lion's head r., jaws open ; around, four 
grains of corn. Concave field. 
Wt. 16'74 grammes (258'4 grains). Tetradrachm. [PI. IV.] 

185 Nude rider cantering r., r. on 
hip, 1. holding i-eins. Border of dots. 

JR 21 mm. Wt. 8-85 grammes (1.36-6 grains), 
nos. 13-15 ; same rev. die as B.M. no. 15. 

186 Lion's head facing. Border of I AE above 

o \A I T \A o 3 A around. Similar 
to preceding. 

Didrachm. Same obv. die as B.M. 
[PI. IV.] 

o/y below. 


Plain border. 

I corn. 

Al 10 mm. Wt. '52 gramme (8-0 grains). 

187 Similar. V E below, o\A above. 

corn. Plain (?) border. 

JR 10 mm. Wt. 38 gramme (5 8 grains). 

Grain of 

[PI. IV.] 
Grain of 

ri. IK 



Circa B.C. 466 — 422. 

188 Head of Apollo r. laureate, 
hair taken up behind ; locks of hair on 
forehead, temple, and neck. Border 
of dots. 

VEo A/ Tl A'o A/ around. 
Lion's head r., jaws open. Around, four 
grains of corn. 

JR 25 mm. Wt. 16'83 grammes (2o9'7 grains). Tetradraohm. Same obv. die as 
B.M. no. 30. [PI. IV.] 

189 Similar to preceding. 

UEo Ml y oy Similar to pre- 
cedins. Concave field. 


27 mm. Wt. 16'84 grammes (259-9 grains). Tetradrachm. Same obv. die as 
B.M. nos. 34, .35 ; same rev. die as B.M. no. 38. [PI. IV".] 

190 Similar to preceding. 

VEo A^ T I A/ OA/ around. 
Similar to preceding, but behind head 
tripod instead of grain of corn, and 
field flatter. 

J& 26 mm. Wt. 17'13 grammes (264'3 grains). Tetradrachm. Same dies as B.M. 
no. 41. From the Bunbury Sale (332). [PI. IV.] 

191 Similar, but type 1. L-EoyTI^'o^ around. Head 

of lion L, jaws open ; around, three 
grains of corn and laurel-leaf with 
berry. Slightly concave field. 

JR. 26 mm. Wt. 17-52 grammes (270-3 grains). Tetradrachm. [PI. IV.] 

192 Similar, but type r., and of 
finer style. 

lEoyT\yoy above; lion's head 1., 
jaws open ; around, three grains of 
corn and fish 1. 

JR 25 mm. Wt. 17-16 grammes (264-8 grains). Tetradrachm. The style of the 
head approaches that of the coins of Chalkidike. 

From the Banbury Sale (3.34). [PI. IV.] 

L- E above, o /\j below. Grain of 
corn. Plain border. Concave field. 

193 Head of Apollo r., laureate, hair 
plaited behind, locks on forehead, 
temple and neck. Border of dots. 

JR, 12 mm. Wt. -76 gramme (11-7 grains). 

From the Monlaiju Sale (II. 44), with nos. 194-197. [PI IV.] 

194 Similar. | Similar. 

J& 13 mm. Wt. -68 gramme (10"5 grains). 

195 Similar. | 3 s/ above o H below. Similar. 

JR, 13 mm. Wt. -65 gramme (lO'l grains). 

196 Head of lion r., jaws open, i [^ E above, o A/ below. Grain of 
Border of dots. corn. Plain border. 

JR, 13 ram. Wt. -77 gramme (11-9 grains). 

[PI. IV.] 

outfeulc wliicli a low ot pellets '. 

JR 22 mm. Wt. 9-48 grammes (146-3 grains). Aiginetic didrachm. A badly 
upecimen, but the only knovm didrachm. [PI- IV. ] 

Incuse key-pattern, with square in 
centre containing shell (pecten). 

203 DANKUE below. Dolphin 1. 
in raised penannular band, outside 
which row of pellets between two plain 

JR, 23 mm. Wt. 5-81 grammes (89-6 grains). Aiginetic drachm, 

[Pi. IV.] 



204 Similar. | Similar. 

Ji\, -21 -5 mm. \Vt 5-52 grammes (SoS grains). Aiginetic drachm. 

205 DAr/K below. Dolphiu 1., the 
whole in broad penannular band with 
four rectangular protuberances. 

Similar to preceding. 

[PI. IV.] 

2R, 20 mm. Wt. 545 grammes (84-1 grains). Aiginetic drachm. From the 
Messina find. Cf. A. J. Evans, loc. cit. no. 3. [PI. IV.] 

Circa B.C. 493 — 476. 

206 Biga of mules (apene) r., driven 
by crouching charioteer holding goad ; 
in ex. olive-leaf. Border of dots. 

MEllE below, V\ r. |o \A above. 
Hare springing r. The whole in dotted 
incuse circle. 

^ 27 mm. Wt. 17-10 grammes (263-9 grains). Attic tetradrachm. [PI. IV.] 

207 Similar, but no goad, and 
above, Nike fl3'ing r. crowning mules. 

28 mm. Wt. 17 "27 grammes (266 '5 grains) 
no. 18. From the Bunbury Sale (I. .347) 

M ESS below, V\ o | W A above. Simi- 
lar, but under hare, olive-spray. 

Tetradrachm. Same dies as B.M. 
[PI. IV.] 

Circa B.C. 476 — 420. 

208 Similar to preceding. 

MESS A below, N 
Similar to preceding. 

JR 27 mm. Wt. 1684 grammes (259'8 grains). 
B.M. no. 25. 

From the Balmanno Sale (1898), (29). 

r., I o N above. 

Same rev. die as 
[PI. IV.] 

209 Biga of mules r., driven by 
draped female charioteer (Messana) ; 
above, Nike stepping r. on reins, crown- 
ing mules ; in exergue, olive-leaf with 
two fruits. Border of dots. 

MESSA/Mlo/M around. Hare 
springing r., below, dolphin r. Border 
of dots. Concave field. 

J^ 26 mm. Wt. 17'31 grammes (267'1 grains). Tetradrachm. 

[PI. IV.] 

210 [mJESSANA above. Biga of 
mules r. driven by draped female 
charioteer (Messana) with goad ; in 
exergue two dolphins opposed. Border 
of dots. 

M 26 mm. Wt. 16-98 grammes (-262-1 grains). 

MES SA /Ml o /M around. Hare 
springing r. ; below, dolphin r. Border 
of dots. 


[PI. v.] 

211 Similar, but type to 1., and in- 
scription [mess A A/ A] off the flan. 
[Die of B.M. no. 43.] of dots. 

A\ 2.j mm. Wt. 17-00 grammes (262-4 grains). 

212 MESSA/m[a] above. Same 
die as preceding. 

MES S A/V Io a/ around. Hare 
springing r. ; below, cicada r. Border 

[Die of B.M. no. 43.] 

Tetradrachm. [PI. V.] 


MESSA [ai |]o /M around. Hare 
springing 1. Below, stalk of barley 1. 
Border of dots. [Die of B.M. no. 42.] 

Wt. 17-24 grammes (2660 grains). Tetradrachm. A has the form 

no. 14. From the Bunhury Sale (354). 

[PI. v.] 



213 Biga of high -stepping mules 1., 
driven by female charioteer (Messana) 
with goad; above, Nike flying r. to 
crown Messana. Border of dots. [Die 
of B.M. nos. 53, 54.] 

JR. 28 mm. Wt. 17-21 grammes 

Sale (118). 

214 Same die as preceding. 

MESSA[/M|o/vj 1 and above. 
Hare springing r. Below, sea-horse 1. 
Border of dots. Incuse circle. [Die 
of B.M. nos. 52, 53.] 

£65 '6 grains). Tetradrachm. 

From the Boyne 
[PI. v.] 

M 28 mm. 

MESCAAIIO/M below (between two 
parallel lines) Hare springing r. ; 
beyond, barley-plant with three ears. 
Border of dots. Incuse circle. [Die 
of B.M. no. 54.] 
wt. 17-02 grammes (262-7 grains). Tetradrachm. [PI. V.] 

215 Biga of mules 1. driven by 
female charioteer (Messana) with goad; 
above, Nike flying r. to crown chari- 
oteer; in exergue, two dolphins opposed. 
Border of dots. [Die of B.M. no. 55] 

MESSANIHN above. Hare spring- 
r. ; below, dolphin r. over formal 

no. 55.] 

Border of dots. [Die of B.M. 

J^ 26 mm. Wt. 15-66 grammes (241-7 grains). Tetradrachm. 

[PI. v.] 

216 Hare springing r. ; below, 
pecten-shell. Border of dots. 

ME£ in olive-wreath. 

JR 14 mm. Wt. -62 gramme (9-5 grains). Litra. Same dies as B.M. no. 63. 

[PI. v.] 

Circa B.C. 357—317- 

217 riEAnPIASr. Headofnymph 
Pelorias 1., wearing wreath of corn, ear- 
ring and necklace ; in front, two dol- 
phins up and down opposed ; border of 

MESSANinN r. Nude warrior 
(Pheraimon) fighting 1. ; he wears 
crested Korinthian helmet, and holds 
in r. spear, in 1. shield and chlamys. 
Border of dots. 
JEi 24 mm. Wt. 7-74 grammes (119-4 grains). Same rev. die as B.M. no. 81. 

[PI. v.] 

Circa B.C. 288 — 210. 

218 Traces of APEoZ r. Head of 
Ares r., beardless, laureate ; behind, 
spear-head downwards. Border of dots. 

[MAJmEP I., [T]lNn[N] r. Eagle 
standing 1. on thunderbolt, flapping 

JEi 26 mm. Wt. 18-52 grammes (285*8 grains) 

219 [AAPANoY] 1. Bearded head 
of Hadranos 1. in crested helmet. 
[Border of dots.] 

JSt 19 mm. Wt. 5-59 grammes (86-3 grains) 

[MAMEPTINriN] in ex. 
standing r. 


PI. V. 



220 Head of Zeus r., bearded, 
laureate. Border of dots. 

MAMEPTINHN 1. Nude warrior, 
ficrhting r. He wears crested helmet, 
and holds in r. spear, in 1. shield; in 
field r. n Border of dots. 

M 27 mm. Wt. 12-07 grammes (186-3 grains). 
no. 15. 



n. has the form 

Circa B.C. 

221 Head of Dionysos 1. of archaic 
style, wearing pointed beard, long hair, 
and ivy-wreath. Border of dots be- 
tween two plain circles. 


A/AXIo/v below. Bunch of grapes 
on stalk with two leaves ; plain border ; 
shallow incuse circle. 

JR- 22 mm. Wt. 5-70 grammes (88-0 grains). Aiginetic drachm. Same rev. die as 
B.M. no. 3. [From the Messina find (cf. no. 201). Sale of 20 Jan. 1898, 


Circa B.C. 


[PI. v.] 


/V AX I oA/ around; ithyphallic 
Seilenos squatting to front, head 1., r. 
hand bringing kantharos to his mouth, 
1. resting on ground. Concave field. 

28 mm. Wt. 16-85 grammes (260-0 grains). Attic tetradrachm. Same dies as 
B.M. nos. 7, 8, and Holm, Gesch. Sic. iii., PI. II. 9. [PI. V.] 

222 Head of Dionysos r. of careful 
style, bearded, hair in bunch behind, 
wearing ivy-wreath. Border of dots. 

223 Similar to preceding, but hair 

JR 18 mm. Wt. 4-19 grammes (647 grains). 
B.M. no. 10. 

224 Similar to preceding. 

AIAXI around. Similar to preceding, 
but Seilenos is turned more to 1. 

Attic drachm. Same obv. die as 

[PI. v.] 


18 nun. 
no, 9. 

I A/ A XI OA/ around. Similar to 

I preceding. Border of dots. 

Wt. 4-10 grammes (63-3 grains). Attic drachm. Same dies as B.M. 

[PI. v.] 

Circa B.C. 415 — 404. 

225 Head of Dionysos r., bearded, 
wearing broad stephane decorated with 
ivy. Border of dots. 

A'AZloA/ r. Seilenos squatting to 
front, looking 1., r. raising kantharos to 
his mouth, 1. holding thyrsos ; in field 
1., ivy growing. Plain bordei-. Concave 


25 mm. Wt. 17-25 grammes (266-2 grains). Attic tetradrachm. 
B.M. no. 19 ; same obv. die as B.M. no. 18. 

Same dies as 
[PI. v.] 

AUGUSTUS ; Cn. Domitius Proculus and A. Laetorius duumviri. 

[CN -DoM -PRoC-] A LAETo 
ffViR around. Capricorn r. ; below, 
triskeles with gorgoneion in middle. 

Wt. 8-16 grammes (1259 grains). 

226 [panhormitanorvm] 

around ; head of Augustus 1., wearing 
radiate crown. 


23 mm. 

[For earlier coins of Panormos, see under Siculo-Punic Series.] 




Circa B.C. 479 — 430. 

227 Hound standing r., head to 
ground on double exergual line. Border 
of dots. 

S IIAT>aD3) around. Head of 
nymph Segesta r., of archaic style, 
wearing circular earring and necklace, 
hair taken up in band behind. Con- 
cave field. 

Si 2'2 mm. Wt. 8 '45 grammes (130'4 grains). 
C is obscure. 

Didrachm. The form of the second 
[PI. v.] 

228 Hound standing 1. 

^ 24-5 mm. 

13^ around. Head of 
r., of more advanced 

€ I IAT>3 
nymph Segesta 

style, hair in bunch behind. Plain 
border. Concave field. 
Wt. 7 '58 grammes (117 -0 grains). Didrachm. [PI. V.] 

229 [aiIA]T^3JL3)] between two 
lines in ex. Hound r., head to ground ; 
behind, barley-plant with three ears. 

Head of nymph Segesta r., hair in 

JSi '23 mm. Wt. 8-16 grammes (126-0 grains). Didrachm. 
38 ; same rev. die as nos. 30, 31 (tetradrachm). 

Same dies as B.M. no. 
[PI. v.] 

230 Hound standing r. Border of Head of nymph Segesta r., hair 
dots. rolled. Concave field. 

Si 2o mm. Wt. 841 grammes (129'8 grains). Didrachm. Same dies as B.M. no. 
40. [PI. v.] 

231 Hound standing r. ; 
head (of nymph Segesta ?) r. 

above, SArE[STAl]lB r. over which 

CEC Head of nymph Segesta r., hair 
taken up behind in broad band. 

Si 24 mm. Wt. 7 '83 grammes (120'8 grains). Didrachm. Same dies as B.M. no. 
25 ; same rev. die as B.M. nos. 26, 27. Tliis coin and B. M. no. 2,5 both show 
the apparent over-striking on the reverse and on the obverse part of tlie border 
of dots produced by another die. These features cannot have been produced 
by over-striking of the usual kind ; see a similar case in a Ljkian coin, JVum. 
Chr. 1895, p. 15, no. 13. (B.M. Catal. p. 8, no. 40). The same peculiarity is 
found on a coin of Alex. Jannaeus (B.M., 62 — 7 — 21 — 12). M. de Villenoisy's 
statement {Proces Verb, e.t Mem. du Cowjr. de Numism. 1900, p. 52) therefore 
requires modification. The coin described by Mionnet (i. p. 281, no. 6.35) 
was in the Payne Knight (not in the Northwick) Collection, and is now B.M. 
no. 25. [PI. v.] 

232 [Er]ESTAIIB between two 
lines in ex. Hound to r. ; behind, bar- 
ley-plant with three ears. [Plain 

ETESTAIIB above and r. Head 
of nymph Segesta r., hair rolled. Con- 
cave field. 


24 mm. Wt. 8"28 grammes (127 '8 grains), 
no. 39. 


Same obv. die as B.M. 
[PI. v.] 


Circa B.C. 430 — 409. 

233 [SEL]E STAI[|A] in exergue. 
Fast quadriga to r. ; above, Nike flying 
]. to crown charioteer, who holds three 
ears of barley. In exergue, traces of 
grasshopper r. [Border of dots.] 

Youthful hunter r., standing with 1. 

foot on rock ; in 1., two hunting spears, 

elbow resting on 1. knee, chlamys 

wrapped round arm ; conical pilos slung 

round neck; r. hand on hip; at his 

I feet, hound r ; before him, term 1. 

JR 26 mm. Wt. 17'30 grammes (iOT'O grains). Tetradrachm. Same dies as B.M. 
no. .34. [PI. v.] 

Before circa B.C. 461. 

234 Leaf of wild celery {creKivov, Incuse square divided by twelve lines 
apiuin graveolens). starting from the centre. 

Ai 25 mm. Wt. 6-80 grammes (105-0 grains). Didrachm. [PI- V.] 

Circa B.C. 461 — 430. 

235 [V\0 ITW] I. 0\AIA3^ above. 
Apollo and Artemis in slow quadriga 
to 1. ; Artemis, wearing long chiton, 
holds reins ; Apollo, with chlamys over 
1. arm and shoulders, shoots with bow 
and arrow. Border of dots. 

■^ 27 mm. Wt. 16'78 grammes (259.0 grains). Tetradrachm 
resembles that of B. M. nos. 24-26. 

236 Similar to preceding, but Apollo 
does not wear chlamys, and inscription 
(if any) obliterated. 

SEAI A/ o [c] around, above. River- 
god Selinos, horned, nude, standing 1., 
sacrificing ; in 1., laurel-branch, in r., 
phiale, which he holds over altar 
decorated with wreath (of wild celery ?) ; 
before the altar, cock standing 1. ; be- 
hind Selinos, bull standing 1. on 
pedestal ; above it, leaf of wild celery. 

Obv. die closely 
[PI. v.] 

[SEJAIA/oA'TI o [/V] around, 
above Similar to preceding, but 
Selinos wears himation over 1. shoulder 
and from waist downwards ; altar not 

JR 27 mm. Wt. 16-95 grammes (261-6 grains). Tetradrachm. 
B.M. no. -29 (where bull is described as human-lieaded). 

Same rev. die as 
[PI. v.] 

237 Apollo and Artemis in slow 
quadriga to r. ; Artemis, wearing long 
chiton, holds goad and reins ; Apollo, 
draped from waist downwards, shoots 
with bow and arrow ; in exergue, grain 
of barley. Plain border. 


SEA iNoHTI 1. otsl I-. River-god 

Seliiios.nude, standing 1., sacrificing; in 

]., laurel-branch, in r. phiale, which he 

holds over blazing altar ; before the 

altar, cock standing 1. ; behind Selinos, 

bull standing 1. on pedestal ; above it, 

leaf of wild celery. 

27 mm. Wt. 17-34 grammes (267-6 grains). Tetradrachm. Same dies as B.M. 
no. .32. [PI. v.] 


[For earlier coin of Solus, see Siculo-Punic series.] 

Second or First Century B.C. 

238 Nude warrior advancing r., in 1. i [CJoAoN 1 [t]INU)N in laurel- 
shield, in r. spear. Border of dots. | wreath. 

JE 29 mm. Wt. 6-46 grammes (99-7 grains). Same rev. die as B.M. no. 7. [PI. V.] 

' For No. 237a, Selinus, see p. 151. 

D 2 



• • 

No. 347b. 

No. 283. 


Before B.C. 485. 

239 WI^A above. Slow quardiga r. ! Granulated incuse square, approach- 
Border of dots. ing mill-sail pattern ; in centre, incuse 

circle, containing female head 1., with 
long hair (dotted). 

JR 26 mm. Wt. 16-58 grammes (255-8 grains). Tetradrachm. [PI. VI.] 

Time of Gelon 485—478 B.C. 

240 Slow quadriga r., charioteer 
holding goad and reins ; above, Nike r., 
alighting on the yoke, wings spread, 
holding wreath in r., placing 1. on fore- 
lock of the third horse. Border of 

SVp A9 OS I OA/ around; fine 
linear circle, within -which female head 
r., wearing necklace, long hair (dotted) 
confined b}' cord ; around, four dol- 
phins with heads to the linear circle. 
Concave field. 

JR- 25 mm. Wt. 16-99 grammes (262-2 grains). Tetradrachm. Same obv. die as 
B.M. no. 4. From tht Boyiie Sale (1896, 149). [PI. VI.] 

241 Nude horseman riding slowly 
to r., leading a second horse. Border 
of dots. 

£V pA9 o£| 
to preceding. 

o A/ a r ou nd . Similar 


20 mm. Wt. 8-46 grammes (130-5 grains). 
no. 5 ; same obv. die as B.M. no. 6. 


Same dies as B.M. 
[PI. VI.] 

242 Slow quadriga r., charioteer 
holding goad in 1., reins in both hands ; 
above, Nike flying r., crowning horses ; 
in exergue, lion running r. Border of 

■^ 26 mm. Wt. 1714 grammes (264 5 grains). Tetradrachm. 
From the Sale of "a late Collector," (28 May, 1900, 124). 

2V RA KOSI o A/ around. Fine 
linear circle, within which female head 
r., laureate, hair waved in front and 
taken up behind, with one loose lock 
hanging on neck, wearing earring and 
necklace ; around, four dolphins. 
Slightly concave field. 

Demareteion type. 
[PI. VI.] 

Fl. VI. 


243 Slow quadriga r., chai-ioteer SVRA9°^'°^- around ; 
holdinjr goad and reins ; above, Nike female head r., wearing necklace, hair 
flying r., placing both hands on horses' dotted and confined by cord ; around, 
heads. Border of dots. I four dolphins. Concave field. 

S^. 27 mm. Wt. 17"11 gramme.s (264 grains). Tetradrachm. Same dies as B.M. 
specimen 89-8-5-4 = du Chastel, PI. 1, 2; same obv. die as B.M. no. 11. 

244 Similar to preceding (same die). CVR AK og| o/y around ; female 

! head 1., wearing necklace, hair dotted, 
confined by cord, and tied at end ; 
I around, four dolphins. Concave field. 

JRi 2o mm. Wt. 16'95 grammes (281 'o grains). Tetradrachm. Same obv. die as 
preceding; same rev. die as B.M. nos, 10, 11. 

245 Slow quadriga r.; charioteer SVRA KoS |o A/ around; female 
holding goad and reins ; above, Nike head r., wearing broad diadem and 
flying r., wings spread. Border of dots, necklace, hair (dotted) caught up be- 
hind ; around, four dolphins. Concave 

JR 25 mm. Wt. 17'11 grammes (264-0 grains). Tetradrachm. K has the form 
no. 16. [PI. VI.] 

246 Similar type 1. (Nike flies 1.). SVRAKo si OA/ r., and above ; fe- 

male head r., wearing necklace, hair 
1 (dotted) confined by dotted cord and 
: caught up behind : around, four dol- 
! phins. Concave field. 

JR 27 mm. Wt. 17 '24 grammes (266 grains). Tetradrachm. Same rev. die as 
B.M. no. 16 ; obv. die closely resembling that of B.M. no. 26. [PI. VI.] 

247 Nude rider r., leading a second CVRA Ko? |oA/ Female head r., 
horse. Border of dots. wearing diadem and necklace, hair 

(dotted) confined by cord and caught 
; up behind ; around, three dolphins. 
I Concave field. 

JR 20 mm. Wt. 8-3.3 grammes (128-5 grains). Didrachm. Same dies as B.M. 
no. 20. 

248 Slow quadriga r., charioteer SVRA K og |oA/ around; female 
holding goad and reins; above, Nike head r., wearing necklace, hair (in lines) 
flying r., crowning the horses. Border long and confined by cord (dotted) ; 
of dots. around, four dolphins. Concave field. 

JSi 24 mm. Wt. 17-24 grammes (266 grains). Tetradrachm. K has the form 
no. 16. [PI. VI.] 

249 Slow quadriga r., charioteer SVRAKoSlo A/ r. and 1.; female 
holding goad and reins; above, Nike head r., wearing necklace, hair (in 
flying r., wings spread, with wreath ; I lines) confined by cord (dotted) and 
double exergual line. Border of dots. caught up behind ; around, four dol- 

i phins. Concave field. 
M 25 mm. Wt. 1717 grammes (265 0- grains). Tetradrachm. K has the form 
no. 16. [PI- VI.] 



250 [SVP]A Female head r., wear- 
ing earring and plain necklace, hair 
(in lines) confined by cord (dotted) and 
caught up behind. Border of dots. 

JS^ 12 mm. Wt. -78 gramme (12 grains) 

Sepia. Concave field. 

251 Female head r., wearing neck- 
lace, hair confined by cord and caught 
up behind. Border of dots. | 

JR 11 mm. Wt. "57 gramme (8 8 grains), 

Litra. [PI. VI.] 

Four-spoked wheel. Concave field. 


[PI. VI.] 

Time of Hieron. 
Circa B.C. 478—466. 

[Some of these coins may belong to the next period.] 

252 Slow quadriga r., charioteer 
holding reins with both hands ; above, 
Nike flying 1. crowning him ; in ex- 
ergue, pistrix r. Border of dots. 


SVPAKog 10 A/ around; female 

head r., wearing single-drop earring 

and necklace, hair confined by cord 

(dotted) and caught up behind ; around, 

four dolphins. 

25mm. Wt. 17'21 grammes (2656 grains). Tetradrachm. Same obv. die as 
B.M. nos. 68, 69 and 86-5-8-1 ; same rev. die as B.M. nos. 69, 70. [PI. VI.] 

253 Similar, but Nike flies r. with I SVPAKosi o /y around; similar, 
wreath, and charioteer holds goad as but no earring. 
well as reins. 

J^ 27 mm. Wt. 16'53 grammes (255'1 grains). Tetradrachm. 

[PI. VI.] 

254 Similar 
crowns horses). 





25 mm. Wt. 17 '19 grammes (265'3 grain.s). Tetradrachm 
B.M. no. 73. 

SVRAKoCI o A/ around; female 
head r., wearing diadem, single-drop 
earring, and necklace ; hair confined 
by cord (dotted) and caught up behind ; 
around, four dolphins. 

Same obv. die as 
[PI. VI.] 

255 Slow quadriga r., charioteer 
holding goad and reins ; above, Nike 
flying 1. with wreath ; in exergue, pis- 
trix r. ; border of dots. 


SVPAKot I o M around; female 
head r., hair confined by cord passing 
round head and three times round 
back hair ; wearing single-drop earring 
and necklace ; around, four dolphins. 
27 mm. Wt. 17-24 grammes (266-0 grains). Tetradrachm. [PI. VI.] 

256 Similar, but 
crowning horses. 

Nike flies r- I SVPAKoSloA/ r.; female head r., 

i wearing single-drop earring and neck- 

I lace, hair waved, confined by cord and 

in bunch behind ; around, four dol- 

I phins. 


26 mm. Wt. 17-29 grammes (266-9 grains). Tetradrachm. 
B.M. no. 93. 

Same rev. die as 
[PI. VI.] 



257 Similar to preceding. CVRAKogloA/ r. ; female head r., 

wearing single-drop earring and neck- 
! lace, and broad diadem passing twice 
[ round back of head so as to form opis- 
thosphendone ; around, four dolphins. 

JR 26 mm. VVt. 17"21 grammes (265'6 grains). Tetradrachm. Same rev. die as 
Holm, PI. III. no. 10. 

258 Similar to preceding. 


25 mm. Wt. 17'18 grammes (265'2 grains), 
B.M. no. 95, rev. as B.M. no. 94. 

SVRAKoSI o A/ around ; female 
head r., wearing single-drop eamng and 
necklace, hair confined by cord passing 
three times round head and twice 
round back hair ; around, four dol- 

Tetradrachm. Same obv. die as 

259 Similar to preceding. 


SVRAKoCI o/y around; similar to 
preceding, but cord passes three times 
round back hair as well as front. 

25 mm. Wt. 17 48 grammes (269'8 grains). Tetradrachm. Same obv. die aa 
B.M. no. 95 and preceding. Bunbury Sale (434). [PI. VI.] 

260 Similar to preceding. 

JR 26 mm. 

SV RAKos I o \A around. Female 
head r., wearing single-drop earring, 
necklace with pendants, and broad 
diadem passing twice round head and 
fastened with cord, the hair tucked 
through behind and protruding in 
bunch ; around, four dolphins. 
Wt. 17-04 grammes (263-0 grains). Tetradrachm. [PI. VI.] 

261 Similar to preceding (same Similar to preceding (same die), 

ja 24 mm. Wt. 17-17 grammes (265-0 grains). Tetradrachm. 

262 Similar to preceding. 


27 mm. Wt. 17-25 grammes (266-2 grains). 
B.M. no. 100. 

SVPA Ko CI o A/ around. Similar 
to preceding, but necklace represented 
by row of dots between two lines, and 
plain circular earring. 

Tetradrachm. Same rev. die as 
[PI. VI.] 

Circa B.C. 466 — 430. 

263 Slow quadriga r., charioteer 
holding goad and reins ; on front of car, 
crane ; above, Nike flying r. crowning 
horses. Border of dots. 

SVPAKosloH r. Female head r., 
wearing coiled earring and necklace, 
hair dressed as on preceding ; around, 
four dolphins. Concave field. 


27 mm. Wt. 1716 grammes (264-8 grains). Tetradrachm. [PI. VI.[ 



264 Slow quadriga r., charioteer 
holding goad and reins ; above, Nike 
flying 1. crowning him. Border of dots. 

JR 27 mm. Wt. 17-07 grammes (263-5 grains) 
no. 117. 

[\A0 \i\ o >l A JI V > around ; 
female head r., wearing coiled earring, 
necklace, coif decorated with line of 
maeander and ampyx decorated with 
wreath ; around, four dolphins. 

Tetradrachm. Same dies as B.M. 

265 Slow quadriga r., charioteer 
holding reins ; above, Nike flying r. 
crowning horses. [Border of dots ?] 

SYRAKosloA/ r. Female head r., 
wearing coiled earring, necklace, coif 
decorated with lines of maeander and 
zigzag patterns, and ampyx decorated 
with wreath ; around, four dolphins. 

witn wreain ; arouna, lour uoipums. 
v't. 17-07 grammes (263-5 grains). Tetradrachm. [PI. VI.] 

JR 27 mm. W 

266 Similar to preceding, but in 1 Similar to preceding, 
exergue, branch. I 

JR 25 mm. Wt. 17"24 grammes (266-0 grains). Tetradrachm. Same rev. die as 
B.M. no. 118? 

267 Slow quadriga r., charioteer 
holding goad and reins, on front of car 
A ; above, Nike flying 1. (wings spread) 
to crown charioteer. Border of dots. 


SVPAK og|o /v J., and 1. Female 
head r., wearing coiled earring, neck- 
lace with lion's head ornament in front, 
and sphendone, long ends of which pass 
three times round front of head ; around, 
four dolphins. Concave field. 

26 mm. Wt. 17-23 grammes (265-9 grains). Tetradrachm. Same obv. die as 
B.M. no. 109. From the Bunhury Sale, 440. [PI. VI.] 

268 Slow quadriga r., charioteer 
holding goad and reins; above, Nike 
flying r. crowning horses ; in exergue, 
traces of symbol ? 

SVP AK o SI o NA r.andl. Simi- 
lar to preceding. 


25 mm. Wt. 17-05 grammes (263-1 grains). 
B.M. no. 108. 


Same rev. die as 
[PI. VI.] 

269 Slow quadriga r., charioteer 
holding reins ; above, Nike flying 1. to 
crown him. Border of dots. 

SYPAKog|o/V r. Similar to pre- 
ceding, but necklace plain. 


26 mm. Wt. 17-2 grammes (265-4 grains). 
B.M. no. 110. 

Tetradrachm. Same obv. die as 

SYPAK[o]SI around; female 
head r. wearing coiled earring and 
necklace, hair confined by cord passing 
four times round head ; around, four 

JR 25 mm. Wt. 17-13 grammes (264-3 grains). Tetradrachm. Same obv. die as 
B.M. nos. 120, 121, 123; rev. die closely resembling that of B.M. no. 121. 

[PI. VI.] 

270 Slow quadriga r., charioteer 
holding goad and reins ; [on front of 
car, crane] ; above, Nike flying r. crown- 
ing horses. [Border of dots.] 



271 Slow quadriga r., chai'ioteer 
holding goad and reins ; above, Nike 
flying 1. to crown him. [Border of dots.] 

S[YPAKo€|oA/] r. and below. 
Female head r., wearing coiled earring, 
necklace [with circular ornament at 
side], and hair dressed as on preceding ; 
I around, four dolphins. 

JR: 25 mm. Wt. 17'41 giarames (268'6 grains). Tetradrachm. Same obv. die as 
B.M. no. 119 ; same rev. die as B.M. no. 120. 

272 Quadriga 1., horses prancing; 
charioteer holding goad and reins ; 
above, Nike flying r. to crown him ; [in 
exergue, pistrix 1.]. Border of dots. 

SVPAKoSi o H around; female 
head r., hair gathered together and 
tied on the crown, wears coiled earring 
and necklace ; around, four dolphins. 

JR 25 mm. Wt. 17'21 grammes (265'5 grains). Tetradrachm. Same obv. die as 
B.M. nos. 103, 104 ; same rev. die as B.M. no. 104. For the occurrence of the 
pistrix on coins later than the time of Hieron, nee Holm, p. 572. [PI. VI.] 

Circa B.C. 440 — 412. 
Soson ? and Eumenes ? 

273 Fast quadriga 1., horses prancing, 
charioteer holding goad and reins ; 
above, Nike flying r. to crown him ; in 
exergue, two dolphins opposed. Border 
of dots. 

[SYPA Kosio] \A r. and below. 
Female head 1., hair rolled and con- 
fined by ampyx, wearing coiled earring 
and necklace ; around, four dolphins. 

JR 26 mm. Wt. 17 27 grammes (266 '5 grains). Tetradrachm. Same dies as B.M. 
no. 155; same obv. die as B.M. no. 154; Weil, PI. I. 4; and specimen at 
Aberdeen. On the last, the name of the artist on the reverse is clearly 


Circa B.C. 440 — 412. 

274 Fast quadriga l.,horsesprancing, 
charioteer holding goad and reins ; 
above, Nike flying r. to crown him ; in 
exergue two dolphins opposed. Border 
of dots. 

JR 28'5mm. Wt. 17 27 grammes (266 "6 grains). Tetradrachm, 
B.M. no. 140 { = C'oi7is of the Ancients II. C 40). 
Sunbury Sale (446). 

SYPAKoSlow above; female head 

1., wearing hair rolled and confined in 

front with ampyx, coiled earring and 

necklace ; on ampyx ^ q w i around, 

four dolphins. 

Same rev. die as 

[PI. VI.] 

275 Similar to preceding, but no 
symbols in exergue. 

JR 26 '5 mm. 

SVPAKocio \A above; female head 
1., hair rolled, wearing coiled earring 
and necklace; below EVMHNoV ; 
around, four dolphins. 

Wt. 16'56 grammes (2555 grains). Tetradrachm. Same dies as B.M. 
no. 141, Weil, PI. I. 1 ; same rev. die as B.M. no. 142. 



276 Similar to preceding, but in 
exergue e[VMHNoV]. 

SVPAKo£|o\A above; female head 
1., hair confined by crossed diadem, 
wears coiled earring ; behind EVMHN 

oV ; around, four dolphins; concave 

.51 26 "5 mm. Wt. 16'81 grammes (259'4 grains). Tetradrachm. 
no. 144 ; Weil, PI. I. 2. Bunbury ScUe 1. (446). 

Same dies as B. M. 

277 Similar to No. 274, but under 
horses EV 

M 27-5 mm. 

SVPAKoCiovAabove. Female head 
1., hair rolled, wearing coiled earring and 
necklace ; below, EV ; around, four 
dolphins ; concave field. 

Wt. 17-22 grammes (265-7 grains). Tetradrachm. [PI. VII.] 

278 AEV K A S PIS around. Leuk- 
aspis, nude, charging to r. ; he wears 
crested helmet with plume at side, and 
scabbard at 1. side suspended by strap 
passing over r. shoulder ; in 1. shield, 
in r. sword. Border of dots. 

SV P A KosioA/ around. Female 
head r., hair confined by crossed diadem, 
wearing coiled earring and necklace ; 
below, EVMEA'oV ; around, four 
dolphins ; concave field. 

jH 19-5 mm. Wt. .397 grammes (61 -3 grains). Drachm. Same obv. die as B.M. 
nos. 162 and 163 (?). Montagu Sale II. (75). 

Euainetos — Eumenes. 

279 Fast quadriga r., horses canter- [€VPA KoSinN] above and r. 

ing; charioteer holding goad and reins; Female head 1., as on no. 277 ; below 
above, Nike flying 1. holding wreath EVMENoV; around, four dolphins. 

, ,1 !_• , EVAIN 

and tablet on which ; m 

exergue, two dolphins opposed ; border 
of dots. 

.31 23-5 mm. Wt. 17 13 grammes (2643 grains). Tetradrachm. Same dies as B.M. 
nos. 148 ( = Head, Syr. PI. III. 13), 149; same obv. die as B.M. nos. 150, 188 
( = Evans, Syr. Med. PI. I. 3). Banbury ScUe (445). [PI. VII.] 


280 Similar to preceding, but name 
obliterated from tablet. 

SYPAKoSmN above. Female head 
1., hair confined by ampyx, [on which 
dolphin 1. above waves] and sphendone 
[on which stars], coiled earring, and 
necklace ; around, four dolphins ; [on 
belly of that before the mouth, EYAl]. 


26 mm. Wt. 16-96 granmies (261-8 grains). Tetradrachm. 
188 ; obv. die of B.M. no. 150. 

Dies of B.M. no. 
[PI. VII.] 



Euth...— Phrygillos. 

281 Fast quadriga r. driven by 
Nike, horses prancing ; above, Nike 
flying 1. to crown charioteer ; in exergue 
EY0 and Skylla r. holding trident in 
1. over 1. shoulder, extending r. towards 
fish swimming r. ; above her tail, dol- 
phin r. ; border of dots. 

A\ 27 ram. \Vt. 1704 grammes ('263"0 grains). Tetradrachm. 
no8. 156, 157 ; same obv. die as B.M. nos. 152, 153. 
SaJe of 20 Jan. 1898 (86). 

SY PAK OS I OA/ around; head of 
Kora 1., hair rolled, and confined with 
cord with ear of barley and poppy head 
in front ; coiled earring and necklace 
with drop in front ; below, [c|>]P Y T I A A ; 
around, four dolphins. 

Same dies as B.M. 
[PI. VII.] 

Euainetos — Eukleidas. 

282 Fast quadriga r., horses prancing, 
driven by female figure ; above, Nike 
flying 1. to crown her; in exergue, 
chariot-wheel; on exergual line, traces 
of EYAINETO; border of dots. 

[SYPAKoSloS] above. Female 
head 1., wearing coiled earring and neck- 
lace ; the hair confined with ampyx (on 
which swan flying 1.) and sphendone (on 
which stars and EVKAEl) 


25 mm. Wt. 17'17 grammes (265'0 grains). Tetradrachm. Same dies as B.M. 
no. 190 ; same rev. die as B.M. no. 191. [PI. VU.] 

Style of Eukleidas. 

283 Fast quadriga L, horses can- 
tering ; above, Nike flying r. to crown 
charioteer, who holds goad and reins ; 
in exergue, dolphin 1., dorsal fin break- 
ing exergual line ; border of dots. 

[SY] PA KoginN r. and below. 
Female head 1., hair bound with ampyx 
and sphendone, tresses flying loose, 
wearing coiled earring, and necklace 
with pendant in front ; around, four 
dolphins ; plain border. 

M 28 mm. Wt. 16-74 grammes (258-4 grains). Tetradrachm. Obv. die of B.M. 194. 

284 Fast quadriga 1., horses can- 
tering, charioteer holding goad and 
reins; above, Nike flying r. to crown 
him; double exergual line; in exergue, 
ear of barley ; border of dots. 

JR 25 mm. Wt. 1712 grammes (264-2 grains). Tetradrachm, 
resembling B.M. 217, 218 ; rev. die of the same coins. 

SYPAKoSI CI N r. Female head 
1., hair bound with sphendone, on which 
stars; wears coiled earring and necklace; 
around, four dolphins; plain border; 
incuse circle. 

Obv. die closely 
[PI. VII.] 

285 SYPAKoliriN 1. Femalehead 
1., wearing sphendone, coiled earring, and 
neckLice ; behind, doljiliin ; border of 


^i 11mm. Wt. -75 gramme (11-6 grains). Litra. Dies of B.M. 236. 



Circa B.C. 412 — 360. 

286 Head of young Herakles 1. in | Y ? . n ■„ ■^ ■ 

lion's skin. A q '" quavers of mill- sail incuse 

square, in centre of which, in circular 
incuse, female head 1. wearing ampyx 
and sphendone. 

■N 9-5 mm. Wt. r24 grammes (192 grains). The legend SYPA possibly also 
occurred on the obv. Boynt Sale (1896, 1.37). 

287 [SJYPA 1. Similar type to 

€ Y 

P A 

Similar to j)receding. 

N 6-5 ram. Wt. MT grammes (18-0 grains). Boyne Sale (1896, 137). [PI. VII.] 

288 AqY5 1. Head of Athena 1. in 
crested Athenian helmet ; she wears 
necklace and has hair tied at end ; 
plain border. 

i^ 100 mm. Wt. -69 gramme (10-6 grains). .Afontagu Sale I. (\S9). [PI. VII.] 

Gorgoneion on aigis with fringe of 
intertwined snakes; plain border; con- 
cave field. 

Style of Kimon. 

289 SYPAKo[sinN] ]. Female! CYPAKoginH above ; young Hera- 
head 1., wearing triple-drop earring and I kles, nude, kneeling r. on ground, 
necklace, hair in ampyx and sphendone j strangling lion. 

(decorated with stars) ; behind, barley- 
corn ; border of dots. | 

J^ 9-5 mm. Wt. 5-75 grammes (887 grains). Hekatontalitron. [PI. VII.] 

Botighl in Catania, and supposed to he from the Sla. Maria di Licodia hoard. 


290 [SYPAKJoSI ClN above, r. Head Fast quadriga 1., horses prancing; 
of Arelhusa 1., wearing drop earring in above, Nike flying r. to crown charioteer, 
shape of flower, and necklace, hair in who holds goad in r., reins in 1.; in 

ampyx (on which 1 and net; around, 
four dolphins ; border of dots. 

exergue, on two steps, shield, cuirass 
between two greaves, and crested hel- 
met; below these [AOAA] ; on upper 
side of exergual line KIMHN ; border 
of dots. 

■^ 37 mm. Wt. 42'61 grammes (657'i5 grains). Dekadrachm. Obv. die of B.M. 
200, Evans, PL I. 5 ; rev. of B.M. 200-203, (Evans, PI. 1. 5). 

From Sta. Maria di Licodia hoard. [PI. VII.] 

As preceding (same die), inscr. 
AOAA also visible. 

291 [SYP]AKoSinabove,r. Head 

of Arethusa 1. wearing drop earring 

and necklace, hair in ampyx (on which 

K) and net; around, four dolphins, on 

side of the lowest KiMnN); border I 

of dots. I 

.^ 35 "5 mm. Wt. 43'21 grammes (666"8 grains). Dekadrachm. Same dies as B.M. 
202,203. Ashburnham Sale {52). [PI. VII.] 




292 SYPAK osin above, r. Head 
of Arethusa 1. wearing drop earring 
and necklace, hair in ampyx and net; 
around, four dolphins ; border of dots. 

Similar to preceding, inscr. AOAA 
visible, slight traces of the artist's 
signature on exergual line, and above 

nearest horse . . 

JR 36 '5 mm. Wt. 4225 grammes (6520 grains). Dekadrachm, Obv. die of Evans, 
PI. II. la, rev. die of B.M. 204, Evans, PI. II. lb. 
From Sta. Maria di Licodia hoard. Sale of Jan. 20, 1898 (105). [PI. VII.] 


293 SY P A K OSIHN above and 
r. ; head of Kora 1., wearing wreath of 
barley leaves, triple-drop earring, and 
necklace ; behind neck, pecten-shell ; 
around, four dolphins ; [border of 

Fast quadriga 1., horses prancing ; 
above, Nike flying r. to crown charioteer, 
who holds goad in r., reins in 1.; in 
exergue, on two steps, armour as on 
preceding coins [below which AOAA ; 
border of dots]. 

JR 36-5 mm. Wt. 4303 grammes (664-1 grains). Dekadrachm. fsame dies as B.M. 
no. 86 ; same rev. die as specimen from Montagu Sale I, lot 151. 

Fr07n the Santa Maria hoard. [PI. VII.] 

294 €Y PA K OS inN above and 
r. ; similar to preceding, but instead of 
symbol behind neck, A in front ; 
[beneath lowest dolphin, EYAINE] ; 
border of dots visible. 

Similar to preceding. 


36 mm. Wt. 4237 grammes (653'9 grains). Dekadrachm. Same dies as B.M 
no. 173, Evans, PI. V. U. From the S. Maria hoard. [PI. VII] 

295 SY PA Ko sinN above and 
r. ; similar to preceding, but no symbol 
or letter; below lowest dolphin, | 

Similar to preceding. 

J&i 34-5 mm. Wt. 41-64 grammes (642-6 grains). Dekadrachm. Dies of B.M. 177 ; 
rev. die of B.M. 178. From the S. Maria hoard. [PI. VII ] 


296 Head of Arethusa, nearly 
facing, inclined 1., hair flowing in loose 
tresses ; wears ampyx, on which 
K[lMn]N, and necklace; four dol- 
phins swimming among the ; 
border of dots, [outside which, above, 


SYPAK o[sinN] above and r. ; 
fast buadriga 1., horses prancing, 
charioteer holding reins in both hands, 
goad in r. ; above, Nike advancing r., 
stepping on heads of the two near 
horses, holding wreath ; below horses' 
feet, fallen meta ; in exergue, ear of 
barley ; plain border. 

28 mm. Wt. 16-84 grammes (259-8 grains). Tetradrachm. Dies of B.M. no. 
208 (Head, Coins of the Ancientn iii. C 30 ; Evans, Syr. Med. iii. 4) ; obv. die 
of B.M. no. 209. Montagu Sale 11. (73). [PI. VII.] 



Parme . 

297 Fast quadriga 1., horses prancing; 
above, Nike flying r. to crown chari- 
oteer, who holds goad and reins in 1., 
r. raised; under horses' feet, loose 
trace ; in exergue, ear of barley ; 
border of dots. 

SYPAKoCinN above; female head 
I., hair in sphendone ornamented with 
stars, wearing triple-drop earring and 
necklace; below, PAPME ; around, 
four dolphins; plain border. 

-dl 26 mm. Wt. 16'85 grammes (260'0 grains). Tetradraehm. 
(Evans, Syr. Med. PI. I. 6), 213. Bunbury Sale (467). 

Style of Eukleidas. 

Dies of B.M. 212 
[PI. VII.] 

298 [€V P A K osi n N] around. 
Head of Athena nearly facing, inclined 
to 1., wearing triple-crested helmet and 
necklace ; around, four dolphins ; [plain 


19 mm. Wt. 3 '53 grammes (54 '5 grains). Drachm 
obv. die of nos. 226, 227. 

[SYPAKjosi ]., riN r. Leukaspis, 
nude, fighting to r. ; he wears crested 
Athenian helmet, and holds in r. 
spear, in 1. large oval shield ; behind 
him, flaming altar; in front, forepart 
of sacrificial ram Ij'ing on its back ; in 
exergue [aEYKASPIS]; plain border. 
Dies of B.M. nos. 228-230 ; 

299 [SY]PA 1. Head of Athena 1., ( Star-fish (i.e. conventional star of 8 
wearing Korinthian helmet [bound j rays, the points joined by webbing) 
with wreath of olive] ; plain border. | between two dolphins ; [plain border]. 
JE 31mm. Wt. 27'29 grammes (421-1 grains). Litra. 

300 SYPA 1. Similar to preceding, 
but in front and behind, a dolphin ; 
plain border. 

JE '20 mm. Wt. 6-56 grammes (101 '3 grains) 

Bridled sea-horse 1., rein 
curved wing ; plain border. 


301 CY[PA] 1. Similar to preced- 
ing, but without dolphins. ! 

JE 19 mm. Wt. 6 57 grammes (101 '4 grains 

Dies of B.M. 289. 
Similar to preceding. 

302 SVPASnSIA 1. Head of 
Athena 1. wearing Korinthian helmet 
decorated with coiled serpent ; plain 

Sea-horse 1. with curved wing ; plain 

.^ 20 ram. Wt. 5'90 grammes (91 "1 grains). Cf. Imhoof-Blumer, Xtim. Zl. xviii. 
(1886) p. 277, no. 5. 

303 [sypakosiJhn 1 

Apollo 1. laureate, long hair ; behind, 
cornucopiae ; border of dots. 

B.C. 360—317. 

Head of SHTEIPA r. Head of Artemis r„ 
wearing stephane, triple-drop eari-ing, 


and necklace, quiver at shoulder ; be- 
hind, cornucopiae ; below, A ; border 
of dots. 
20 mm. Wt. 6-58 grammes (10>-6 grains). A has the form no. 14. [PI. VII.] 



304 Similar, but without legend, and I SYPAKr. osmNl. Tripod-lebes ; 
with symbol, Korinthian helmet 1. \ [plain border]. 

EL 15 mm. Wt. 3-54 grammes (54'6 grains). Obv. die of B.M. 259. 

305 [lEYJSEAEY 1. OEP[|os] r. I SYR A [KoJsinN around ; Pegasos 
Head of Zeus Eleutherios 1. laureate. ! flying 1.; in front mon. no. 17, below ■." 

A 13 mm. Wt. 2'11 grammes (32'6 grains). 30-litra pieee = 3 Korinthian staters. 
Dies of B.M. 265 (Holm, iii. p. 655, no. 309). [PI. VII.] 

Pegasos flying 1. 

306 [«]YPAKotinN r. Head of 
Athena r. wearing crested Korinthian 
helmet, with cap underneath. 

JR' 23 mm. Wt. 843 grammes (130'1 grains). Korinthian stater. Rev. die of B.M. 
(Catal. Cor. p. 98, no. 5). [PI. VIII.] 

307 Female head 1., wearing ear- 
ring and necklace, hair rolled and in 
bunch over forehead ; behind, lion's 
head 1. ; below, E Y 

Ji^ 13 mm. Wt. 1-24 grammes (19'1 grains). Dies of B.M. no. 274; obv. die of 

308 SYPAKoS 1. IHN r. Beard- 
less janiform head, laureate, wearing 
kalathos, hair in long plait ; in field r., 
dolphin ; border of dots. 

2£i 14 mm. Wt. 1"56 grammes (24'1 grains). 

SYPAK [oSl]flN around ; forepart 
of Pegasos 1. with curved wing. 

Free horse cantering 1. ; above, star ; 
plain border. 

Dies of B.M. no. 285. [PI. VIII. ] 

Pegasos flying 1. ; below, t. : border 
of dots. 

309 [SYPAKoI. €inNr.] Head 

of Kora 1., wearing triple-drop earring 

and necklace, hair rolled and bound 

with barley-wreath ; border of dots. 

JE 20 mm. Wt. 938 grammes (144-7 grains). Obv. die of B.M. 309 (Head, Syr. 
VI. VII. 5). 

310 [ijEYSEAl, E[y]OEPIoS r. i SYPA K osm [n] around; free 
Head of Zeus Eleutherios 1., laureate, i horse prancing 1. ; plain border. 

hair long. I 

JE 27 mm. Wt. 18-87 grammes (291-2 grains). 

311 I€YSEA EY GEPIOS around; 
head of Zeus Eleutherios r., laureate, 
hair short ; plain border. 

JE 26 mm. Wt. 14-07 grammes (217'1 grains). 

[SYP]AKo r. SIHN 1. Thunder- 
bolt ; in field r., eagle standing r. ; plain 

Pegasos flying 1. ; below AT ; plain 

312 SYPAKoSinN 1. Head of 
Apollo 1. laureate, long hair; behind, border, 
pentagram ; border of dots. 

JE 19 mm. Wt. 5-29 grammes (81-7 grains). 

313 Similar, but no symbol ; [border I Similar, but A 
of dots]. I 

JE 18 mm. Wt. 4-82 grammes (74-4'grains). Obv. die of B.M. 334. 



314 Head of Apollo or 
laureate ; behind, kantharos. 

First Series B.C. 317 

Ares 1., 


[SYPA] Ko ciriN r. and below; 
biga of galloping horses r.; charioteer 
holding goad in r., reins in 1. ; below 
horses, triskeles r. 

M 15 mm. Wt. 4'28 grammes (66'0 grains). 

[PI. VIII.] 

315 Head of KoraL, wearing wreath 
of barley, single earring and necklace. 

SYPAKo above, SlflN below in ex. 
Bull walking 1., head lowered. 

J^ 11 mm. Wt. 1 '39 grammes (21 '5 grains). 

[PI. VIII.] 

316 Head of Kora 1., hair rolled 
and wreathed with barley, wearing 
triple-drop earring and necklace ; 
around, three dolphins; below, traces 
of N I ; [border of dots ?]. 


mon. no. 18 "^ ^^^'"g^^' 

Fast quadriga 1., horses prancing, 
charioteer holding goad in r., reins in 
1. ; above, triskeles 1. ; border of dots. 

JR 24 mm. 

Wt. 17'12 grammes {264'2 grains). Tetradrachm. 

Obv. die of B.M. 
[PI. VIII.] 

Triskeles 1., the feet winged ; in 
centre, gorgoneion ; plain border. 

317 SYPAKoslflN 1. Head of 
Apollo or Ares 1., laureate ; [behind, 
uncertain symbol ; below, uncertain 
letters, A I ?] ; border of dots. 

J£, 20 mm. Wt. 5-86 grammes (90-4 grains). Obv. die of B.M. 354. 

318 ^YPAKoSinN 1. Head of 
Kora 1., wearing wreath of barley and 
necklace ; behind, barley-corn ; border 
of dots. I 

Wt. 878 grammes (135 '5 grains). 

Bull butting 1. ; above, dolphin 1. and 
N I , below, dolphin 1. ; plain border. 

^ 22 mm. 

319 Inscr. obliterated. Head of 
Kora 1., wearing wreath of barley and 
single earring; border of dots. 

JSi 20 mm. Wt. 5-53 grammes (85-4 grains). 

Bull butting 1. ; above, club and M 
in exergue N f ; plain border. 

Second Series B.C. 310 — 307. 

[ATAOoKAElog] Nike, nude to 
waist, standing r., erecting trophy ; in 
lowered r. hammer, in 1. nail which 
she is about to drive into helmet ; in 
field r. triskeles r., 1. mon. no. 18 ; 
[plain border ?]. 

j51 24 mm. Wt. 17"0 grammes (262'3 grains). Tetradrachm. 

Hobart Smith Sale (1897), (58). [PI. VIII.] 

320 [K]oPAS 1. Head of Kora r., 
long hair, wearing wreath of barley, 
single earring [and necklace] ; border 
of dots. 



321 KoPAS 1. Similar to preced- 
ing, necklace visible. 

As preceding, but without mono- 
gram ; border visible. 

JR. 27 mm. Wt. 16-66 grammes (•257-1 grains). Tetradrachm. [PI. VIII.] 

322 KoPAS 1. Head of Kora as 
on preceding ; border of dots. 

ATAOoKAEIoS ]. Nike erecting 
trophy as on preceding ; in field 1. tri- 
skeles r. : border of dots. 

.31 27 mm. Wt. 16'9 grammes (2608 grains). Tetradrachm. Style somewhat 
rude. [PI. VIII.] 

Third Series B.C. 306—289. 

323 Head of Athena r. in crested 1 ATAQoKAEoS | BASIAEo? | 
Korinthian helmet decorated with j mon. no. 19 ; winged thunderbolt, 
giiffin r. ; she wears single earring 1 

and necklace. | 

M 17 mm. Wt. 5-64 grammes (87-1 grains). Obv. die of B.M. 419. [PI. VIII.l 

324 SnTE[lPA] r. HeadofAr-j ATAOoKAEo? | BASIAEo? 
temis r. wearing earring and necklace, winged thunderbolt ; plain border. 
hair tied in bunch behind ; quiver 

behind shoulder ; border of dots. 

JE, 23 mm. Wt. 9'36 grammes (144 '5 grains). 

325 [snT]E[lPA] r. Similar to [ATJAOoKAEoS | [b]ASIAEoS 
preceding ; border off the flan. , Similar to preceding ; border off the 

I flan. 
JE 20 mm. Wt. 7.52 grammes (116'0 grains). 

SYPAKoSinN (inex.) Fastquad- 
riga 1., horses prancing, driven by Nike 
with goad in r., reins in 1. ; above, star. 

326 Head of Kora 1., long hair, 
wearing wreath of barley, earring and 
necklace ; behind, bee ; [border of 

M 24 mm. Wt. 11-98 grammes (184-9 grains). Obv. die of B.M. 436 ; rev. die of 
B.M. 437. For the attribution of these coins and tlie following to Agathokles, 
iste. Holm, Oench. Sic. iii. 685. 

Similar type to preceding, but to r. ; 
above, star; in exergue, mon. no. 19 

327 Traces of legend CYPAK OS I HN 
r. Similar head of Kora r. ; behind, 
flaming torch ; border of dots. j and X ; plain border. 

M 23 mm. Wt. 9-28 grammes (143-2 grains). 

B.C. 289—278. 

328 AIo[se]AAAN[|o]y 1. Beard- SYPAK r. ogmN 1. Eagle stand- 

less head of Zeus Hellanios 1., laureate, ing I. on thunderbolt, flapping wings ; 

with long hair ; behind, symbol obli- [ plain border, 

terated ? ; border of dots. | 

■X. 24 mm. Wt. 10 '06 grammes (155-2 grains). For the date of this and the follow- 
ing coin, «ee Holm, /of. cit. 


329 Alog[EAAANIoY] r. Similar | SYPAK r. ogiaN 1. Similar 
tyi^e r. ; no symbol ; border of dots. type ; in field 1. A and star ot six 

points ; plaia border. 
^ 24 mm. Wt. 8'42 grammes (129'9 grains). 

IIIKETAS, B.C. 287—278. 

330 [€]YPAKo?inN 1. Head of, EPIIKETA (in exergue). Biga r., 
Kora 1., hair rolled, wearing wreath of 1 horses prancing, driven by IS ike ; above 
barley, earring and necklace ; behind, j o, below o 

cornucopiae ; border of dots. | 

N 16 mm. Wt. 4-24 grammes (65-5 grains). Obv. die of B.M. 433-435 and Bank 
Coll. 15. After the latter and no. 434 were struck, this die became corroded ; 
after which it was used for the other coins. Rev. die of B.M. 430. 

From the Boym Sale (1896, 145). [PI. VIII.] 

PYERHOS, B.C. 278—276. 

331 Head of Athena r., in crested | nYPRoYl. BASIAEOS r. iSIike 
Korinthian helmet, decorated with advancing 1., in r. oak-wreath, in 1. 
giiffin; she wears earring and neck- < trophy; in field 1. bucranium (?) and 
lace ; behind, owl standing to front ; 1 thunderbolt ; border of dots. 

below, A ; border of dots. 

N 20 mm. Wt. 8-5grammeM131-l gi-ains). Obv. die of B.M. Catal. 7'Ac.Ma/y,&c. 
p. Ill, no. 1. From the Montagu Sale I. (326). [PI. VIII.] 

332 Head of Kora 1., hair long, ! SASIAEHSr. | PYPRoY 1. Athena, 

wearing crested helmet, aigis, chlaina 
and long chiton, standing to 1., in raised 
r. spear, on I., shield decorated with 
gorgoneion ; border of dots. 

JR 19 mm. Wt. 5'61 grammes (86'5 grains). From the Carfrae Sale (146). 

[PI. VIII.] 

333 Similar type; to r., behind, un- , BASIAEHS r. PYPPoY 1. Simi- 
certain symbol ; border of dots. lar type, but Athena's chlaina flies be- 
hind : in field 1., thunderbolt ; plain 

' border. 

JR 22 mm. Wt. 5'45 grammes (84-1 grains). Rev. die of B.M. Catal. Tkessaly, kc, 
p. 112, no. 9. 

wearing wjeath of barley, earring and 
necklace; beliind, flaming torch and 
A ; border of dots. 

334 Head of beardless Herakles 1., 
in lion's skin ; [border of dots]. 

SYPA r. KoSinN I. Athena, 
wearing crested helmet, chlaina and 
long chiton, standing r., in r. thunder- 
bolt, in 1. shield. 
JE 23 mm. Wt. 10"02 grammes (154 '6 grains). 

335 [SYPAKjoSinN r. Similar ' Similar type to preceding; in field 
type to preceding ; [border of dots]. r., owl standing r. ; i:)]ain border. 

JE 23 mm. Wt. ITS 1 grammes (174 "6 grains). 




336 Head of Kora 1., with long hair, 
wearing wreath of barley, earring and 
necklace ; behind, ear of barley ; 
border of dots. 

lEPQNo? below. Biga r., horses 
prancing, driven by female charioteer 
with goad in r., reins in 1. ; in field r. 
K I ; [plain border]. 


16 mm. Wt. 4'24 grammes (65'4 grains). Dies of B.M. 507. 
From the Boijne Sale (1896, 146). 

[PI. VIII,] 

337 Veiled head of Philistis 1., 
wearing diadem ; behind, torch. 

Aog in ex. Fast quadriga r., horses 
prancing, driven by Nike, who holds 
reins in both hands ; in field, below, 
E ; plain border. 

M 27 mm. wt. 13-47 grammes (207-9 grains). Obv. die of B.M. 546. cf) has the 
form no. 20. [PI. VIII.] 

338 Similar type ; behind, ear of 
barley ; border of dots. 

BASIAISSAS above, | c))IAI€TI- 
Ao? in ex. Qtiadriga as on previous 
coin ; above, K I , below, ear of barley ;, 
plain border. 

JR 26 mm. Wt. 13-22 grammes (204-0 grains). Obv. die of B.M. 548. <|) as on 
preceding. [PI. VIII.] 

339 Beardless diademed head 1. 1 SYPAKoSlol above, | rEAONoe 
(Gelon the younger) ; border of dots. i below, and in field r. BA Fast 

biga r., horses prancing, driven by 
Nike, who holds reins in both hands; 
below horses' legs, K ; plain border. 

Ji-\, 21 mm. Wt. 6-71 grammes (103-5 grains). 

From the Montaiju Sale o/1894, Dec. 11 (67). 

[PI. VIII.] 

340 Diademed head of Hieron 1. ; 
bonier of dots. 

[lEJPHNoS (in ex.) Horseman, 
wearing helmet, chJamys and cuiras.s, 
riding r., horse cantering ; he holds 
couched spear in r. ; plain border. 
M 27 mm. Wt. 17-94 grammes (276-9 grains). [PI. VIII.] 

341 Similar ; [but uncertain symbol [ Similar to preceding, but horse 
behind?]. 1 prancing; [under horse, letter obliter- 

I ated?] 
JS, 27 mm. Wt. 18-40 grammes (284-0 grains). Purchased at Syrakuse. 

342 Head of Poseidon 1. wearing 
tainia ; border of dots. 

[|]EP flN OS across field. Trident, 
on either side of which dolphin down- 
wards ; in field 1. below, "f ; [plain 

/£, 24 mm. Wt. 8-.59 grammes (132-5 grains). 

E 2 



343 Similar to preceding, 


I E P Q N o Z across field ; similar 
type and symbols ; in field below, A T ; 
plain border. 

19 mm. Wt. 4'85 grammes (74 "9 grains). 

344 Head of Apollo 1. laureate, 
with long hair ; behind, kithara. 

IE PON OS below; free horse pranc- 
ing r. ; above, AY. 

JS. 16 mm. Wt. .3-91 grammes (60-3 grains). Dies of B.M. 634. 

HIERONYMOS, B.C. 215—214. 

345 Head of Hieronymos 1., dia- 
demed ; border of dots. 


Winged thunderbolt. 

M '22 mm. Wt. 8-44 grammes (130-3 grains). Obv. die of B.M. 641. 

From the Montagu Sale 0/ Dec. 11, 1894 (68). [PL VIII.] 

346 Similar type ; [border of dots]. BASIAEoZ|(|)|o||EPnNYM[oY] 

Winged thimderbolt. 

■^ 21 mm. Wt. S'lT grammes (126'1 grains), d) has tlie form no. 20. 

B.C. 214 — 212.1 

347 Head of Athena 1. in crested : ZYPAKoZlflN r. Artemis standing 
Korinthian helmet adorned with ser- ! 1. wearing short chiton and hunting 
pent ; she wears earring and necklace ; boots, quiver slung at back, discharging 
border of dots. [ arrow from bow ; at her feet hound 

I running 1. ; in field 1. Ml ; plain border. 
JR 24 mm. Wt.. 10-14 grammes (156-5 grains). [PI. VIII.] 

347b. Head of Artemis 1., wearing 
earring and necklace, quiver at shoulder. 
Border of dots. 

ZYPAK'Zn r. ; owl standing to 
front ; in field 1. A Plain border. [Die 
of B.M. no. 665.] 

JR 11 mm. Wt. 101 grammes (17 grains). IJ litra. 

Sale 0/ 18-20 Mar. 1901 [Paris), 389. 

348 Head of Poseidon 1., wearing 
tainia ; [border of dots]. 

[ZYPA] KoZ[inN] across field. 
Trident, [on either side of which dol- 
phin downwards ; in fiehl beneath, un- 
certain letters ; plain border]. 
JE 20 mm. Wt. 6-31 grammes (97-4 grains). 

After B.C. 212. 

349 Head of Zeus r., laureate ; bor 
der of dots. 

ZYPAKo above, | ZIHN in ex. 
Agalma of Isis holding flaming torcli 
in slow quadriga r. ; border of dots. 

JE 25 mm. Wt. 13-29 grammes (-2051 grains). 

' For Syrakuse, No. 347a, see p. 151. 


350 Head of Sarapis r. wearing '' [SYPAK o ClflN] around. Isis 
tainia [and head-dress of disk and standing 1., [wearing headdress of disk 
horns] ; border of dots. j and horns, in r. sistriun], leaning with 

I 1. on sceptre ; border of dots. 

^ 20 mm. \Vt. 6'96 grammes (107'4 grains). Both forms S, C are clear on the 
British Museum specimens 701-703. 

Third Century B.C. 

351 Head of Apollo 1. laureate, long 
hair ; behind, club. Border of dots. 

TAYPOME l.| NITAN r. Tripod- 
lebes ; in field r., monogram (mostly off 
thfe flan). Plain border. 

jg' 10 mm. Wt. 1-09 grammes (16-8 grains). [PI. VIII.] 

TAYPOME 1. NITAN r. Tripod- 
lebes. Plain border. 

352 Head of Apollo r., laureate, 
long hair ; behind, star. Border of 

M 18 mm. Wt. 313 grammes (48-3 grains). Dies of B.M. 10. [PI. VIIL] 

353 APXATETA 1. Head of Apollo 1 TAYPoM ]. [eJnITAN r. Tripod- 
1. laureate, long hair. Border of dots. I lebes. Plain border. 

M 21 mm. Wt. 0-77 grammes (891 grains). [PI. VIII,] 

354 Head of Apollo 1. laureate, long I [TAYPo r. m]ENITAN 1. Tripod. 
hair ; behind, mon. no. 21 ? 1 Border of dots. 

JSi 23 mm. Wt. 11"58 grammes (178"7 grains). 

355 Head of bearded Herakles r., 
wearing tainia ; behind, mon. no. 4. 
Border of dots. 

TAY 1. PoMENITAN above. Bull 
butting r. Plain border. 

M 25 mm. Wt. 10-94 grammes (1688 grains). Obv. die of B.M. 34. [PI. VIIL] 



Before B.C. 430. 

356 Punic inscription hmtva (No. Crab; slightly concave field. 

22) above. Eagle standing r. Border 
of dots. 

JR 27 mm. Wt. 17-04 grammes (263-0 grains). Tetradrachm. Obv. die of B.M. 
p. 24.3, no. 1. From the Sale of "alate Collector" (1900, 28 May), la 110. 

[PI. VIII.] 

' For Tauromenion, No. .351a, see p. 151. 



Circa B.C. 430 — 397. 

I Punic inscription mtva r. and 1. 
I Date-palm. 
M 12 mm. Wt. -67 gramme (10-4 grains). Obol. [PI. VUL] 

357 Gorgoneion. 

{B) Ras Melkart (i.e. Herakleia Minoa or Kephaloidion). 
Circa B.C. 409 — 360. 

358 Head of Persephone r. wreathed 
with corn and wearing earring and 
necklace ; around, three dolphins. 
Border of dots. 

JR 26 mm. Wt. 1684 grammes ("ioO'S grains). Tetradrachm. Same rev. die as 
B.M. p. 251, no. 6. 

Fast quadriga r. ; above, Nike flying 
1., crowning the charioteer ; in exergue 
Phoenician inscription rsml k r t. Bor- 
der of dots. 

359 Head of Persephone 1. wreathed 
with corn and wearing earring ; around, 
three dolphins. 

Fast quadriga 1. ; above, Nike flying 
r., crowning the charioteer ; in exergue 
[Phoenician inscription r s m I h r t\. 
Double exergual line. 

JR' 23 mm. Wt. 16"69 grammes (257'6 grains). Tetradraclim. Same rev. die as 
B.M. p. 252, nos. 14, 16. [PI. VIII.] 

(C) Solus (Kafara). 
Circa B.C. 409 — 360. 

360 SoAon[TINon] r. Head of 
Herakles r., bearded, in lion's skin. 
Plain border. 

Phoenician inscr. kfr a above (left 
to right). Crayfish I. on its back, be- 
tween • • • 

JSi 21mm. Wt. 7 '07 grammes (109 "7 grains). Hemilitron. 

{D) With Inscription amhmchnt. 

[PI. VIII.] 

361 Head of young Herakles r. in 
lion's skin. 

j5l 25 mm. 

Phoenician inscr. (No. 23) below. 
Horse's head 1. ; behind, date-palm with 
fruit; in front, traces of uncertain 
Wt. 16-89 grammes (260-6 grains). Tetradrachm. [PI. VIII.] 

With Inscription ammcknt. 

362 Head of Persephone 1., wear- 
ing wreath of corn, earring and neck- 
lace ; around, four dolphins. 

Traces of Phoenician inscription, 
below. Horse's head 1. ; behind, date- 
palm with fniit ; in front, [triskeles]. 

J& 25 mm. Wt. 17 12 grammes (264-1 grains). Tetradrachm. Same dies as B.M. 
specimen (T. Combe, p. 74, no. 37). [PI. VIII.] 

363 Similar to preceding. Border I Similar to preceding, but inscription 
of dots I (No. 24) clear, no triskeles. Plain border. 

M, 28 mm. Wt. 16-85 grammes (•260-1 grains). Tetradrachm. [PI. IX.] 



{E) With Ikscription ziz. 
364 Female head r. wearing ampyx 
and plain necklace with leaf in front ; 
around, four dolphins (one off the flan) 
and the forepart of a fifth projecting 
from under the neck. Concave field. 

Circa B.C. 409 — 310.' 

Phoenician inscription ziz (No. 25) 
in exergue. Slow quadriga 1. ; above, 
Nike flying r., crowning the charioteer ; 
in exergue, mussel-shell. [Border of 

JR 27 ram. Wt. 17'31 grammes (267 '2 grains). Attic tetradrachm. Same rev. die 
as B.M. p. 247, no. 6. [PL IX.] 

365 Head of Persephone 1. wearing 
wreath of corn, earring and necklace ; 
around, four dolphins ; behind neck, 
swastika (No. 26) 

[Phoenician inscription ziz (in ex- 
ergue).] Fast quadriga 1. ; above, Nike 
flying r. crowning the charioteer ; above 
horses' heads, star of eight rays. 

■^ 24 mm. Wt. 16'84 grammes (2o9'9 grains). Tetradrachm. Same dies as B.M. 

p. 248, no. 1.3 ; same rev. die as B.M. p. 248, nos. 14-16. 

Phoenician inscr. ziz 
human-headed bull r. 

[PI. IX.] 
forepart of 

366 Head of young river god ? r., 
hair bound with tainia. Border of 

JR lOo mm. Wt. '78 gramme (12'0 grains). Litra. 

From the. Montagu Collection (II. 460). [PI. IX.] 

367 Similar type 1., without tainia ; l Phoenician inscr. sh haal ziz above 
behind, swastika (No. 20). Border of human-headed bull standing 1. Plain 


[Die of B.M. p, 249, no. 29.] 
JR lO'o mm 


[Die of B.M. p. 249, no. 29.] 

Wt. '55 gramme (8"5 grains). Litra. 

From the Alontagu Collection (II. 460). 

Circa B.C. 


Free horse cantering r. ; above, sign 
no. 27. Border of dots. 

(F) Uncertain Mints. 

368 Head of Persephone 1. wearing 
wreath of corn (?), earring, and neck- 
lace. Border of dots. | 

iV^ 10 mm. Wt. 1 "48 grammes (22-8 grains). Same dies as B.M. specimen (Cartilage, 
76-9-2-1). [PI. IX.] 

369 Date-palm with fruit. Border I Horse's head r. Border of dots. 
of dots. I 

A^ 7 mm. Wt. 1-03 grammes (15-9 grains). [PI. IX.] 

370 Head of Persephone 1., wearing 
wreath of corn, earring, and necklace. 
Border of dots. 

Free horse galloping r. before date- 
palm with fruit. 


2.1 mm. Wt. 1626 grammes (2,50'1 grains). 
specimen (Carthage, 41-7-26-2.S6). 


Same dies as B.M. 
[PI. IX.] 

Circa B.C. 300—252. 

371 Hephaistos seated r., in r. 
hammer, 1. holding kantharos on anvil. 
In fielil on either side, star. Border of 

JE 23 mm. Wt. 5'.38 grammes (83'0 grains), 

AIPAPAI above, HN in ex. Dol- 
phin 1. over conventional waves. Bor- 
der of dots. 

' For Siculo-Punic, No. 364a, see p 152. 










No. 407. 

No. 388. 

No. 407 



Circa B.C. 185—179. 

372 MA I hE and club (handle to 
1.) in centre of Makedonian shield. 

JR 15 mm. 

Makedonian helmet with cheek- 
pieces ; in field 1. above, men. no. 28, 
below, mon. no. 29 ; r. above, mon. no. 
30, below, star. 
Wt. 2'46 grammes (38-0 grains). Attic tetrobol. For the date, see 

Gaebler, Z.f. N. xx. p. 171 foil. 

[PI. IX.] 

Under the Romans. 
After B.C. 146. 

373 Makedonian shield, in centre of 
Avhich of Artemis r., wearing 
stephane ; bow and quiver at shoulder. 

-^ .30 mm. 

(handle to 1.); above, mon. no. 31, below, 
mons. nos. 32, 33 ; the whole in oak- 
wreath, outside which to 1. thunderbolt. 
Wt. 16-84 grammes (259-9 grains). Attic tetradrachm. [PI. IX.] 

As A Province. 

374 MAKE Ao[NaN] below. Head 
of Alexander the Great r., with long 
flowing hair and ram's horn. 


AESILLAS I a Club (handle up- 
wards), between chest with cover and 
handle (fiscus) on 1. and quaestorial 
seat {suhsellinm) on r. ; the whole in 
laurel-wreath, at top of which A 
30 mm. Wt. 16-39 grammes (2530 grains). Attic tetradrachm. [PI. IX.] 

Circa B.C. 500 — 424. 

375 Lion r., bringing down bull 
kneeling 1., head r. ; above, © ; exergual 
line marked by row of dots between 
parallel lines ; in exergue, flower. 
Border of dots. 

Quadripartite incuse square, 
middle of each quarter raised. 


M, 27 mm. Wt. 17-49 grammes (269 9 grains). Euboic tetradrachm. [PI. IX.] 



376 Head of Apollo, laureate, nearly 
facing, inclined to r. Border of dots. 

JR 25 mm. 


Circa B.C. 424 — 358. 

Raised square frame on which A M (J) 
I no AIT EHA/ ; within it race-torch, 
and below, on 1., tripod. The whole in 
shallow incuse square. 
Wt. 14'30 grammes (2207 grains). Phoenician tetradrachm. 

From the Bowen (1868, 433) aiul Bmibury (/. 660) Sales. 

[PI. IX.] 

Circa B.C. 500- 


Incuse square, quadripartite diagon- 

377 Naked Satyr, with long hair 
(dotted), bearded, ithyphallic, with 
horse's feet, to r., holding nymph by 
her r. wrist ;she has long hair (dotted), 
wears circular earring, and long chiton 
with kolpos, and runs to r., looking 1. 
In field, . • [,]. 

Si 23 mm. Wt. 9'69 grammes (1495 grains). Babylonic stater. 
From the Carfrae Sale (93). 

[PI. IX.] 

378 Gorgoneion. 


Circa B.C. 500 — 411. 

I Incuse square, quadripartite, approxi- 
I mating to mill-sail pattern. 
20 mm. Wt. 9-77 grammes (150'" giains). Babylonic stater. [PI. IX.] 


(Chalkidian League). 

Circa B.C. 392 — 379 or later. 

379 Head of Apollo L laureate. [X] A A above, KIA r., EHN 1. 

Seven-stringed kithara, with strap to r. 
JR 24 mm. Wt. 14-33 grammes (221-2 grains). Phoenician tetradrachm. [PI. IX.] 

380 Similar type r. Plain border. X A A Similar type ; traces 

z ^ of incuse square. 

^ 25 mm. Wt. 13-13 grammes (202-6 grains). Phoenician tetradrachm. [PI. IX.] 

[X] A A above, KIA r., • ECIN 1. 
Seven-stringed kithara, without strap. 
Incuse square. 
JR 14 mm. Wt. 2-36 grammes (36-5 grains). Phoenician tetrobol. [PI. IX.] 

380a Similar to preceding, but 
border of dots. 




^ ^ 



3 64 








37 6 


PI. IX. 



■; ,'-T-rl:> ^j-r- i-{^ 4 









3 52 









Circa B.C. 400 — 350. 

381 Head of Artemis r., wearing 
■earring and necklace, quiver behind 
shoulder ; border of dots. 

JSi 23 mm. 

oPoAro r. I PEHN 1. Helmet 
adorned with volutes to front, with side 
plumes and cheek-pieces ; above, star, 
below, mon. no. 34. Border of dots. 
\Vt. 9'87 grammes (152"1 grains). Babylonic stater. [PI. IX.] 

B.C. 413—399- 

AP[X]E above, AA o r. Horse walk- 
ing r., with loose rein trailing ; square 
linear boKler, in incuse square. 

2.3 mm. \Vt. 10'44 grammes (161 "1 grains). Babvlonic stater. 

From the Bunhury Collection (I. 689). [PI. IX.] 

382 Beardless male head r., wearing 
tainia. Border of dots. 



B.C. 389—383. 381- 

383 Head of bearded Herakles r.. 


AMYN above, TAr. Horse standing 
in lion's skin. I r.; square linear border, in incuse square. 

JR 21 mm. Wt. 9 32 grammes (1439 grains). Babylonic stater. Head (H.N. p. 
195) gives this class of coins to the first reign of Amyntas III. [PI. IX.] 


B.C. 359—336 

(j)IAinPoYinex. Fast biga r., horses 

prancing, charioteer holding goad in r., 

reins in 1. ; below horses, head of 


18 mm. Wt. 8o7 grammes (1.32-2 grains). Stater. Cf. Mueller, 59 (Amphi- 

[Pl. IX.] 

384 Head of Apollo or Ares r., 
laureate, with short hair, in unusually 
high relief. 


polis). d) has the form no. 35. 

385 Head of Zeus r., laureate. Bor- 
•der of dots. (Restruck.) 

(f)IAIP 1. PoY r. Nude jockey on 
horse walking r. ; he holds in r. palm- 
branch, in 1. rein ; below horse, thunder- 
bolt ; in ex. N Plain border. 

Hi, 25 mm. Wt. 14'49 grammes (223"6 grains). Phoenician stater. Cf. Mueller, 11 
(Pella). [PI. IX.] 

386 Similar. (Restruck.). 

(jJlAin r., PoY 1. Rider, wearing 
chlamys and kausia, on saddled horse 
walking 1., his r. hand raised, reins in 
1. ; below horse, star of 10 rays. Plain 


26 mm. Wt. 14'33 grammes (221 '1 grains). 

Phoenician stater. Cf. Mueller, 92 
[PI. IX.] 




387 Head of Athena r. in crested 
Korinthian helmet, adorned with coiled 
serpent ; she wears earring and neck- 

[Die of B.M. specimens (Payne 
Knight, p. 78, B. 36 and Lang 71-11- 


19 mm. Wt. 8'52 giammes (131 o gi-ains). Stater. 
coins are probably of Syrian origin. 

Nike, wearing long chiton, standing L, 
in extended r. wreath, in 1. trophj'- 
stand ; in field 1. mon. no. 36 in wreath, 
r. mon. no. 37. 

[Die of B.M. specimens (as reff. for 

Cf. Mueller, 723. These 
[PI. IX.] 

388 Head of young Herakles r., in 
lion's skin. Border of dots. 


AAEZANAPOY r. Zeus, nude to 
waist, seated 1. on throne with back ; 
on extended r., eagle r., 1. leaning on 
sceptre ; in field 1. thunderbolt ; under 
throne ? Border of dots. 
27 mm. Wt. 1 7 '07 grammes (263-4 grains). Attic tetradrachm. (Pella?) 

389 Similar, but border (if any) off 
the flan. 


below. Similar type ; in field 1. mon. 
no. 36 in wreath, under throne H 
Border of dots. 

27 mm. Wt. 16'98 grammes (2620 grains). Attic tetradrachm. Cf. Mueller, 
714. Probably Syrian. P has the form 38. [PI. IX.] 

390 Similar type to preceding. 
Border of dots. 

AAEZANAPo[y] r. Similar type, 
but no back to throne ; in field 1. mon. 
no. 39, below throne, bipennis. Bor- 
der of dots. 

JR 28 mm. Wt. 16-58 grammes (255-8 grains). Attic tetradrachm. Cf. Mueller, 
1136. (Karia.) 

391 As preceding. 

AAEZANAPOY r. Similar type, 
back to throne ; in field 1. date-palm, 
under throne mon. no. 40. 

-51 29 mm. Wt. 17-12 grammes (264-2 grains). Attic tetradrachm. Cf. Mueller, 
1380. (Arados.) [PI. IX.] 

392 As preceding. 

JR '26 mm. 

AAEIANAPo[y] Similar type to 

preceding; in field 1. mens. nos. 41, 

42, anchor with stem to r., and 

forepart of grazing horse ; below 

throne, Z-n. Border of dots. 

Wt. 17-07 grammes (263-4 grains). Attic tetradrachm. Cf. Mueller, 
Struck in Babylon. See Imhoof-Blumer, Num. Zt. xxvii. p. 15. 

[PI. IX.] 



B.C. 323 — 316. 

393 Head of young Herakles r. in 
lion's skin. Border of dots. 

4)IAinnoY r, BACIAEflS below. 
Zeus, nude to waist, seated 1. on throne 
with back ; on extended r., eagle r., 1. 
resting on sceptre ; in field 1. mon. no. 
43 ; under throne mon. no. 44. Border 
of dots. 

IR 28 mm. Wt. 17-31 grammes (267'1 grains). Attic tetradrachm. Cf. Mueller, 
113. [PI. IX.] 


First Series; circa B.C. 316 — 306. 

[K] AC SAN above, 1 and in ex. APoY 
Lion couchant r. ; in ex., star of eight 
points. Border of dots. 
JE, 18 mm. Wt. 4-56 grammes (70 '3 grains). 

394 Head of young Herakles r. in 
lion's skin. Border of dots. 

Second Series ; circa B.C. 306 — 297. 

395 Similar to preceding. 

BASIAEnS above, | KASSAN- 
below. Jockey on horse walking r., 
r. raised, 1. holding reins; in field 
r. A ? below mon. no. 45. Border 
of dots. 

JE 20 mm. Wt. 7 04 grammes (108-7 grains). 

396 Similar to preceding. 

AP 'Y below. Similar to preceding, 
but in field r. A I, below mon. no. 46. 
JEi 22 mm. Wt. 5-53 grammes (85-3 grains). 

397 Head of Apollo 
Border of dots. 


Tripod-lobes; in field 1. mon. no. 47, 
r. caduceus. Border of dots. 

JE, 20 mm. Wt. 6-35 grammes (98 grains). 


B.C. 306 — 301. 

398 Head of young Herakles r. in B A above, mon. no. 48, and 

lion's skin. Border of dots. l another letter or symbol (off the flan) 

! below ; jockey on horse walking r. ; 
his r. raised, 1. holding rein. 

JE 19 mm. Wt. 479 grammes (74-0 giains). 



B.C. 306—283. 

399 Nike standing 1. on prow, 
blowing salpinx ; in 1. she holds spear ? 
Border of dots. 

across lower field ; Poseidon, nude, seen 
from beliind, advancing 1. ; with r. 
wields trident, chlamys wrapped round 
1. arm ; in field 1. bipennis (no. 49), 
between legs mon. no. 37. Border of 

JR 28 mm. Wt. 16"65 grammes (256'9 grains). Attic tetradrachm. 

[PI. X.] 

400 Head of Demetrios r., dia- 
demed, with bull's horn. Border of 


JR 28 mm. 

Poseidon, nude, standing 1., r. foot on 
rock, r. arm resting on r. knee, 1. rest- 
ing on trident ; in field 1. trident (no. 
50), r. monogram (off the flan). Border 
of dots. 
Wt. 16-98 grammes (2620 grains). Attic tetradrachm. [PI. X.] 

401 Similar to preceding 


Similar type to preceding ; in field 1. 
trident (no. 50), r. mon. no. 51. Bor- 
der of dots. 
32 mm. Wt. 17-03 grammes (262-8 grains). Attic tetradrachm. [PI. X.] 


B.C. 277—239. 
OR BOSON, B.C. 229—220. 

402 Head of Poseidon r., wearing 
wreath of marine plant Border of 

[Die of Bunbury specimen I. 822 
now in B.M.] 


prow of galley 1., on which is seated 
Apollo nude 1., 1. resting on his seat, r. 
holding bow; in field r. star; below, 
mons. nos. 52, 53. 

M 32 mm. Wt. 17-02 grammes (262-6 grains). Attic tetradrachm. [PI. X.] 

403 Makedonian shield, in centre of 
which head of young Pan 1 , lagobolon 
behind shoulder. 

M 33 mm. 

Athena standing 1., wearing crested 
helmet, aigis, chlaina and long chiton ;. 
in r. thunderbolt, in 1. shield adorned 
with gorgoneion in middle of aigis; in 
field 1. crested helmet to front, r. mon. 
no. 37. 

^Vt. 17-09 grammes (2637 grains). Attic tetradrachm. [PI. X.] 





B.C. 220 179. 

404 Makedonian shield ; in centre, 
head of hero Perseus, beardless, 1., 
wearing bonnet winged and adorned 
with giiffin's head ; harpe over 

BAZIAEHE I 4)IAirnoY Club, with 
handle 1. ; the whole in oak-wreath, 
outside which, on 1., uncertain letter. 

J^ ,S1 mm. Wt. 16-58 grammes (255'9 grains). Attic tetradrachm. 

[PI. X.] 

405 Head of Philip V. r., slightly 
bearded, wearing diadem. 

BAZIAEHZ [ ((jIAIPnoY and 

above, mon. no. 54, below, mons. nos. 
I 55, 56. Similar type to preceding; 
outside wreath, on 1., trident. 

JR 25 mm. Wt. 7 88 grammes (121 '6 grains). Attic didrachm. Cf. Gaebler, 
Z.f. N. xx.,p. 171, no. vi., PI. VI. 6. 

From the Montagu Sale II. 142. 

406 Similar to preceding. 


Similar to preceding, but above, 
mon. no. 54, below, mons. nos. 30, 57, 
and outside wreath on 1., star. 

19 mm. Wt. .386 grammes (59'o grains). Attic drachm. Cf. Gaebler, ihid. 
no. vii. From the Montagu Sale II. Ii2. [PI. X.] 

Similar to preceding, but above, 
mon. no. 5, below, mons. nos. lo, 58, 
and outside wreatli on 1., caduceus. 

16 mm. Wt. 1'97 grammes (30-4 grains). Attic hemidrachm. Cf. Gaebler, 
ibid. no. x. From the Montagu Sate II. 142. 

407 Similar to preceding. 


408 Head of young Herakles r. in BA above, | <J) below. Two goats- 

lion's skin. couchant r. ; in field below, crescent- 

i and ear of barley. 

JE 2.3 mm. Wt. 6 97 grammes (107-6 grains). 

[PI. X.] 

B.C. 178—168. 

409 Head of Perseus r., slightly 
bearded, wearing diadem. 

below. Eagle, flapping wings, standing 
astride to r. on thunderbolt ; above 
mon. no. 59, to r. mon. no. 60, be- 
tween legs mon. no. 61 ; the whole in. 
wreath, outside which, below, plough. 

A\ 30 mm. Wt. l.")r>l grammes (2.30\3 grains). Attio tetradrachm. 

From the Montagu Sale of Dec. 11, 1894, 132. [PI. X.]; 





Circa B.C. 359—340- 

410 Head of Apollo (Derronaios) r. 
laureate, hair short. Border of dots. 

AYK KEIYo (sic) above. Herakles, 
nude, 1. strangling lion ; in field r., bow 
and quiver with strap. 

JR- 24 mm. Wt. 12'61 grammes (194 6 grains). Debased Phoenician tetraclrachm. 
For the name of Apollo, nee Th. Reinach, Rev. Num. 1897, p. 123. [PI. X.] 


Circa B.C. 340 — 315. 

411 Head of Apollo (Derronaios) r., 
laureate, hair short. Border of dots. 

PA T P A o Y above. Horseman, wear- 
ing crested helmet and cuirass, riding r. 
over prostrate enemy, at whose shield 
he strikes with spear held in r. ; the 
enemy wears kausia and holds in 1. 
Makedonian shield. 

.5v 25 mm. Wt. 12'67 grammes (193'6 grains). Debased Plioenician tetraclrachm. 

[PI. X.] 

Circa B.C. 315—286. 

412 Head of Athena, nearly facing, 
inclined to r., wearing low triple-crested 
helmet, and necklace, hair in two long 
plaits falling on neck. Border of dots 
[Die of B.M. 4-6.] 

AYAjt-AE«NT above, • ? r. Free 
horse walking r. ; below mon. no. 62. 

JR 25 mm. Wt. 12 '33 grammes (190 '3 grains). Debased Phoenician tetradrachm. 

[PI. X.] 


No. 414. 



Circa B.C. 450 — 430 

413 KA a AIA A/v\A S around. 
Griffin with curved wing seated 1. on 
small fish, r. fore-leg raised. Border 
of dots. [Die of B.M. no. 19.] 

JR' 26 mm. Wt. 14-96 grammes (230'8 grains). Phoenician tetradrachm. 

From the Buahiiry Sale I. 5()3. [PI. X.] 

No. 426a. 

I ABA HP ITE CLN in shallow in- 
cuse square ; in the centre, quadri- 
j partite square. 


Circa B.C. 408 — 350 

414 A BAH above, [and in ex. 
PITEHN] Griffin with straight wing 
seated 1., r. fore-leg raised. Border 
of dots. 

JR 15 mm. Wt. 2*49 grammes (38"5 grains). Babylonic triobol 

[E]ni Air IA[a] En[s] around 
linear square, in which head of Apollo 
r. laureate. 

415 Head of Hermes r., wearing 
close fitting petasos with narrow brim, 
adorned with row of dots. 


Circa B.C. 450 — 400. ' 

A I N [1 ?] above. Goat standing r. ; 
in field r. terminal figure of Hermes r. on 
throne ; the whole in incuse square. 

JR, 25 mm. Wt. lo'66 grammes (241 '7 grains). Light Euboic tetradrachm. [PL X.] 

416 Similar, but of freer style ; hair j A I N I above. Similar, but symbol 
curly. I in field r. caduceus. 

JSi 2o mm. Wt. 16 30 grammes (251-6 grains). Light Euboic tetradrachm. [PI. X.] 

Circa B.C. 400 — 350. 

417 Head of Hermes nearly facing, I [aJiNI N above. Goat walking r. 
inclined to 1., in similar petasos. | The whole in incuse square. 

JR 25 mm. Wt. 16'18 grammes (249'7 grains). Light Euboic tetradrachm. 

From the Carfrae. Sale 128. [PI. X.] 

Circa B.C. 450 — 330. 

418 Anchor, stem downwards ; in i Gorgoneion with fringe of serpents, 
field r. A, 1. cray-fish. | Concave field. 

JR 19 mm. Wt. 3'25 grammes (50"1 grains). Phoenician drachm. [PI. X.] 

419 Similar. I Gorgoneion with fringe of serpents. 

Si 15 mm. Wt. 3'20 grammes (49'4 grains). Phoenician drachm. From the 
Monlaijii Sale II. 246, with the four following coins. 

420 Similar, but in field r. cray- 1 Gorgoneion with fringe of serpents, 
fish, 1. A I Field slightly concave. 

JR 14 mm. Wt. 3'24 grammes (50'0 grains). Phoenician draclim. 

421 Similar to preceding, but letter I Gorgoneion with fringe of serpents, 
on 1. uncertain. I 

JR 13 mm. Wt. 3-27 grammes (50-4 grains). Phoenician drachm. 

422 Similar to preceding, but letter Gorgoneion of less grotesque style, 
on 1. A 

Ai 14 mm. Wt. 2-82 grammes (43 '5 grains). Phoenician drachm. [PI. X.] 

^ For Ainos, No. 416a, see p 152. 



423 Head of Apollo facing, laureate. I Anchor, stem downwards; in field 

I r. cray-fish, 1. A Concave field. 
J^ 11 mm. Wt. 1-28 grammes {19-8 grains). Phoenician dioboL [PI. X.] 


Circa B.C. 400 — 350. 

Mill-sail incuse, surfaces granu- 

[PI. X.] 

424 TY above. Bull standing 1 
on dolphin, r. fore-leg raised. 

JSi 19 mm. Wt. 5'30 grammes (81 "8 grains). Babylonian drachm 

Circa B.C. 350 — 280 

424a Above TY Bull standing I. 
on dolphin, r. fore-leg raised ; in field 1. 

JR 24 mm. Wt. 1484 grammes (229 grains). Phoenician tetradrachm. [PI. X.] 

Incuse square of mill-sail pattern, 
the surface granulated. 

425 Head of Demeter r. veiled, 
wearing wreath of barley. 

Second Century B.C. 

EniSCJ)oAP[lA] below. Poseidon, 
nude to waist, seated r. on rock, in r. 
aphlaston, in 1. trident over 1. shoulder ; 
in field r. T and g 

JR 28 mm. Wt. l.S'So grammes (209'1 grains). Phoenician tetradrachm. 
From the Montagu Sale of Dec. 11, 1894, 87. 

Circa B.C. 42. 

426 KoZ-n-N ia ex. The consul 
Brutus between two lictors with fasces 
walking 1. ; in field 1. mon. no. 63. 
Border of dots. 

[Die of B.M. p. 208 no. 1]. 

N 20 mm. Wt. 8 '29 grammes (128-0 grains). Stater. For a possible attribution 
see Kubitschek, MonatKhl. d. mini. Gesellich. ill Wien, 1897. [PI. X.] 

From the Montaijii Sale (II. 174.) 

Eagle, flapping wings, standing 1. on 
1. leg on sceptre, r. raised holding 
wreath. Border of dots. 

[Die of B.M. p. 208 no. 1]. 


Circa B.C. 400 — 350. 

Er[l] IH Hn NO? around a linear 
square containing vine with four 
bunches of grapes; the whole in incuse 

jH 2.S-.5 mm. Wt. 10'48 grammes (1617 grains). Persic tetradrachm. 

426a ma below; prancing horse 
with trailing rein. 


Second Century B.C. 

427 Head of young Dionysos r. as 
on coin of Thasos (no. 429). 

M 30 mm. 

aIoNYZoY r., [ZjriTHPoZ 1., 
MAPHNUriN in ex. Young Diony- 
sos, nude, standing to front, looking 1., 
in r. bunch of grapes, chlamys wrapped 
round 1. arm, in 1., two spears ; in field 
1. mon. no. 64, r. mon. no. 6-5. 

Wt. 1611 grammes (248'6 grains). Attic tetradrachm. [PI. X.] 



Circa B.C. 411 — 350. 

O A C I Two amphorae side by 
side, that on 1. inverted ; incuse square. 

428 Janiform head of bearded bald 

j5l 15 mm. Wt. 1-49 grammes (23'0 grains). Phoenician hemidrachm. [PI. XL] 

429 Head of young Dionysos r., 
wearing band across forehead and 
wreath of ivy with two bunches of 
flowers ; hair in knot behind and in 
two long plaits on neck. 

Second Century B.C. 


ZniHPoZ 1., 
GAZIHN in ex. Herakles, nude, 
standing to front, looking 1. ; r. resting 
on club, lion's skin over 1. arm, 1. hand 
on hip ; in field 1. mon. no. 66. 

[PI. XI.] 

JR, .32 mm. Wt. 15'1 grammes (2.33'() grains). Attic tetradrachm. 

B.C. 323—281. 

430 Head of Alexander the Great r,, 
diademed, with ram's horn. 

Athena seated 1., wearing crested 
Korinthian helmet; in r. Nike flying 
1. with wreath, 1. resting on lap ; lean- 
ing against her seat, shield adorned 
with lion's head (?) ; in field 1. mon. 
no. 67. 

JR 29 mm. Wt. 16-98 grammes (262-1 grains). Attic tetradrachm. Cf. Mueller, 
no. 320. 

431 Similar type. Border of dots. Similar ; lion's head clear ; in field 

1. mon. no. 68, r. mon. no. 69 ; in ex. 
mon. no. 70. 

■"^ 30 mm. Wt. 17-2 grammes (26.5-4 grains). Attic tetradrachm. Cf. Mueller, 
no. 539. [PI. XL] 

432 Similar type to preceding. No | Similar to preceding; in field 1. mon. 
border, | no. 71, r. uncertain symbol. 

A^. 31 mm. Wt. 168 grammes (259-2 grains). Attic tetradrachm. 




B.C. 196—146. 

433 Head of Zeus r. crowned with 

[K]AEin no[i] above, [r]oprn 

n[AZ] in ex., BEZZA 1., AHN r. 
Athena Itonia fighting r. ; wearing 
crested hehnet, chlaina and chiton ; in 
r., spear, on 1., shield. 

J^ 20"5 mm. Wt. 6'41 gvamnies (94 7 grains). Double Victoriatus. CI has the 
form no. 15. [PI. XI.] 

434 Head of Apollo r. laur., with 
long hair ; behind mon. no. 54. 

©ECS A 1., AHN r. Athena Itonia 
as on preceding ; in field 1. FI r. o 

A Y 

JR 18 mm. Wt. 4-26 grammes (65'7 grains). Attic drachm. 
From the Carfrae Sale (140). 

[PI. XL] 

B.C. 168—146. 

AINIANHN 1. K AEITo//// r. 
Slinger (Phemios) slinging to r., 
clilamys wrapped round 1. arm, two 
javelins beside him ; he wears short 
sword at his side. 
JR 25 mm. Wt. "'63 grammes (117 '7 grains). Attic didrachm. [PI. XI.] 

435 Head of Athena r., wearing 
crested Athenian helmet adorned with 
four foreparts of horses, Pegasos, and 
floral ornament. Border of dots. 

436 PEPIKAE 1. Head of Athena r. 
in crested Korinthian helmet, adorned 
with griffin (?) r. 

JR 19 mm. Wt. 2'46 grammes (37 '9 grains). Aiginetic hemidrachm 

[A]lNIAN-rLN I. Similar type to 
preceding; in field r., ear of barley. 

[PI. XL] 

B.C. 400 — 344. 

437 Head of young Dionysos 1., long- 
hair, wearing wreath of ivy. 

A AM IE 1., n.A/ r. Amphora; 
above, ivy-leaf; in field r., oinochoe ; 
field concave. 

-Av 16 mm. Wt. 277 grammes (428 grains). Aiginetic liemidrachm. 

From the Sale 0/ " a late Collector," 1900 (251). [PI. XL] 

438 Similar to preceding. 

Similar to preceding. 

■^ 11 mm. Wt. '89 gramme (13 '8 grains). Aiginetic obol. Purchased witli the 
preceding coin. [PI. XL] 



B.C. 300 — 190. 

439 Head of nymph r., hair rolled, 
wearing earring and necklace. 

JEi 17 mm. 

A AM IE 1., J^N above. Herakles 
nude, beardless, kneeling r. on r. knee, 
discharging arrow from bow ; behind 
him, club ; before him, two birds ; 
concave field. 
Wt. 1 '72 grammes (26 "6 grains). Aiginetic diobol. 

Circa B.C. 450 — 400 

440 Youth l.,chlamysover shoulders, 

petasos behind neck, restraining bull 
by means of band passed round its 
horns ; in front and between his legs, 
plants growing ; in ex., [To] Border 
of dots. 

[Die of B.M. nos. 18, 19.] 

JS, 2(J mm. Wt. .■)-96 grammes (92-0 grains) 

A A above, A?n below ; bridled 
horse galloping r. ; incuse square. 

Aiginetic drachm. 

[PI. XL] 

441 Similar type to preceding, but 
without plants ; the youth is carried off 
his feet, and his chlamys [and petasos] 
fly behind. Border of dots. 

[From the same hand as B.M. no. 

JSi 19 mm. Wt. o'8.5 grammes (90%S grains). Aiginetic drachm. 

Circa B.C 

A API above, ? AIA below; bridled 
horse galloping v., loose rein trailing ; 
incuse square. 

[Die of B.M. no. 33.] 

[PI. XL] 

442 Head of nymph Larisa r., hair 
in opisthosphendone, wearing earring. 
Border of dots. In front of head, 
graffito KAEI 

[Die of B.M. nos. 51, 52.] 

• 400— 344- 

AAP[l] above, CAI A below. 
Bridled horse galloping 1., loose rein 
trailing ; traces of incuse square. 

[Die of B.M. no. 51.] 

JR 20 mm. Wt. .5'9,) grammes (91 8 grains). Aiginetic drachm. The state of the 
flaws in the die of the obverse sliows that this coin was struck after B.M. no. 
.)2, and just before B.M. no. .51. [PI. XL] 

AAPI above, t. r., ] [AIHN in ex.] ; 
bridled horse stepping r. [From the 
same hand, but not from the same die, 
as B.M. no. 55.] 

442a Head of nymph Larisa, three- 
quarter face to I., wearing earrings, 
necklace, and ampyx ; 
Border of dots. 

[Same die as B.M. no. 55.] 

JR 25 mm. Wt. 11-9.3 grammes (1841 grains). Aiginetic stater. 

hair flowing. 

443 Similar to preceding. 

JR 20 mm. 

Inscription obliterated, 
ing r. ; beside it, foal r. 
Wt. 5 '59 grammes (86 '2 grains). Aiginetic drachm. 

Mare walk- 

444 Similar to preceding. 


A APIS above, AlOA/ in ex. Horse 
jn-azing r. Concave field. 
21mm. Wt. 5-97 grammes (92 "2 grains). Aiginetic drachm. [PI. XL] 



445 Similar to preceding. | Similar to preceding. 

.51 20 mm. Wt. 5"9.J grammes (91 8 grains). Aiginetic tliaclim. 
From the Montaiju Sale II. 179. 

446 Similar to preceding. 

[PI. XI.] 

AAPISAI in ex. Horse grazing r. ; 

under belly A I 

J^ "21 mm. Wt. 6 '08 grammes (9.3'9 giains). Aiginetic drachm. Cf. B.M. no. 6'2. 
F>-om the Montayu Sale II. 179. 

B.C. 400 — 394. 

447 Beardless male head r., with (|)AAA NN AIHN around. Bridled 
short hair. Border of dots. horse walking r. ; below its feet acorn ? 

and mon. no. 72. 

.51 20 mm. Wt. 509 grammes (785 grains). Aiginetic ilrachm. 

From the Carfrue Sale 140. [PI. XI.] 

B.C. 480 — 400. 

448 Youth r., wearing clilamys, 
petasos flying behind, restraining bull 
by means of band passed round its 
horns; only forepart of bull is shown. 
Border of dots. 

.51 17 mm. Wt. 2'86 grammes (44"1 grains). Aiginetic drachm. 

Circa B.C. 480 — 400. 

4) A Forepart of horse galloping r. ; 
>| R traces of incuse square. 

[PI. XL] 

449 Head of Athena r., wearing 
crested Athenian helmet (adorned 
with serpents), earring and necklace. 

J^ 15 mm. Wt. 3'38 grammes (53"2 grains). Aiginetic hemidrachm. 

4) AR 

r. Horse's head r. ; incuse 

[PI. XL] 

Circa B.C. 400 — 344. 

(f) A P S around. Horseman r., 
wearing petasos, chlamys flying behind, 
and chiton, on prancing horse ; he holds 
whip in r. over shoulder ; concave 

19'5 mm. Wt. 5-77 grammes (89'0 grains). Aiginetic draclim. 

450 Head of Athena r., wearing 
crested Athenian helmet, adorned with 
wing and serpent, and earring. 



First Century B.C. 

451 Head of Apollo 1. laur., hair in [a] n o A across field; [TIJmHN | 

long plaits; in front ANAPiTiNoS [ANAJPo in ex. Three nymphs hand 
.Border of dots. in hand, the outer ones holding torches, 

dancing round a fire. Border of dots. 

A\ 19 nun. Wt. 3-89 grammes (601 grains). Denarius. For the names on the 
rev. cf. the coin from the Bunbury Collection (I. 853, no. 2). [PI. XL] 






Fourth Century B.C. 

452 Cow standing r., suckling calf. Two oblong stellate patterns side be- 

side, within double linear square ; 
around it A Y P and club (handle 
downwards) ; the whole in linear 

JR 20 mm. Wt. 10-7.3 grammes (165-6 grains). Korkyraian stater. From the 
Carfrae Sale (14-2), witli tlie following coin. [PI. XI.] 

453 Similar to preceding. 

Similar to preceding, but the two 
patterns one above the other ; incuse 

J^ 22-5 ram. Wt. 10-78 gramme.s (166-4 grains). Korkyraian stater. 



454 Head of Apollo r. laureate, 
hair short. Border of dots, inter- 
rupted by neck. 

Fourth Century B.C. 
KH(j)l 1., 

AAMACT on basis, 
I A/ HA/ r. Tripod-lebes on basis. 

M, 26-oram. Wt. 13-11 grammes (-202-3 grains). Phoenician stater. [PI. XI.] 


B.C. 238—168. 

AHEI I PHTAN Bull butting r. ; 
the whole in oak -wreath, below which 
club, handle 1. [Die of B.M. no. 11.] 

455 Heads, jugate r., of Zeus Dodo- 
naios, crowned with oak, and Dione, 
wearing laureate Stephanos, veil, and 
decorated chiton ; behind mon. no. 71. 
Border of dots. [Dies of B.M. nos. 10, 

JR 28-5 mm. Wt. 9-77 grammes (150-8 grains). Korkyraian tetradrachm ? 

[PI. XL] 

456 Head of Zeus Dodonaios r., 
crowned with oak ; in front AYKISKo? 
Border of dots. 

AHEI 1., I PDTAN r. Eagle stand- 
ing r. on thunderbolt ; the whole in 
oak- wreath. 

JR, 22 mm. Wt. 3-42 grammes (528 grains). Victoriatus. 

457 Heads jugate r. of Zeus and 
Dione as on no. 45.5 ; behind mon. no. 
40. Border of dots. 

AHEI I P^TAH Thunderbolt; 

the whole in oak-wreath. 

18 nmi. Wt. 3-13 grammes (48-3 grains). Victoriatus. A lias the form 
no. 14. [PI. XL] 



458 Head of Dione r., wearing 
laureate Stephanos and veil ; behind, 
mon. no. 61, in front, B ? 

JE 17"o mm. Wt. 4-89 grammes (7o-4 grains). 

AHEI ]., I P/xTAN r. Tripod- 
lebes; the whole in laurel wreath. 



Circa B.C. 432—342. 

Xo. 4o'Ja. 

459 Pegasos, with straight wing, 
flying 1. ; below, A 

Head of Athena 1. in Korinthian 
helmet worn over leather cap ; behind, 
owl standing to front ; concave field. 
-^ 22'o mm. Wt. 8'31 grammes (1'283 grains). Korinthian stater. [PL XI.] 

Circa B.C. 238—168. 

459a Head of Dione 1. laureate and A 1., M r 

veiled ; border of dots. with fillet 

-i" 17'5mm. Wt. 3'25 grammes (o0-2 grains). Victoriatus 

B.C. 342—326. 

Obelisk on base, bound 
the whole in laurel- 

460 Head of Zeus Dodonaios r., 
crowned with oak ; below P or P 

AAE5ANAPOY above, |ToYNEo 
PToAEMoY below. Thunderbolt; 
concave field. 

-dl 23'5 mm. Wt. 10'93 grammes (168"6 grains). Korkyraian stater. [PI. XL] 
[For coins of Pyrrhos, see under Syrakuse.] 


Circa B.C. 300 — 229. 

Two oblong stellate patterns, one 
above the other, enclosed in linear 
oblong, to 1. bunch of grapes and K, 
r. kantharos and I ; the whole in linear 
circle in incuse circle. [Die of B.M. 
no. 193?] 

18 "5 mm. Wt. 4'79 grammes (74 '0 grains). Korkyraian didrachm. [PL XL] 

461 KoP KY PAI around. Forepart 
of cow standing r. [Die of B.M. nos. 
193, 194.] 


Imperial Times. 

462 ATPEVC r. Agreus standing [zJEVC 1., K ACloC r. Zeus Kasios, 

1., wearing long chiton and himation ; wearing himation about lower limbs, 
in r., cornucopiae. i seated 1. on throne with back, r. resting 

on sceptre. 
M 20 mm. Wt. 3-97 grammes (61 '3 grains). 





Circa B.C. 229—168. 

463 Head of Athena ]., wearing 
crested Athenian helmet, earring and 

Head of human-headed bull (river 
Acheloos) 1. ; above, trident 1. Plain 

JE -1 nini. \Vt. 681 grammes (lOo'l grains). 

Circa B.C. 350 — 300. 

464 Pegasos flying 1. ; below, mon. 
no. 73. 

Head of Athena 1. in Korinthian 
helmet ; behind, kithara. Concave field. 

JK 23 mm. \Vt. 8 '43 grammes (130 •! grains). Korinthian stater. 


[PI. XI.] 

Circa B.C. 

465 Pegasos, with pointed wing, 
flying r. ; below, A 

[Die of B.M. Cat. Corinth p. 130, no. 


Head of Athena r. in Korinthian 
helmet worn over leather cap ; behind, 
A and bearded ithyphallic term r. on 
three steps, in front of which, cadu- 

Ji\, 21.)mm. Wt. 8"26 grammes (127 '5 grains). Korinthian stater. [PI. XI. 

After B.C. 167. 

466 Statue (on basis) of Aphrodite 
Aineias r., wearing long chiton, cres- 
cent on her head ; she holds in r. 
aphlaston, beside her, stag r. ; behind, 
sceptre surmounted by bird; the whole j 
in laurel-wreath. 1 

J]^ 23.') mm, \Vt. 7'91 grammes (1221 grains). Attic tlidrachm 

[AE]YKAAiaN | [nJiKoMAXoE 
above. Prow of galley r., bound with 
laurel-wreath ; in field r. mon. no. 74 ; 
above, trident r. 

[PI. XL] 


B.C. 279—168. 

467 Head of young Herakles r., in 
Uon's skin. Border of dots. 


AIT-n-A-n-N 1. Figure of Aitolia 
seated r. on pile of shields (one Mnke- 
donian, three Gaulish) ; she wears 
kausia, short chiton leaving r. 
and shoulder bare, and endromides ; r. 
rests on lance, 1. holds short sword in 
sheath resting on 1. thigh ; in field r. 
remains of mon. no. 75. 
28 mm. Wt. 16-61 grammes (2o6-4 grains). Attic tetraclrachm. [PI. XL] 



468 Youthful male portrait head r., 
wearing oak-wreath and diadem com- 
bined. Border of dots. 

M 23-5 1 

AITnAn[N]r. Youthful warrior, 
nude, standing 1., r. foot on rock ; he 
wears wreath, petasos hanging at his 
back, and chlamys hanging over r. 
thigh, r. rests on lance with knotted 
shaft; short sword in sheath under 
1. arm ; in field 1. mon. no. 76, be- 
tween legs A 

Wt. 10-29 grammes (158 -8 grains). Two-tliirds of Attic tetrailrachm 1 

[PI. XI.] 


Circa B.C. 369—338. 

469 Head of Persephone 1., hair 
rolled, wearing wreath of barley-leaves, 
trijjle ean-ing, and necklace (struck 
over another coin). 

oPoNTIil 1. N above. Aias, son 
of Oileus, fighting to r. ; he is nude, 
wears crested Korinthian helmet, and 
holds in r. dagger, in 1. shield decor- 
ated inside with griffin r. ; at his 
feet, broken lance ; in field r., bunch of 
grapes. Concave field. 

M 26 mm. Wt. 12-18 grammes (188-0 grains). Aiginetic stater. [PI. XII.] 

470 Similar type 


OPONTI 1., f)N r. Similar type; 
lion instead of griffin on shield ; lance 
at feet, anci conical helmet with loop 
between legs. 

[Die of B.M. no. 22.] 
23 mm. Wt. 11-83 grammes (182-5 grains) Aiginetic stater. [PI. XII.] 

471 Similar type. 

[Die of B.M. nos. 33, 34.] 

oPoNTI 1., nN r. Similar type; 
griffin on shield ; AIAS between legs ; 
lance at feet. 

[Die of B.M. nos. 33, 34.] 
J^ 24 mm. Wt. 11-94 grammes (184-3 grains). Aiginetic stater. [PI. XII.] 

472 Head of Persephone r., wearing 
wreath of barley-leaves, earring and 

o P o N T I J"L N 1. Si milar type ; ser- 
pent on shield ; kantharos between 
legs. Concave field. 

JR, 17 mm. Wt. 2-73 grammes (42-1 grains). Aiginetic hemidrachm. [PI. XII.] 

473 Similar. 

[Die of B.M. no. 39.] 


Circa B.C. 338 — 288. 

A o K P J^ N 1. Similar type ; no sym- 
bol on shield, but handle decorated like 
thunderbolt ; between legs mon. no. 77. 
Concave field. 

[Die of B.M. no. 39.] 

165 mm. Wt. 2-71 grammes (41-8 grains). Aiginetic hemidrachm. 

[PI. XII.] 




474 Bull's Lead facing. 
JR 14 mm. Wt. 2 

Circa B.C. 357—346. 

Xo. 47oA. 

I c|) n below. Head of Apollo r 
I laureate, hair long; behind, chelys. 

79 grammes (43"0 grains). Aiginetic hemidrachm. [PI. XII.] 

Circa B.C. 421- 



phin 1. 

Ram's head 1. ; below, dol- 


AAA Goat's head facing between 
two dolphins downwards ; incuse 

II,') mm. Wt. 1-28 grammes (19'7 grains). Aiginetic trihemiobol. The well- 
marked incuse square seems to point to an earlier period than that (B.C. 371-357) 
to which B.M. nos. 17-19 are assigned. [PI. XII.] 

Circa B.C 

475.A. Head of Demeter I., wearing 
veil and wreath of corn. [Same die as 
B.M. no. 22.] 

.Al 24 o mm. 


AMcf)! above I., KTio r., NflN 
below. Apollo, wearing long chiton, 
seated 1. on netted omphalos, holding 
in 1. long laurel-branch which passes 
over his 1. shoulder, and resting chin 
on r., his r. elbow resting on kithara 
beside him ; in field 1., tripod. [Same 
die as B.M. no. 22.] 

Wt. 1205 grammes (185-9 grains). Perhaps from the Myonia find 

(Jonrital Internal-. II. p. 297). The obverse is from the same hand, though not 
from the same die, as the specimen ibid. PI. 14. 1. 


Circa B.C 

476 Head of Demeter, nearly facing, 
inclined to r., wearing wreath of 


.dl 18'5 mm. 


[BjoinTHN 1. Poseidon, nude, 
standing to front, head r., r. resting on 
trident, 1. holding dolphin ; in field r. 
A I, below which, Boiotian shield. 
Concave field. 

Wt. 5'08 grammes (78'4 grains). Attic octobol. [PI. XII.] 

Circa B.C. 197—146. 

477 Head of Poseidon r. laureate, i Bol/xT-n-N r. Nike, wearing long 
Border of dots. chiton, standing 1., r. holding [wreath], 

1. resting on trident ; in field 1. mon. 
no. 78. 
■IV^L 19-5 mm. Wt. 3-82 grammes (59-0 grains). Attic octobol or drachm ? 



478 Boiotiau sliield. 

Circa B.C. 387—374- 

[p]AA 1. Head of Hera r., wearing 
Stephanos adorned with pahnettes, ear- 
rinor, and necklace. 

,51 13 mm. Wt. 2-77 gramme.? (42" grains). Aiginetic bemidrachm. [PI. XII.] 

Circa B.C. 456 — 446. 





Boiotian shield. 
of B.M. no. 23.] 


T A above ; forepart of bridled 
horse springing r. Incuse square. 
[Die closely resembling B.M. no. 23.] 
JR "21 mm. Wt. 1201 grammes (185'4 grains). Aiginetie slater. [PI. XII.] 

Similar. | Similar, but horse not bridled. 

JR 13'5 mm. Wt. 3"14 grammes (48 4 grains). Aiginetie hemidrachm. 

[PI. XII.] 
Circa B.C. 387—374- 

Boiotian shield. I T above 1., A below ; forepart of 

I horse springing r. ; incuse circle. 

J^ 10 mm. Wt. 1 '06 grammes (16 '4 grains). Aiginetie obol. 


Circa B.C. 426 — 395. 

Boiotian shield. | O 1., E r. Head of bearded Dionysos 

r., wearing wreath of ivy ; incuse 

M, 23 mm. Wt. 11-98 grammes (184-8 grains). Aiginetie stater. [PI. XII.] 

483 Boiotian shield ; across it, club. O 1., E r. Krater with ornament 

on shoulder ; incuse squai-e. 

JR 22-5 mm. Wt. 12-,32 grammes (1901 grains). Aiginetie stater. 

From the Carfrat Sale (136). [PI. XII.] 

484 Boiotian shield. O 1., EB r. Kantharos ; above, 

club with handle 1. ; incuse square. 
J^ 13 mm. Wt. 2-26 grammes (.34-9 grains). Aiginetie hemidraehm. [PI. XII.] 

Circa B.C. 378—335- 

485 Boiotian shield. EP 1., AM r. Krater, with 

decoration on shoulder ; concave field. 

[Die of B.M, no. 136.] 
,31 22 mm. Wt. 1203 grammes (185-6 grains). Aiginetie stater. [PI. XII.] 

486 Similar. FA 1., ST r. Krater, with de- 
coration on shoulder; above, grain of 
barley; concave field. 

J& 2-2 '5 mm. Wt. 1199 grammes (18.5-0 grains). Aiginetie stater. 

From the Carfrae Sale (156). [PI. XII.] 




Before 506 B.C. 

487 Wheel of four spokes. I Incuse square, quadripartite diagon- 

I ally. 

-^ 13o mm. \Vt. 4'1 grammes (6.3"2 grains). Eluboic drachm. Attributed (perhaps 
rightly) by Svoronos to Megara ; see Journal luteriiat. 1898, p. ,')72, and 
Lermann, Athenatyjien, p. 2o, note 1. [PI. XII.] 

Circa B.C. 369 — 336. 

488 Female head r., hair rolled, I X r., AA below. Eagle flying r., 
wearing single-drop earring and neck- j holding serpent in claws ; below, un-( '■-■ 
lace. I certain symbol ; concave field. 

j5l 18d ram. Wt. 3"58 grammes (55'2 grains). Euboic drachm. 

489 Female heatl r. [hair rolled and 
covered above with net of pearls ?]. 

XAAKI above, | AEilN below. 
Eagle flying r. holding serpent in 

JSi 16 '.3 mm. Wt. 4(j0 giammes (71 '0 grains). Ci. has the form no. 79. 


Circa B.C. 480 — 445. 

490 Cow standing r., scratching I Sepia in incuse square. 

nose with r. hind foot; below, E ' 

.51 23 mm. Wt. 8'4 grammes (129-6 grains). Euboic didraohm. From the Boyne 
Sale (316) with the following coin. [PI. XII.] 

Sepia in incuse square. [Die of 
specimens mentioned under ohverse.'\ 

491 Cow standing r., licking its r. 
hind foot ; below, uncertain letter. 
Border of dots. 

[Die of B.M. specimens 84-6-10-13 and 
99-4-2-13 ( = Sale Cat., Sotheby, 1899, 
Mar. 13, 53).] 

JSi 18 mm. Wt. 4-21 grammes (65-0 grains). Euboic drachm. [PI. XII.] 

Circa B.C. 411 — 400. 

492 Female head r., hair rolled, EY B (below). Cow lying r. ; above, 
wearing heavy earring and necklace, bunch of grapes on stalk with leaf; 
[Die of Sir H. Weber's coin, Num. I incuse square. [Die of Sir H. Weber's 
Chr. 1892, PI. XV. 12.] I coin, mim. Chr. 1892, PI. xv. 12.] 

JS, 23'5 mm. Wt. 12-00 grammes (18o"2 grains). Aiginetic stater. [PI. XII.] 


Circa B.C. 369 — 336. 

493 Female head 1., hair rolled, EY (above). Head and neck of 

weai-ing single-drop earring. bull, decorated with fillets, three- 

quarters to r. ; in field r., bunch of 
JR 17mm. Wt. 3"2 grammes (.57 2 grains). Euboic drachm. [PI. XII.] 

Circa B.C. 369 — 336. 

494 Head of Mainad r., hair rolled, 
wearing wreath of vine-leaves and 
grapes, earj-ing and necklace. 

IZTI in ex. Bull walking r. ; in 
background, vine with grapes ; in field 
r., mon. no. 80. Concave field. 

Ji^ 17 mm. ,3 S'i grammes (512 grains). 

495 Similar type ; deta;ils obscure. I IZTI below. Similar type ; infield 

I r., uncertain symbol or monogram. 
JE 17 '5 mm. Wt. 3 '73 grammes {57 'o grains). 

Circa B.C. 313 — 265. 

496 Head of Mainad r., hair rolled, 
wearing wreath of vine-leaves and 
grapes, earring and necklace. 

IZTI r. AIEj^N above. Nymph 
Histiaia, wearing long chiton, seated r. 
on stern of galley adorned on side with 
wing; her r. rests on deck, in 1. she 
holds trophy-stand ; below, mon. no. 81. 

JB, Uo mm. Wt. 2-47 grammes (38-1 grains). Euboic tetrobol. [PI. XII.] 

Circa B.C. 369 — 336. 

497 Cow standing r. suckling calf I KA 1. PY£ r. Cock standing r. 
[Die of B.M. no. 6.] I Concave field. 

,3i 23 mm. Wt. 7'48 grammes (115'4 grains). Euboic tlidrachm. [PI. XII.] 

498 Head of Herakles r., bearded, I kAP Cow lying 1. Concave field, 
in lion's skin. I 

JR 15 mm. Wt. 349 grammes (53'9 grains). Euboic drachm. [PI. XII.] 


Circa B.C. 500 — 430. 

499 Head of Athena r., wearing 
crested Athenian helmet (with three 
olive-leaves in front, and floral orna- 
ment at side), circular earring and 

M 25-5 mm. Wt. 16 98 grammes (262 grains). Attic tetradrachm. [PL XII.] 

AOE r. Owl standing r., head 
facing ; behind, olive-spray with two 
leaves and berry, and crescent ; incuse 



500 Similar. 

JR -li mm. 

501 Similar. 

I Similar (stabbed). 
Wt. 16'75 grammes ('258"i) grains). Tetradrachm. 

[PI. XII.] 

I AOE Owl standing r., head facing, 
I behind, olive-spray with two leaves and 
I berry ; incuse square. 
M 14-5 mm. Wt. 4-2.3 grammes (65-3 grains). Drachm. [PI. XII.] 

Circa B.C. 350 — 300. 

(Asiatic Imitation). 

502 Head of Athena r., wearing 
crested Athenian helmet (adorned in 
front with three olive-leaves, at side 
with floral ornament) and earring. 

l/1A\^] r. Owl standing r., head 
3 9e facing ; behind, olive-spray 
with two leaves and berry, and 
I crescent. 

[PI. XII.] 

5 mm. Wt. 17'01 grammes (■262-5 grains). Tetradrachm. 
Circa B.C. 196—187. 
503 Head of Athena Parthenos r., A 1., SE r. 

wearing triple-crested Athenian hel- 
met (adorned with foreparts of four 
horses in front, flying griffin or pegasos 
at side, floral ornament at back) and 
drop earring. Border of dots. 

Owl standing to r., head 
facing, on prostrate am- 
phora; in field r. 
head of Helios facing, 
the whole in 




radiate ; on amphora, A 
.Sl'omm. Wt. 16-7I grammes (257'9 grains). Tetradrachm. [PI. XII.] 

Circa B.C. 186 — 147. 

504 Similar to preceding, but five 
horses visible. 

A 1. eE r. 



Similar type to ]3re- 
ceding ; in field r. ele- 
phant r. ; on amphora, 
obliterated letter ; be- 
low "zCi ; the whole in 

olive-wreath. (Stabbed.) 

505 Similar to preceding (four 
horses visible) ; in front of head graffito 

-31 ;i2-5 mm. Wt. 16'76 grammes (2(58-7 grains). Tetradrachm. Issued during the 
resi<lence of Antiochos (afterwards Antiochos IV. of Syria) at Athens before 
Ho B.C. From the Boyne Salt (328). " ' '"" " 

A 1. eE r. 





hand raised ; on amphora N ? ; 

A I ; the whole in olive-wreath. 
29-5 mm. Wt. 16-o3 grammes (2.55-1 grains). Tetradrachm. The amphora 
letter is almost certainly N, not H. On the B.M. specimen (no. 410) it is not 
A but N or H. For the series with N, «ee Macdonald in Num. Chi: 1899, 
p. 288 f. [PI- -^n.] 

[PI. XII.] 

Similar type to pre- 
cedino; ; in field r. the 
three Charites, 1., 
draped, hands joined, 
the one on 1. with 



506 Bracteate copied from Athenian coin. 

Owl standing to v., head facing ; the whole in olive-wreath. 

N 14 mm. Wt. '27 gramme (4-1 grains). This piece was probably meant as an 
ornament (cf. several repousse ornaments, some of them made by beating ont 
gold over coins, in the Franks Bequest in the British Museum). [PI. XII.] 


Circa B.C. 350 — 300. 

EAEY[€I] above; pig standing r. 
on bakchos ; in ex. bucraniuni. Con- 
cave field. 

507 Triptolemos seated 1. in winged 
car drawn by two serpents, in r. [two 
ears of corn]. 

J^ 17'5 mm. Wt. 3'73 grammes (37 '6 grains). 



[For a coin of the sixth century perhaps belonging to Megara, see under 


Circa B.C. 307 — 243. 

508 Head of Apollo r., laureate, I META 1. [PE]n[N] r. Kithara. 
hair long. I 

JR 17 mm. Wt. 4'02 grammes (62-1 grains). Attic drachm. [PI. XII.] 

509 Prow 1. ; on which, tripod. ME FA between two dolphins above 

and below swimming r. in circle. Bor- 
der of dots. 

JEt 15 mm. Wt. 2-43 grammes (37 'o grains). 

510 [META above]; prow 1. I Obelisk of Apollo Karinos between 

I two dolphins. Border of dots. 

M 14 mm. Wt. 2-.38 grammes (36-8 grains). 


Circa B.C. 700 — 550. 

Incuse square irregularly divided 
into eight triangular compartments. 

511 Sea-tortoise with smooth cara- 
pace with row of dots down.tho middle ; 
the head, as often, is treated like that 
of a bird. 

Ji\, 21mm. Wt. 12'15 grammes (187 '5 gi-ains). Aiginetic stater. [PI. XII.] 

Circa B.C. 550 — 480. 

512 Sea-tortoise with smooth cara- 
pace with two dots at top and a row 
down the middle. 

M, 22 mm. AVt. 12-26 grammes (189-2 grains). Aiginetic stater. [PI. XII.] 

Incuse square divided by bi-oad 
bands into five compartments. 


Circa B.C. 480 — 431. 

513 Marsli-toi'toise with thirteen Incuse square divided by broad 
plates to its carapace. bands into five compartments. 

JR '21-5 mm. Wt. 12-2.3 grammes (188'8 grains). Aiginetic stater. 

514 Similar. 1 Similar, but the bands narrow. 

JR. 21-5 ram. Wt. 12-29 grammes (189-" grains). Aiginetic stater. [Pi. XIII.] 

After circa B.C. 404. 

515 Similar to preceding. , Incuse square divided by broad 

bands into five compartments ; in upper 
two, A I r I , in lower left hand dolphin 

M 24-5 mm. Wt. 12-09 grammes (186-6 grains). Aiginetic stater. [PI. XIIL] 

Incuse square as on preceding; in 
upper two compartments N I , in lower 
left hand dolphin upwards. 
JR, 18 mm. Wt. 5-61 grammes (86"6 grains). Aiginetic drachm. [PI. XIIL] 

516 A 1 , I r. Marsh-tortoise as on 


Sixth Century B.C. 

517 Pegasos with curled wing flying I Incuse of swastika form. 
1. ; below, Q I 

JR, 24-5 mm. Wt. 8"29 grammes (1-27 '9 grains). Korinthian stater. [PI. XIIL] 

Circa B.C. 500 — 431. 

518 Pegasos, with curled wing fly- Head of Athena r., hair in queue, 
ing 1. ; below, Q dotted, wearing Korinthian helmet and 

j necklace; the whole in linear square, 
in incuse square. 

JR 19-5 mm. Wt. 8-55 grammes (132-0 grains). Korinthian stater. [PI. XIIL] 

519 Similar type ; below, O \ Head of Aphrodite r., hair (dotted) 
[Die of B.M. no. 84 ?] taken up behind in tainia, wearing 

necklace ; incuse square. 
[Die of B.M. no. 84.] 

JR 14 mm. Wt. 2-81 grammes (4.3-5 grains). Korinthian drachm. 

Circa B.C. 400 — 338. 

Head of Athena 1., wearing Korinth- 
ian helmet over leather cap ; behind, 
hound seated r. 

A\, 19-5 mm. Wt. 8-.V) grammes (1.31-9 grains). Korinthian stater. [PI. XIIL] 


520 Pegasos, with straight wings, 
flying 1. ; below, (j) ; above, graflito H 



Circa B.C. 350—338. 

521 Pegasos, with straight wings, 
flying 1. ; below Q 

JS^ 22'5 mm. Wt. 8'57 grammes (132'2 grains). Korinthian stater. 

Similar type ; behind, dove flying 1. 
in wreath. 

522 Pegasos with 
flying 1. ; below 9 

Circa B.C. 338 — 300. 

straight wing Head of Athena 1. wearing Korinth- 
ian helmet, decorated with olive-wreath, 
over leather cap ; below A 1-, P r. ; be- 
i hind, gorgoneion in middle of aigis. 
JR 22 mm. Wt. 8-55 grammes (1320 grains). Korinthian stater. [PI. XIII.] 

Circa B.C. 300 — 243. 

523 Pegasos, with straight wing, 
flying 1. ; [below, 9] 

Head of Aphrodite 1., hair in bunch 
behind, wearing earring and necklace ; 
in front, star ; behind, mon. no. 82. 

JSi 15 mm. Wt. 2-48 grammes (38-2 grains). Korinthian ihachm. [PI. XIII.] 



Circa B.C. 430 

524 AIDA(|) in exergue ; bull but 
ting 1., on dotted exergual line. 
[Die of B.M. no. 6.] 


? I in corners of incuse square con- 
1/1 n taining wheel of four spokes. 
[Die of B.M. no. 6.] 

18 mm. Wt. 5'79 grammes (89"4 grains). Aiginetic drachm. The reverse of the 
B.M. specimen is read £ I O N , but the apparent O is, as the present specimen 
shows, an Ci badly struck. A has the form no. 14. [PI. XIII.] 

525 Chimaira walking 
iE ; above, wreath. 
[Die of B.M. no. 58]. 


Fourth Century B.C. 

1. ; below 

Dove flying 1. ; before its breast, N ; 
the whole in olive-wreath. Concave 

JSi 24 mm. Wt. 12"21 grammes (1864 grains). Aiginetic stater. 

[PI. XIII.] 

526 Chimaira 1. ; in field 1. € ; be- 
low (breaking the exergual line) small 
figure of nude Apollo kneeling 1., 
shooting with bow. 

Similar type to preceding; above 
tail, PA Concave field. 

JRi 24 '5 mm. Wt. 11 '82 grammes (1824 grains). Aiginetic stater. From the Sale of 
20 Jan. 1898 (121). [PI. XIII.] 

PL XI 11 



i. .^7 





S 'xf^. J 


^^ Na^ 






^ : vC ' ' •>. 7 








527 Dove flying 1. ; before breast, I Dove flying I. ; above tail E ; tiie 
C, above tail | I whole in olive- wreath. Concave field. 

JR 24-5 mm. Wt. 5-8 grammes (89o grains). Aiginetic drachm. [PI. XIII.] 


Circa B.C. 431 — 370. 

528 A above, I 1., C below. Fore- 
part of goat lying v. 

A I C A I r., o A/ 1. Head of bearded 
Dionysos r. wearing wreath of ivy ; 
concave field. 

-31 16 mm. Wt. 2-72 grammes (41 9 grains). Aiginetic hemidrachm. 

[PI. XIII.] 

Circa B.C. 250 — 146. 

529 Head of Aphrodite r., wearing 
stepiiane, hair rolled and in plaits on 
neck. Border of dots. 

M A CI A C in wreath. 

JR 17 mm. Wt. 2'04 grammes (.31 '4 grains). Aiginetic hemidrachm. 

[PI. XIII.] 

Circa B.C. 370 — 280. 

530 Head of Apollo r. laur., hair 
long, tied behind ; behind, mon. no. 
83. [Die of B.M. no?. 3, 4.] 

j3^ 16 mm. Wt. 2-81 grammes (43-.3 grains). Aiginetic hemidrachm 

PEA in laurel-wreath ; concave 
field. [Die of B.M. no. 3.] 

[PI. XIII.] 

Circa B.C. 480 — 421. 

531 Eagle flying 1., holding in beak 
serpent which twines round its body. 

F^ 1., A r. Thunderbolt with curled 
wings at upper, volutes at lower end; 
the whole in incuse circle. 

JR 17-5 mm. Wt. 5-61 grammes (86 '5 grains). Aiginetic drachm. 

From the Montagu Sale (II. 206). [PI. XIII.] 

532 Eagle flying r., rending hare. 
[Die of B.M. no. 0.] 

F 1., A r. Thunderbolt with curled 
wings at lower, volutes at upper end ; 
the whole in incuse circle. 

JR 22-5 mm. Wt. 11-40 grammes (176 grains). Aiginetic stater. [PI. XIII.] 

G 2 



533 Eagle flying r., rending liare ; F 1., A r. Thunderbolt as on pre- 

countermark, gorgoueion. [Style of ceding ; the whole in incuse circle. 

B.M. nos. 16, 17.] 

j5l 23 '5 mm. Wt. 11'56 grammes {178'4 grains). Aiginetic stater. 

From the Montagu Sale (II. 206). [PI. XIII.] 

[f] 1. above, A 1. below. Nike, 
wearing long chiton and peplos, running 
1., wings spread, in extended r. wreath. 

534 Similar type to preceding ; 
countermarks (1) bipennis, (2) un- 


1. wrapped in peplos ; the whole in 
incuse square. 
24 mm. Wt. ll'SO grammes (177'5 grains). Aiginetic stater. [PI. XIII. ] 

535 Circular shield, on which eagle 
standing 1. on ram, rending its throat. 
Border of dots. [Die of B.M. nos. 36, 

M 22-5 mm. 

F 1., A incuse r. Thunderbolt, with 
furled wings at upper, volutes at lower 
end ; the whole in dotted incuse 
circle. [Die of B.M. no. 36.] 

Wt. 11 '91 grammes (183"8 grains). Aiginetic stater. 
From the Montagu Sale (II. 206). 

[PI. XIII.] 

Circa B.C. 421 — 365. 

536 Head of eagle 1.; below, a leaf: 
countermark, uncertain. [Die of B.M 
nos. 39, 40.] 

537 Similar to preceding (same 

F 1., A r. Thunderbolt with wings 
(curled inwards) at upper, volutes at 
lower end ; the whole in olive-wreath ;, 
concave field. [Die of B.M. 40.] 

^ 23'5 mm. Wt. 1206 grammes (1861 grains). Aiginetic stater. 

From the Hobart Smith Sate (94). [PI. XIII.] 

[f] 1., A r. Thunderbolt with 
straight wings at lower, volutes at 
upper end ; the whole in olive-wreath ; 
incuse circle. 
JB, 23 -5 mm. Wt. 11 -94 grammes (184-2 grains). Aiginetic stater. [PI. XIII.] 

538 Head of Hera r. wearing 
Stephanos adorned with flowers. [Die 
of B.M. no. 55.] 

JR, 24-3 mm. Wt. U 'So grammes (182-8 grains). Aiginetic stater. 

539 Similar to i^receding. | Similar to preceding. 

^ 24-5 mm. Wt. ITol giammes (177'7 grains). Aiginetic stater. [PI. XIII.] 

F ]., A r. Thunderbolt, wingless ; 
the whole in olive-wreath ; concave 

[PI. XIII.] 

540 Similar to preceding. [Die of I A^ above. Thunderbolt, wingless: 
B.M. no. 57.] I the whole in olive-wreath. 

JH 24 mm. Wt. 11-34 grammes (175-0 grains). Aiginetic stater. [PI. XIII.] 

541 Similar to preceding, but H P A 
on Stephanos between the flowers ; 
behind neck [f] ?, in front [a] 

[Die of B.M. no. 03.] 

F 1., A r. Thunderbolt, wingless ; 
the whole in olive-wreath ; concave 

[Die of B.M. no. 63.] 

-^ 24-5 mm. Wt. 11-86 grammes (183-0 grains). Aiginetic stater. The remains of 
the letter A in front of the neck on B.M. no. 63 have not been noticed in tlie 
Catalogue. [PI. XIII.] 



Circa B.C. 365 — 322. 

542 Head of Hera r., hair rolled, 
wearing Stephanos inscribed F A A E I HN , 
triple-drop earring, and necklace ; on 
1. F, r. [A] 

[Die of B.M. no. 103.] 

J^ 22 mil). Wt. 11 '91 grammes (18.3 '8 grains). Aiginetic stater. 

Eagle standing 1. on shield, looking 
back, flapping wings; the whole in 

[PI. XIII.] 

543 F 1., A r. Head of Hera r., 
hair rolled, wearing Stephanos adorned 
with flowers, single earring, and neck- 

Eagle with closed wings, standing r. ; 
the whole in olive-wreath ; graffito A ; 
concave field. 

J& 23'5 mm. Wt. 12'06 grammes ( 186-1 grains). Aiginetic stater. 

From the Montagu Salt of 12 Dec. 1894, 181. [PI. XIII.] 

544 Head of Zeus r. laureate. 

JR 13 mm. Wt. '90 gramme (13 '9 grains). Aiginetic obol 

F 1., A r. Eagle standing r., looking 
back, wings closed ; concave field. 

[PI. XIII.] 

Circa B.C. 271 — 191. 

545 Head of Zeus r. laureate. F 1., A r. Eagle with closed wings 

A I standing r. ; in field r., 

thunderbolt ; concave field. 
JR 24 mm. Wt. 12-14 grammes (187 4 grains). Aiginetic stater. [PI. XIII.] 

546 Eagle flying r., carrying hare in 

[Die of B.M. no. 1:5.5.] 

JR, 19-5 mm. Wt. 4-36 grammes (67 '3 grains). Aiginetic drachm ? 

F ]., A r. Thunderbolt with volutes 
at upper, straight wings at lower end. 

547 Similar to no. 545. 

F 1., A r. Eagle with closed wings 
A standing r. on capital of 


JR 15 mm. Wt. 2-36 grammes (36-4 grains). Aiginetic liemidrachm ? A has the 
form no. 84. [PI. XIII.] 


Dion of Syrakuse. 
B.C. 357- 

548 Head of Apollo r. laureate, 
hair rolled and in loose locks on neck. 

Ain r. I Not 1. Tripod-lebes; be- 
tween its feet, I A ; concave field. 

JR 23 mm. Wt. 9'27 grammes (1431 grains). Reduced Aiginetic stater. For the 
low weight, of. B.M. no. 37. The coin has been mounted as a brooch and re- 
silvered. [PI. XIV.] 






N I K A P X o [Z] 1. Zeus, nude, stand- 
ing r. ; r. rests on long sceptre, on 
extended 1., eagle ; in field r. mon. no. 
71, tripod-lebes, and wreath. 
21 '5 mm. Wt. 6 '42 grammes (99 "0 grains). 

549 Head of Demeter r., wearing 
wreath of corn, hair rolled and locks on 



Circa B.C. 250 — 146. 

550 Head of Herakles r., bearded, 
diademed. Border of dots. 

No. 551. No. 551. 

A 1., A r. Amphora, with serpent 
TEI cm turned round it, between 
caps of the Dioskuroi surmounted by 
stars, the whole in wreath. 

JR loo mm. Wt. 2-2o grammes (34'7 grains). Aiginetic hemidrachm. Peisippos 
is a Spartan name ; cf. C.I.O. 1260. [PI. XIV.] 

Circa B.C. 146 — 32. 

551 [AYKoYP] 1., roc r. Head 
of Lykurgos r. bearded, bound with 
tainia. Border of dots. 

A 1., A r. and mons. no. 8.5 1., no. 19 r. 
Club and caduceus combined ; the 
whole in wreath. 

JSi 23 mm. Wt. 7 5 grammes (115 '7 grains). 


Circa B.C. 468- 


552 Forepart of wolf i 

I A ; above, two square indentations ; 
I the whole in incuse square. 

JR 15 mm. Wt. 2 '66 grammes (41-0 grains). Aiginetic hemidrachm. Purchased at 


Circa B.C 

553 Head of Hera 1., hair Ion 
wearing Stephanos adorned 
palmettes, single earring, and neck 


[PI. XIV.] 
400 — 322. 

APT 1., E[in]N r. Diomedes, 
chlamys over shoulders, advancing 
cautiously to r., in r. short sword, in 1. 
Falladion ; in field 1., swan r. ; concave 
-31 20 mm. Wt. 5"55 grammes (85 -6 grains). Aiginetic drachm. [PI. XIV.] 

554 Forepart of wolf 1. I /^ ; above A 1., P r. Below, club, 

I handle r. ; the whole in incuse square. 

JR 14 mm. Wt. 268 grammes (41 4 grains). Aiginetic hemidrachm. 

[PI. XIV.] 



Circa B.C. 322 

555 Head of Hera r., hair long, 
wearing Stephanos inscribed APT 


JE 17"5 mm. Wt. 2'89 grammes (44-6 grains). 

Circa B.C. 350 — 280. 

Athena (of archaistic style), wearing 
crested helmet, long chiton and chlaina, 
fighting to 1., holding shield on 1., 
spear in r. 

556 Head of Apollo r., laureate, with 
long hair. Border of dots. [Die of 
B.M. no. 7.] 


E r. Asklepios, bearded, nude to 
waist, seated 1., 1. resting on sceptre, 
r. caressing serpent which rises before 
him ; under the seat, dog lying r. (copy 
of the statue by Thrasyniedes of 
Paros). [Die of B.M. no. 7.] 

19 '5 mm. Wt. 4-43 grammes (68-4 grains). Light Aiginetic drachm. 5'ec Head, 
Hist. Xiim. p. 369, note 1. [PI. XIV.] 

Mon. no. 86, in laurel-wreath. 

557 Head of Asklepios 1. laureate, 
bearded. [Die of B.M. no. 1.] 

JR loo mm. Wt. 2'36 grammes (36"4 grains). Light Aiginetic hemidrachm. 


Circa B.C. 350—322. 

Mon. no. 87, in wreath of barley. 

558 Head of Demeter 1., hair rolled 
and in loose locks on neck, wearing 
wreath of barley, single earring, and 

,31 16 '5 mm. Wt. 2'49 grammes (38'4 grains). Aiginetic hemidrachm. [PI. XIV.] 


Federal Coinage. 
Circa B.C. 480 — 450 

559 Zeus Lykaios (seen from be 

hind), nude to waist, seated r. on chair 
with low back, 1. resting on sceptre, on 
extended r. eagle. 

■nA 15 '5 mm. 

A R K A r., D IK 1. (the whole 
retrograde). Head of Artemis, three- 
quarters r., hair tied in bunch behind, 
wearing necklace ; the whole in incuse 

Wt. 2'82 grammes (43'.5 grains). Aiginetic hemidrachm. R has the 

form no. 88, D no. 89. 


[PI. XIV.] 

[aJRKADI {the R and D retrograde). 
Head of Artemis r., hair in queue and 
confined by fillet, wearing necklace ; 
the whole in incuse square. 

15 mm. Wt. 2'77 grammes (42-7 grains). Aiginetic hemidrachm. [PI. XIV.] 

560 Similar type to preceding, but 
to 1., and seen from the front ; the 
eagle is taking flight. 



561 Zeus Lykaios, nude to waist, . A K K A in four corners of incuse 
seated I. on chair with low back, r. square, in wliich head of Artemis r., 
resting on sceptre ; in field 1. eagle i hair in net with loop, wearing necklace, 
fl^'ing towards him. ! [Die of B.M. no. 2.5.] 

JR, 16'5 mm. Wt. 2 92 grammes (45 grains). Aiginetic hemidrachm. [PI. XIV.] 

Circa B.C. 

of Zeus Lykaios 1, 

562 Head 

S{, 17-0 mm. 


Young Pan, nude, horned, seated 1. on 
rock, r. raised, 1. holding lagobolon ; in 
field 1. mon. no. 90, r. X ; concave 
field. [Die of B.M. no. 54.] 

Wt. 268 grammes (41-4 grains). Aiginetic hemidrachm. 

[PI. XIV.] 

Fifth Century B.C. 

563 Acorn ; in field, two ivy-leaves. 

JSi ll'o mm. 

564 Head 

JR 17 mm. 

Large M, below which MAN; the 
whole in incuse circle. 
Wt. -84 gramme (1.3-0 grains). Aiginetic obol. [PI. XIV.] 


Circa B.C. 244 — 234. 

of Zeus Lykaios 1., MET r. Young Pan, nude, horned, 

seated 1. on rock, r. raised, in 1. lago- 
bolon ; on his knee, eagle 1. ; in field 1. 
A, r. A Concave field. 
[Die of B.M. no. L] 
Wt. 2-38 grammes (36 '7 grains). Aiginetic hemidraclim. [PI. XIV.] 


Circa B.C 

564.\ Head of Demeter r., hair rolled, 
wearing wreath of corn, eari'ing with 
five drops, and necklace. 

400 — 362. 

c|)E below, NE flN r. Hermes, 
wearing petasos, and chlamys fastened 
round neck, running 1. , holding caduceus 
in r., and looking back at infant Arkas 
whom he carries on his 1. arm; between 
his legs, phiale mesomphalos. [Same 
die as B.M. specimen. Num. Chr. 1894, 
PI. L 7.] 

No. 564.\. 
JR 25 mm. Wt. 11 '70 grammes (ISO'S grains). Aiginetic .stater. 

565 Head of Demeter 1., hair rolled, , ct)ENIKoN above; bull standing r. ; 
wearing wreath of corn, triple-drop below p Concave field, 
earring, and necklace. I 

[Dieof B.M. no. 15.] \ 

JR I60 mm. Wt. 2'79 grammes (43'0 grains). Aiginetic hemidrachm. 

[PI. XIV.] 

Pi. XIV. 




Caligula A.D. 37 — 41. 

No. .")C.")A. 

565a r KAl[ZAP]EEBrEPM- 
APX • MET • [AH]M E20Y YHA • 
around. Bust of Caligula r., bare, 
sceptre over left shoulder ; border of 

No. 565a. 

Augustus, radiate, wearing toga, 
seated 1. on curule chair, in r. patera, 
1. resting on sceptre ; around, seven 
stars ; border of dots. 

JR 24-5 mm. Wt. 7 '26 grammes (1120 grains). 1 J drachm. 

Circa B.C. 200 — 67. 

566 Head of Artemis r., hair rolled, 
wearing stephane. 

PAiri[N] r. 

field 1., arrovi^-head. 

Race-torch ; in 

JEi 15 5 mm. 

567 Similar type. 
JSt 16 mm. 

Wt. 2'27 grammes (35"0 grains). 

AniAP 1., AiaN r. "Warrior 
(Apteros) advancing 1., carrying large 
round shield on 1. arm. 

Wt. 3 '01 grammes (46 '5 grains). Botli forms A and A i""e seen. 

Circa B.C. 370 — 300. 

567a Head of Artemis r. laureate, 
wearing earring [and necklace], hair 
tied in knot behind ; border of dots. 
[Same die as B.M, No. 1, Svoronos 
Num. de la Crete PI. III. 2.5.] 

M 22 1 

XEPon[AS|o ]., N r.] Apollo, 
nude, seated 1. on omphalos, in 1. plec- 
trum, r. supporting kithara on his 1. 
knee ; in field r. thymiaterion. Con- 
cave field. 

[Same die as Svoronos PI. III. 25.] 

Wt. 11 02 grammes (1700 grains). Aiginetic stater. 



568 Head of Zeus r. laureate, 
der of dots. 

[Die of B.M. no. 3.] 

-31 23-5 mm. Wt. 1081 grammes (166-8 grains). 

Inscr. obliterated ; Apollo, 
standing to front, looking 1. ; 
stone, in 1. bow. Concave field. 

in r. 


in tree, resting 


569 Europa, 
limbs, seated r. 
head on 1. hand. 

[Die of Svoronos, Critn PI. XIII. 2,3.] 

Aiginetic stater. 

Fourth Century B.C. 

over lower \a above, o|\AVTSOii- 

26 5 mm. Wt. 11 '88 grammes (183'4 grains), 
older coin. 

Bull three- 
quarters r., with head turned 1., fore- 
shortened. Border of dots. 

[Die of Svoronos, CrUc PI. XIII. 23.] 

Aiginetic stater. Restruck on an 
[PI. XIV.] 



569a Europa, peplos over lower 
limbs, seated in leafless tree towards r., 
head facing ; r. raises peplos over her 
head; 1. embraces eagle with out- 
spread wings before her. [Die of 
B.M. DOS. 27, 28 and Bunbury 318.] 

Bull 1., head reverted, 
field. [Die of B.M. no. 271 


No. 569a. 
-31 24 '5 mm. Wt. 11 '46 grammes (176 "9 grains). Aiginetio stater. 

Head and neck of bull three-quarters 

r. Concave field. 

570 Female head r. (Europa ?), hair 
rolled, wearing single earring. Border 
of dots. 

JR 19 mm. Wt. 5'19 grammes (80"1 grains). Aiginetic drachm 

Circa B.C 

570.4. [ro] 1., P r. Europa, seated 
r. in tree ; behind her, eagle 1. looking 
back ; [border of rays]. 

300 — 200. 

roPTYN below. Europa [with veil 
raised over her head] seated on bull 
advancing 1. ; the whole in laurel- 

JE, 16'5 mm. Wt. 4'87 grammes (752 grains). 

Circa B.C. 200 — 67. 

roPTYNinN 1. Nude male figure 
seated 1. on rock, head facing, wearing 
endromides ; r. rests on r. knee ; 1. 
holds bow and arrows ; quiver slung 
at back ; in field r. A ; border of dots. 
17'5mm. Wt. 309 grammes (47'7 grains). 

570b Head of Zeus or Minos r., 
bearded, diademed ; below, uncertain 


Circa B.C. 200 — 67. 

571 Female head r., wearing tur- 
reted headdress, hair rolled and loose 
locks on neck. Border of dots. [Die 
of B.M. no. 3.] 

lEPAnV below, APIZT| AroPA|Z 
r. Palm-tree with fruit ; on 1. eagle 
r., flapping wings ; the whole in laurel- 
wreath. [Die of B.M. no. 3.] 

JR 23 mm. Wt. 7 '54 grammes (116 '3 grains). Attic didrachm. 

Fifth Century B.C. 

[PI. XIV.] 

571a Sea-god Glaukos (?) r., both 
hands raised, [in r. trident ?, in 1. 
fish ?]. [Same die as B.M. no. 7.] 

Two sea-serpents erect, opposed, in 
linear square, within incuse square. 
[Same die as B.M. no. 7.] 

JR 14 mm. Wt. 2'91 grammes (45 grains). Aiginetic draclmi. 



Circa B.C. 400. 

572 Head of Athena Salmonia 1. 
wearing crested Athenian helmet, de- 
corated with floral ornament, and two 

[Dieof B.M. no. 12.] 

ITANIHN 1. Eagle standing 1., 
looking back ; in field r., sea-god 
Glaukos (?), r. raised, 1. holding trident, 
looking back : the whole in incuse 

[Dieof B.M. no. 12.] 

■^ 19 mm. Wt. 5'15 grammes (79'5 grains). Aiginetic drachm. [PI. XIV.] 

Circa B.C. 431 — 350. 

No. 573. 

573 Head of Demeter r., hair rolled, 
wearing wreath of corn-leaves, earring, 
and necklace. [Die of B.M. no. 8.] 

No. 573. 

Swastika-shaped plan of labyrinth ; 
in middle, star of eight points ; in 
angles, crescents ; concave field. [Die 
of B.M. no. 8.] 


Wt. 10"70 grammes (165"2 grains). Aiginetic stater. 
From the MoiUagu Sate of 12 Dec. 1894, 188. 

Circa B.C. 350 — 300. 

574 Head of Hera 1., hair long, 
wearing Stephanos with floral orna- 
ments, earring consisting of crescent 
with three drops, and necklace. [Die 
of B.M. no. 24.] 

KNHCIilN below; square plan of 
labyrinth ; on 1. A and arrow-head 
upwards, on r. [P] and thunderbolt ; 
the whole in dotted circle ; concave 
field. [Die of B.M. no. 24.] 

JR 24-5 mm. Wt. iri5 grammes (172-0 grains). Aiginetic stater. [PI. XIV.] 

575 Similar to preceding. K N ri ? I below ; square plan of 

labyrinth ; on 1. A, v. P Border of 

[Die of B.M. no 2C.] 

JR 19 '5 mm. Wt. 5'15 grammes (79"5 grains). Aiginetic drachm. [PI. XIV.] 

Circa B.C. 200 — 67. 

575a Bust of Artemis 1., wearing 
stephane, hair in knot behind ; border 
of dots. 


AATIHN 1. Hermes, wearing pe- 
tasos, short chiton, chlamys, and boots, 
advancing r., holding caduceus in ex- 
tended r. ; border of dots. 

15 mm. Wt. 2'78 grammes (430 grains). 




Circa B.C. 450 — 330. 

AYTTI above 1.; boar's head 1.; the 
V\o whole in dotted incuse 

[Die of B.M. no. 10.] 
JR 26-5 mm. Wt. 10-81 grammes (166-8 grains). Aiginetic stater. [PI. XIV.] 

576 Eagle, seen from below, flying 
1. Border of dots. 
[Die of B.M. no. 10.] 

577 Similar to preceding. 
[Die of B.M. no. 17.] 

V^o/ r. and above; boar's head r. ; 
^ the whole in dotted incuse 
> square. 
[Die of B.M. no. 17, and Svoronos, 
Critc, PI. XXI. 9.] 
.31 15 mm. Wt. 2-46 grammes (37-9 grains). Aiginetic hemidrachm. [PI. XIV.] 

Circa B.C. 400 — 300. 

Bull walking 1., 1. fore-foot tethered 
with rope ; the whole in wreath. [Die 

578 Herakles, nude, standing to 
front, looking r., 1. holding bow, r. 
resting on club ; in field 1. lion's skin 
hung up, r. grain of barley; around 
four pellets (one off the flan). 

JR 25 mm. Wt. 118.3 grammes (182-5 grains). Aiginetic stater. 
Frmn the Boyne Sale (371). 

of Svoronos, CrMe, PI. XXIII. 14 (Im- 
hoof Coll.)] 

579 Herakles, standing to front, r. 
resting on club, 1. holding lion's skin 
and bow ; on 1. coiled serpent, on r. 
tree. [Die of Svoronos, CrMe, PI. 
XXIII. 8 (Imhoof Coll.) ?] 

[PI. XIV.] 

Bull, tethered, 1., in wreath, as on 
preceding coin. [Die of Svoronos, 
CHte, PI. XXIII. 9 (Vienna.)] 

JR 24-5 mm. Wt. 11-06 grammes (1707 grains). Aiginetic stater. Restruck on 
another coin, traces of tlie type of which are visible on the reverse. 

[PI. XIV.] 


Circa B.C. 431 — 300. 

No. 579b. 

579b Head of Artemis (?) r., hair | HPIAN r., SIE^-^N 1. Date-palm 

rolled and tied in bunch, wearing ear- j between dolphin upwards on 1., rudder 

ring and necklace ; border of dots. ' on r. ; border of dots. Concave field. 
[Die of B.M. no. 5]. 

JR 21 mm. Wt. 0-88 grammes (90-8 grains). Aiginetic drachm. 
From the Moiitayu Sale I. 455. 

' For Polyrhenion, No. 579a, see p. 152. 



Fourth Century B.C. 

580 Poseidon Hippios, nude, stand- [ [P]A[Y] r., KloN 1. Ornamented 
ing r., liolding horse with 1., r. resting | trident, prongs upwards. Border of 
on trident; in field r. mon. no. 61. ^ dots. 
Border of dots. ! 

-31 2o-o mm. Wt. 9-23 grammes (142-5 grains). Reduced Aiginetic stater. 

[PI. XIV.] 


Second Century B.C. 

580.V Aigipan standing 1., r. raised, 
1. holding lagobolon. [Same die as 
B.M. no. 2.] 

JSi 16o mm. Wt. .3 '49 grammes (53 '9 grains). 

A 1., I r. Capping vessel with 
loop at top ; below, A 

Second or First Century B.C. 

580b Head of bearded Dionysos r. 
wreathed with ivy. 

M 1., I r. Kantharos; above, bunch 
N n of grapes. 

^ 145 mm. Wt. 2'91 grammes (46'3 grains). 

Sixth Century B.C. 

581 Bunch of grapes. | Quadripartite incuse square. 

JR 13 mm. Wt. 2'43 grammes (37 '5 grains). Aiginetic hemidrachni. See. Imhoof- 
Blumer, Griech. Miinzen, under Tenos, nos. 67 f. [PI. XIV.] 



Imperial Times. 

581a MHAinN r. Head of Athena I EHI |TI ■ RAN JK AEoC.ToT Border 
r., wearing crested helmet ; beliind, of dots. 
pomegranate ; border of dots. I 

JS, 18 mm. Wt. 3y6 grammes (54 '9 grains). 



582 Head of the City-goddess 1., hair 
rolled, wearing low Stephanos (decor- 
ated with floral ornaments), earring 
and necklace. Border of dots. 



Under the name Peiraieus. 

Circa B.C. 360 — 250. 

Below, PEIPA, 1. A 

r. PIS Owl 

standing to front on shield, wings 
spread ; concave field. 

J^ 19 mm. 

583 Similar to 
Stephanos higher. 

J^ 19 mm. 

Wt. 5'62 grammes (86'7 grains). 

From the Bunhury Sale (II. 1). 

preceding, but 

[PI. XIV.] 

Below [PEIPA], 1. AP, r. IS Simi- 
lar type to preceding. 

Wt. 5'59 grammes (86"2 grains). 

From the Btmbiiry Sale (loc. cit. ). 

[PI. XIV.] 

584 Bust of City-goddess ]., hair Below, nEIP[A], 1. KT, r. H Owl 
rolled, wearing high Stephanos (decor- standing to front on shield, wings 
ated with palmette between two spread ; in field 1., sling (?), r. short 
circles with central dots), triple-drop sword in sheath ; concave field, 
earring, necklace, and drapery on neck. 
Border of dots. 

JR- 20 mm. Wt. 5'52 grammes (85"2 grains). The symbol on the 1. is the same as 
that descrilreil in B. M. Catalogue (no. 9) as ' serpent (?).' 

From the Bunhury Sale. (loc. cit.). [PI. XIV.] 

Time of Mithradates The Great. 
Circa B.C. 121 — 63. 

585 Head of Zeus r. laureate. AMIZoV below; eagle to 1. on 

thunderbolt, head r., flapping wings ; 
in field 1. mon. as in B.M. Catal. 
Pontus, p. 1 5, no. 27. 

M 19-5 mm. Wt. 812 grammes (12o-3 grains). [PI. XIV.] 



B.C. 121 (or 120) — 63. 

586 Head of Mithradates r., hair 
flowing, wearing diadem. 

EYnAToPoS below. Pegasos 1. drink- 
ing; in field 1. six-pointed star and 
crescent, r. oZ (209 = B.C. 89/88) and 
mon. no. 91 ; the whole in ivy- 
JR 31mm. Wt. 16-3 grammes (251 -o grains). [PI. XIV.] 





Third Century B.C. 

587 Youthful male head r. wear- 
ing Phrygian cap decorated with 
laurel-wreath and star of eight points. 
Border of dots. 


[AJMASTPIE/^Nr. Goddess seated 
1. on throne with back ; in r. she 
holds Nike r. with wreath ; sceptre 
leans against her seat ; in field ]., 
Wt. 9-55 grammes (147-4 grains). [PI. XIV.] 


Circa B.C. 333— 3o6- 

Below, [S]l/M^, in r. ^kl Sea- 
eagle 1., flying, carrying dolphin in 
talons; concave field. 

Wt. 5 '51 grammes (85 '1 grains). Somewhat barbarous style. 

[PI. XIV.] 

589 Similar type to preceding, but 
hair in sphendone (better style). Bor- 
der of dots. 

588 Head of Sinope 1., hair in bunch 
behind, wearing earring and necklace ; 
in front, aphlaston. .Border of dots. 

M ^0 mm. 

.51 13 mm. 

€1 1., Nj^ r. Sea-eagle, seen from 
below, head I., wings conventionally 
represented, spread and curled ; concave 

Wt. 3-05 grammes (47-0 grains). [PI. XIV.] 



B.C. 347 

590 Head of young Dionysos 1., 
hair long, wreathed with ivy ; behind, 

j5i 23 -5 mm. 


TIMoOEo[Y]r., | AIoA/YSIo[yj 
1. Young Herakles 1., lion's skin over 1. 
arm, bow and quiver at back, standing 
1., driving with r. spear into trophy 
consisting of helmet, shield, quiver, 
and cuirass ; with 1. he holds the 
shield ; his club leans against the 
stand ; between his legs, ram's head 1. 
Wt. 9"68 grammes (149'4 grains). 

From the Boym Sale (390). [PI. XV.] 



Circa B.C. 350 

591 KAAX above; bull standing 1. 
[on ear of corn] ; in field 1. mon. 
no. 92. 

JiX 24 '5 mm. Wt. 15 '23 grammes (23o'0 grains). Tetradrachm. 

Incuse square (mill-sail type) quart- 
ered and granulated. 

[PI. XV.] 

'■ For Herakleia, No. 589a, see p. 152. 


B.C. 228—185 ? 

592 Head of Prusias 
whisker, diademed. 



Zeus, wearing himation over 1. shoulder 
and about lower part of body, and 
boots, standing 1. ; in extended r. 
wreath with which he crowns the 
king's name, 1. resting on sceptre ; in 
field 1. thunderbolt, mens. no. 71 and 
no. 93. 
33 mm. Wt. 16-51 grammes (254-8 grains). Tetradrachm. [PI. XV.l 


B.C. 185?— 149. 

No. 59-2A. 

592a Head of Prusias r., slightly 
bearded, wearing winged diadem. 

JR .35 mm. 

Similar type and legend to preceding; 
in field 1. eagle standing 1. on thunder- 
bolt and mon. no. 94. 
AVt. 16-78 grammes (259 grains). Tetradrachm. 

Before 108 to circa 94 B.C. 

BAZIAEnZ r. | Eni(t)ANoVZ | 
NIkoMHAoVI. Zeus as on preceding 
coin crowning the king's name ; in 
field 1. eagle 1. on thunderbolt, mon. 
no. 95 and BZ (202 = 96/95 B.C.). 
35-5 mm. Wt. 16-04 grammes (•247-5 grains). For the attribution, see. T. Reinach, 
Rev. Num. 1897, pp. 241 ff. B has tlie form no. 96. [PI. XV.] 

Circa B.C. 500 — 450. 

593 Head of Nikomedes III. Euer- 
getes r., diademed. 


594 Youthful male figure, nude, 
kneeling 1. on 1. knee on tunny 1., r. 
holding crested helmet, 1. short sword. 

EL 21 mm. Wt. l,')-89 grammes (245-2 grains) 

Mill-sail incuse square. 

21 mm. Wt. 15-8 
no. 90. 

Mill-sail incuse square, 

Cf. Greenwell, Cyzicus, 
[PI. XV.] 

595 Lion 1., preparing to devour 
prey, standing on tunny 1. I 

EL 12-5 mm. Wt. 261 grammes (40-3 grains). Si.\th, 

Cf. Greenwell, no. 107. 

[PI. XV.l 




Circa B.C. 480 — 400. 

596 Forepart of boar 1. ; behind, Head of lion 1., jaws open, in incuse 
tunny upwards. square. 

-<" 10 mm. Wt. 1 '17 grammes (18'0 grains). 

From the Mordagu Sale (II. 246). [PI. XV.] 

597 Similar. I Similar. 

JR 14 mm. Wt. "87 gramme (13'5 grains). From the Montagu Sale [I.e.). 

598 Similar (tunny off the flan). 


JR 9-5 mm. Wt. -82 gramme (12-6 grains). From the Montagu Sale (I.e.). 

[PI. XV.] 

Circa B.C. 450 — 400. 

599 Poseidon, chlamys thrown over Mill-sail incuse square. 
1. shoulder, kneeling r. on r. knee on 
tunny r. ; in r. dolphin, 1. hand holding 
trident downwards. 

EL 11 mm. Wt. 2-61 grammes (40-.3 grains). Sixth. Cf. Greenwell, no. 6. [PI. XV.] 

600 Nike, nude to waist, kneeling 1. Mill-sail incuse square 
[on tunny L] r. raised holding aph- 

laston, 1. wrapped in peplos. 

EL 11 mm. Wt. 2-66grammes{4r0 grains). Sixth. Cf. Greenwell, no. 52. [PI. XV.] 

Mill-sail incuse square. 

601 Young Herakles, nude, crouch- 
ing r. [on tunny r.] in r. club down- 
wards, in 1. bow. 

EL 11 mm. Wt. 2 -64 grammes (40 -8 grains). Sixth. Cf. Greenwell, no. 64. [PI. XV.] 

602 Female head r., wearing cap Mill-sail incuse square, 
decorated with band of maeander pat- 
tern, and drawn together at the top. 

EL 11mm. Wt. 2-66 grammes (41-0 grains). Sixth. Cf. Greenwell, no. 85. 

[PI. XV.] 

603 Goat kneeling 1. on tunny 1. ; I Mill-sail incuse square, 
small circular punch-mark. I 

EL 11-5 mm. Wt. 2-66 grammes (41-0 grains). Sixth. Cf. Greenwell, no. 133. 

[PI. XV.] 

604 Forepart of hound 1., head re- Mill-sail incuse square, 
verted ; behind, tunny upwards. 

EL 10 mm. Wt. 2-66 grammes (41-2 grains). Sixth. Cf. Greenwell, no. 139. 

[PI. XV.] 




Circa B.C. 400 — 350. 

605 Young Dionysos, nude to waist, Mill-sail incuse square, 
reclining 1. on rock covered with 
panther's skin ; in outstretched 1. 
[kantharos] ; 1. rests on rock ; [head of 
thyrsos projects in front of his knees] ; 
below, tunny 1. 

EL 9 mm. Wt. 1"26 grammes (19-5 grains). Twelfth, 

Cf. Greenwell, no. 38. 

[PI. XV.] 

Circa B.C. 400 — 330. 

606 [SHTEIPA r.] Head of Kore 
Soteira 1., wearing earring, necklace, 
wreath of barley, and veil wound round 

■^ 14'5 mm. Wt. .3'2."J grammes (49'8 grains). 

From the Montagu Side (II. 246), 

[K]Y 1., II r. Head of lion 1. ; 
below, tunny 1. ; behind, star of eight 

[PI. XV.] 

Circa B.C. 330 — 280. 

607 €-n.rEIPA above; head of 
Kore Soteira 1. wearincj earring, neck- 
lace, corn-wreath, and veil wound round 
head ; [beneath, tunny 1. ?]. 

Apollo, nude to waist. 

KY 1., I r. 

seated 1. on netted omphalos, r. holding 
phiale, 1. resting on kithara ; in field 1. 
mon. no. 97. 

JR 23 mm. Wt. 13-28 grammes (205 grains). [PI. XV.] 

608 S^ T EIP A r. Head of Kore 
Soteira 1., wearing necklace, earring 
and wreath of barley, three ears of 
which stand up above the forehead; 
over them, and wound round the head, 

ja 24 '5 mm. Wt. 1.5'14 grammes (233 '7 grains). 


K Y 1., I I r. Lion's head 1. ; below, 
tunny 1. ; in field r., ear of barley ; 
concave field. 

[PI. XV.] 

609 [sriTjElP A r. Similar 

KYIIKHN 1., nN r. Lion's head 1. ; 
below, [tunny 1.] ; in field r., owl stand- 
ing 1., head facing. 

-flt 27 mm. Wt. Jo'l grammes (233 f) grains). In treatment this and the preceding 
coin are nearest to B.M. Catal. Myda, nos. 1.34, 135. Their style is remarkable, 
but after close consideration I am not inclined to tloubt their genuineness. 

[PL XV.] 


Circa B.C. 500 — ^450 or later. 

610 Forepart of winged horse 1. ; 
beneath i ; the whole in vine-wi-eath. 
[Die of B.M. no. 8.] 

EL 19 mm. Wt. 15-33 grammes (2.36-6 grains). Stater. 
Formerly in the Oreemvell Collection. 

Mill-sail incuse square. 
[Die of B.M. no. 8.] 

[PI. XV.] 
H 2 


Circa B.C. 394—350- 

611 Head of Zeus 1. laureate ; be 
hind, one end of thunderbolt is seen. 
[Die of B.M. no. 28.] 

J^ 18 mm. Wt. 8-39 grammes (129-4 grains). Steter. [PI. XV.] 

Forepart of winged horse r. ; traces 
of incuse square. 

612 Bearded male head 1., with Similar to preceding, 
flowing hair, wearing laureate pilos 
(" Odysseus "). 

A^ 19 mm. Wt. 8-47 grammes (130-7 grains). Stater. [PI. XV.] 

Circa B.C. 394—33° ? 

613 Janiform female head, wearing I [A A AA] Head of Athena r. in 
tainia and earring. I crested Korinthian helmet. 

Ai 13-3 mm. Wt. 2-35 grammes (36 2 grains). 

614 Similar ; hair represented by 

[a] above, A M S' r. Head of Athena 
r. in Korinthian helmet ; behind, A ; 
concave field. 

JR 12-5 mm. Wt. 1'23 grammes (19-0 grains). 

From the Montagu Sa/e (II. 246). [PI. XV.] 

615 Similar; hair represented by 

A A above, M r. Head of Athena r. 
in Korinthian helmet ; in field r., fly. 

.31 11-5 mm. Wt. 128 grammes (19-7 grains). 

From the Montagu Sale (II. 246). [PI. XV.] 


Fifth Century B.C. 

616 Gorgoneion, tongue protruding. I Cruciform pattern, with pellet in 

I centre, in incuse square. 

JR 12-3 mm. Wt. 3-12 grammes (48-1 grains). 

From the Montayti Sale (II. 246). 

Fourth Century B.C. 

617 [P] A above, | P I below. Bull 
standing 1., head reverted ; between 
hind legs, pellet. 

JR 13 mm. Wt. 2-42 grammes (37-3 grains). 

From the Montagu Sale (II. 246). 

Gorgoneion, tongue protruding; in- 
cuse circle. 

618 n A above, | P I below ; bull Gorgoneion, tongue protruding, 
as on preceding coin ; below, star of 
six points. 

JR 13-5 mm. Wt. 2-.36 grammes (.36-4 grains). 

From, the Montagu Sale (II. 246). [PI- XV.] 



619 Similar to preceding. 
[Die of B.M. no. 37.] 

Similar to preceding. 

Ji^, 13'5 ram. Wt. 2'2 grammes (33'9 grains). 



620 Head of Philetairos r., wearing 
tainia. Border of dots. 

M 21 o 1 

B.C. 263 — 241. 

(j)IAETAIPoY r. Athena, wearing 
crested Korinthian helmet, chiton, and 
peplos over lower part of body, seated 
1. on seat with arm formed by sphinx 
seated r. ; her r. rests on large shield 
before her, decorated with gorgoneion ; 
her 1. rests on arm of seat and holds 
spear over her shoulder ; on the seat, A 
(form no. 14); in field r. bow, 1. ivy-leaf 

Wt. 16'99 grammes (262"2 grains). Tetradrachm. 

From the Montagu Sale (II. 248). [PI. XV.] 

ATTALOS I. B.C. 241—197. 

621 Head of Philetairos r. laureate. 4)IAETAIPoY 1. Athena, clad as 

Border of dots. on preceding coin, seated 1. on seat ; 

with r. she holds wreath over name of 

Philetairos ; her 1. rests on her lap ; 

her spear leans against her r. knee and 

shoulder, her shield (with gorgoneion) 

against her seat ; in field r. bow, to 1. 

of inscription ivy-leaf; under r. arm of 

' Athena, A (form no. 14). 

JR 30 5 mm. Wt. l(j'93 grammes (261 '3 grains). Tetradrachm. (b has the form 

no. 98. [PI. XV.] 


622 Similar to preceding, but no 
border visible. 

[Die of B.M. no. 43.] 

B.C. 197—159. 

No. 622. 

Similar to preceding, but in field 1. 
bee (?), under r. arm of Athena mon. 
no. 99. 

M, 31 mm. Wt. 16-99 grammes (2620 grains). Tetradrachm. 
Circa B.C. 133 — Imperial Times. 

_623 Head of Asklepios r. laureate ; 
below; ZEAEYKoY Border of dots. 

n 1. EP r., MHNflN below. Eagle 
FA to front on 

thunderbolt, head r., wings displayed. 
JE 21 mm. Wt. 9-93 grammes (1.53"2 grains). 



624 Head of Asklepios 1. Border of 
dots. [Die of B.M. nos. 169, 170.] 

Serpent twined about crooked staff; 
in field 1. T Border of dots. 
[Die of B.M. no. 170.] 
JE, 17 mm. Wt. 3-19 grammes (49'3 grains). 


Circa B.C. 320 — 280. 

Head of Apollo r. laureate 

A B T 1., magistrate's name r. ; eagle 
with closed wings standing 1. 

ANA.=.IKAHS; in field 1. kantharos, 
r. ivy-leaf. 
M, 14-5 mm. Wt. 2-62 grammes (40-4 grains). ' [PI. XV.] 

626 [Die of B.M. no. 18.] KE<DAAoY ; in field 1. club within 


[Die of B.M. no. 18.] 
J\:ji 14'5 mm. Wt. 2'57 grammes (39'7 grains). [PI. XV.] 

627 [Die of B.M. no. 21.] [m]ENESIPP[o .]; in field 1. un- 

certain symbol (gi'ififin's head ?). 
JR 14-5 mm. Wt. 253 grammes (39-1 grains). [PI. XV.] 

NoYMHNIo[s]; [in field 1. cadu- 
ceus], r. rose. Concave field. 

628 (Type 1.) 
[Die of B.M. no. 30.] 

J^ 14'5 mm. Wt. 2'57 grammes (.39-6 grains). 

629 (Type 1.) 

[n]PnTAroPA[S]; in field 1., tri- 
dent 1. 
JR, 15 mm. Wt. 2'59 grammes (40'0 grains). 

630 I XAPH[z]; in field 1., laurel-branch 

I with fillets. 

j51 13'5 mm. Wt. 2-59 grammes (40-0 grains). 

Third or Second Century B.C. 

631 Head of Apollo 1., laureate. A A E above ; horse 1. feeding ; 

below horse, monogram or symbol ? ; in 
ex., thunderbolt. 

M 12 mm. Wt. 1 -29 grammes (19-9 grains). 

632 Head of Apollo r. laureate. I [A A E] above ; horse r. feeding ; 

I below horse, monogram ? 

JE, 9 mm. iVt. '64 gi-amme (9'9 grains). 

' For Abydos, No. 625a, see p. 153. 



Fourth Century B.C. 

633 Beardless male head (one of B 1. I r. 
the Kabeiroi ? ) 1., wearing piles flanked P Y 
by two stars. 

JEi 10"5 mm. Wt. 1 'So grammes (20"9 grains). 

Club, handle upwards ; tVie 
whole in laurel- wreath. 

[PI. XV.] 


Circa B.C. 400 — 310. 

634 Crested helmet r., decorated | NEJr., ANl- Corn-grain. Concave 
with floral ornament. 1 field. [Die of B.M. no. 3.] 

[Die of B.M. no. 3 ?] | 

M, 7-5 mm. Wt. '43 gramme (6-7 grains). [PI. XV.] 


Circa B.C. 450 — 387. 

No. 63.5. 

635 Janiform head (bearded male 
head r. laureate ; female head 1. wear- 
ing stephane and eaning). 

No. 635. 
TENE above, A I r. [o]n 1. Double 


axe, flanked by bunch of grapes on 1.^ 
chelys on r. ; the whole in incuse 
16 mm. Wt. 3'3o ramnies (51-7 grains). 

636 Head of the Amazon Kyme r., 
hair rolled and bound with tainia. 


After B.C. 190. 

KYMAI.n.N r., EYKTHMnN in ex. 

Horse walking 


r. ; below it, one- 
handled cup ; the whole in laurel- 

.32 mm. Wt. 16'12 grammes (248-8 grains). Tetradrachni. fl in the magis- 
trate's name has the form no. 100. [PI. XV.] 

Second Century B.C. 

637 Head of Apollo of Gryneion r 



MYPINAI-tlNI. Apollo of Gryneion, 
laureate, hair in formal plaits, wearing 
himation over 1. shoulder and lower 
limbs, walking r. ; in 1. laurel-branch 
with two fillets, in r. phiale ; before 
his feet, omphalos and kantharos ; in 
field l.mon. no. 101 ; the whole in laurel- 
wreath. * 
.30 mm. Wt. 14-92 grammes (230-2 grains). Tetraclraehm. [PI. XV.] 



Billon Coinage. 
Circa 550—440. 

638 Two calves' heads confronted ; 1 Incuse square, 
between them, oUve-tree. I 

Billon 20 mm. Wt. 11-1,3 grammes (17"7 grains). 

From the Carfrae Sale (245). [PI. XV.] 

Electrum Coinage. (Sixths.) 
Circa B.C. 480 — 440. 

639 Forepart of winged boar r., with I Lion's head r. (incuse) ; behind, 
curled wings. I small incuse. 

EL 10 mm. Wt. 2-55 grammes (.39-3 grains). [PI. XVL] 

Circa B.C. 440 — 350. 

640 Forepart of winged lion 1., with Sphinx with curled wing seated r., 

in incuse square. 

EL 11-5 mm. Wt. 2-55 grammes (39-3 grains). [PI. XVT.] 

Two rams' heads confronted ; above, 
floral ornament ; the whole in iucuse 

curled wings. 

641 Head of bearded Seilenos r. 
with pointed ear, hair confined with 
broad band. 

[Die of B.M. no. 40]. 

EL 10-5 mm. Wt. 2-53 grammes (39-0 grains). [PI. XVI.] 

642 Head of Apollo r. laureate, with Calf s head r. in incuse square, 
short hair. 

EL 10-5 mm. Wt. 2-53 grammes (.39-0 grains). [PI. XVI.] 

643 Bearded male head r. laureate I Forepart of serpent upreared r., in 
(Zeus or Asklepios). I linear square. 

EL 11 mm. Wt. 2-.54 grammes (39-2 grains). [PI. XVL] 

644 Head of Athena r. in crested Owl standing r., head facing, in 
Athenian helmet, wearing earring. linear square ; traces of incuse square. 

EL lO'o mm. Wt. 2-53 grammes (39'0 grains). 

From the Montagu Sale (I. 557). [PI. XVI.] 

645 Head of Athena nearly facing, 
inclined to r., in triple-crested helmet, 
wearing earring. 

Head of Hermes r., with short curly 
hair, petasos fastened with cord round 
neck hanging at back of neck ; the 
whole in linear square. 

EL 10 o mm. Wt. 2-56 grammes (39-5 grains). [PI. XVL] 

646 Head of Hermes r. wearing I Panther r. in linear square ; traces 
petasos tied with cord under cliin. I of incuse square. 

EL 10-5 mm. Wt. 2-53 grammes (39-1 grains). [PI. XVL] 

.•f^ /^> 



PI. xri. 



>0 W^ 



647 Head of Zeus Ammon (?) r., 
beardless, with ram's horn. 
[Die of B.M. no. 110.] 

Eagle standing r., head reverted, in 
linear square ; traces of incuse square. 

EL 11 mm. Wt. 2 56 grammes (39o grains). 

From the Bunhury Sale (II. 144). 

[PI. XVI.] 

648 Head of Demeter r. wearing 
veil, wreath of barley, and circular ear- 

EL 10 mm. Wt. 2-55 grammes (39-3 grains). 

649 Head of Persephone r., hair 
rolled, wearing wreath of barley and 
circular earring. | 

[Die of B.M. no. 66.] ! 

EL 10 mm. Wt. 2'53 grammes (39'1 grains). 

Tripod-lebes with fillets attached, in 
linear square. 

[PI. XVI.] 

Bull butting 1., in linear square. 
[Die of B.M. no. 66.] 

[PI. XVI.] 

650 Head of Apollo r. laureate, hair 


Female head r., hair in sphendone ; 
behind, serpent coiled ? ; the whole in 
linear square. 
10-5 mm. Wt. 257 grammes (39-7 grains). . [PI. XVI.] 

651 Head of young Dionysos r., hair 
short, wearing wreath of ivy. 

Youthful male head (Pan) r., horned, 
hair bound with tainia ; the whole in 
linear square. 


10 mm. Wt. 2'53 grammes (39'1 grains). 

From the Banbury Sale {II. 144). 

652 Similar, hair longer. 

[PI. XVI.] 
Similar, traces of incuse square. 

EL 10'5 mm. 

Wt. 257 grammes (.39'7 gi'ains). 

From the Montagu Sale (I. 554). 

[PI. XVI.] 

Circa B.C. 500 — 480. 

653 MA0VM/VAIOS above; boar 
, head lowered. 
[Die of B.M. nos. 1, 2, 3 (?) and 4.] 

MA®VMA/AI r., os 1. Head of 
Athena r. wearing close-fitting helmet 
(with plumeless crest, projecting spike 
and floral ornament), earring and neck- 
lace ; the hair represented by dots ; 
the whole in dotted incuse square. 

[Die of B.M. no. 2.] 

JR 20-5 mm. Wt. 8-42 grammes (129-9 grains). It is noticeable that B.M. no. 1 is 
struck from the same reverse die as this coin, but in an earlier state, before the 
inscription was inserted. [PI. XVI.] 

654 Warrior, wearing crested helmet 
and cuirass, kneeling 1., in r. spear, in 
1. round shield. [Die of B.M. nos. 7, 

Nude horseman riding r. on forepart 
of horse ; the whole in dotted incuse 
square. [Die of B.M. nos. 7, S.] 

.51 13-5 mm. Wt. 2-71 grammes (418 grains). The attribution of this coin to 
Methymna is conjectural ; but see Babelon, Perses Ach^minides, p. xxv. 
note 1. [PI. XVI.] 



Circa B.C. 350 — 250. 

MY above, T 1., [l] r. Kithara with 
fillet attached on r. ; in field 1., coiled 
serpent ? ; the whole in linear square. 
M 23 mm. Wt. 10-78 grammes (166-3 grains). Pierced. [PI. XVI.] 

655 Head of Apollo r. laureate, hair 

656 Similar to preceding. I MYTI 1. Kithara; the whole in 

I linear square. 
JR 14 mm. Wt. •2-79 grammes (43-1 grains). [PI. XVI.] 


Circa B.C. 387—301. 

657 E 1., cj) r. Bee with straight 
wings. Border of dots. 

[K ?]AEo<j)PnN r. Forepart of 
stag, kneeling r., head reverted ; be- 
hind, palm-tree ; incuse circle. 

JR 24-5 mm. Wt. 14-63 grammes (iSo'S grains). Rhodian tetradrachm. 

[PI. XVI.] 

Circa B.C. 305—288. 

658 Female head 1., wearing tur- I E 1., (j) r. Bee, with slightly curled 
reted crown, hair rolled. | wings. 

JEt 10 mm. Wt. 1-27 grammes (19-6 grains). 

Circa B.C. 258 — 202. 

659 Bust of Artemis r., wearing PY©AroPAZ 1. Forepart of stag 
stephane, hair rolled and tied in knot kneeling r., head reverted, between 
at back, drapery on shoulder ; behind E 1-, (b r. ; in field r., bee. Concave 
shoulder, bow and quiver. field. 

JR 22 mm. Wt. 6-54 grammes (100-9 grains). Rhodian didrachm. 

From the Carfrae Sale (2o0). [PI. XVI.] 

Circa B.C. 202 — 133. 

660 E 1., cj) r. Bee with straight 1 MENIZZKoZr. Stag standings; 
wings. Border of dots. I in background, palm-tree. 

^(51 17'5 mm. Wt. 3-74 grammes (57-7 grains). Attic drachm. [PI. XVI.] 

B.C. 114. 

661 Mystic kiste with half-open lid 
from which serpent issues 1. ; the 
whole in ivy-wreath. 

[Die of Bunbury specimen II. 169, 
now in B.M.l 

Two coiled serpents with heads erect ; 

between them bow in case with floral 

ornament ; in field 1. [E]cj)E, above 

K ( = 20), r. bust of Ai-temis r. wearing 

stephane, bow and quiver at shoulder. 

JR 28 mm. Wt. 12-48 grammes (192-3 grains). Kistophoric tetradrachm. 

[PI. XVI.] 



B.C. 40—38. 


Antonius r. crowned with ivy ; below, 
lituus ; the whole in ivy-wreath. 

IR 28 mm. Wt. 11-6.3 grammes (179-4 grains). Kistophoric tetradrachm. P has 
the form no. 102. [PI. XVI.] 

Ill-VIR- 1., R-P-C- r. Mystic 
kiste between two coiled serpents with 
heads erect ; above it, bust of Octavia r. 


Circa B.C. 387 — 300. 

No. f)62ii. 

662b Head of young Herakles r. in 
lion's skin. 

EPY 1-, PEAoPIAHC between club 
(handle upwards) on I. and bow in bow- 
case on r. ; in field 1. owl standing 1., 
r. monogram no. 103. 
JR 24 mm. Wt. 15 '1 grammes (233 grains). RhocUan tetradrachm. 

663 Similar to preceding. EPY 1., XAPMHS between club on 

1. (handle upwards) and bow in case on 
r. ; in field 1. owl standing 1. 
IR 16-5 mm. Wt. 3-60 grammes (55-6 grains). [PI. XVI.] 

Circa B.C. 387 — 330. 

664 Head of Apollo laureate, nearly 
facing, inclined to 1., hair flowing, 
chlaniys fastened round neck. 

KAA - - above. Swan standing 1., 
wings open, head turned back preening 
his 1. wing. 

IR 25 mm. Wt. 15-75 grammes (243-1 grains). Attic tetradrachm. 

From the Boyne Sale (414). [PI. XVI.] 

665 Similar. 

I MHTPoAHP OZ above, KA A be- 
I low ; swan standing 1., flapping wings. 
IR 13'5 mm. AVt. 1 '94 grammes (30"0 grains). Attic hemidrachm. [PI. XVI.] 


Fifth Century B.C. 

KoAoct) L, HA/loA/ r. Kithara of 

five strings ; the whole in incuse 

JR 17-5 mm. Wt. 5-48 grammes (84-5 grains). Persic drachm. [PI. XVI.] 

666 Head of Apollo r., laureate, 
hair rolled. 

' For Erythrai, No. 662a, see p. 153. 



Fourth Century B.C. 

KoAo({)n 1., IHNHS r. Kithara 
of five strings ; concave field. [Die of 
B.M. no. 5.] 

grammes (56'5 grains). Rhodian drachm. [PI. XVI.] 

I KoAO(j)fl 1., MHTPoAriPo[s] r. 
I Kithara of five strings. 
JH 11 mm. Wt. -93 gramme (14'3 grains). Rhodian diobol. 

667 Head of Apollo 1., laureate 
hair rolled. [Die of B.M. no. 6.] 

M 16 mm. Wt. 3-6( 
668 Similar to preceding, 

Second Century B.C. 

[K]oAocJ)fiNIXlN 1. Apollo Kt^a- 
p(p86<;, wearing long chiton and mantle 
depending from shoulders, advancing r., 
holding kithara under 1. arm and 
phiale in r. 

■^ 19 mm. Wt. 6'49 grammes (lOO'l grains), m has the form no. 20. 

669 nvoEoZ 1. Homer seated 1., 
chin resting on r. hand, 1. holding a 
scroll resting on his knees. 

Circa B.C. 350 — 190. 

670 Horseman r., wearing helmet, 
chlamys flying behind, and cuirass, on 
prancing horse, in r. couched lance. 

MATH above, APoAAoArvPoS 
below ; bull butting 1. ; behind, ear of 
barley ; around, maeander border ; 
concave field. 

Si 14'5 mm. Wt. 3'11 grammes (48'0 grains). Phoenician drachm? 

Fro7)i the Ashbnmham Sale (183). [PI. XVI.] 

Late Seventh or Sixth Century B.C. 

671 Head of lion r., jaws open ; on 
the nose, above the eye, a hairy pro- 
tuberance ; countermark : eye ? 

Two incuse squares joined, one 
smaller than the other. 

EL 12-5 mm. Wi. 467 grammes (72-1 grains). Milesian third. On the edge, eight 
various countermarks. On the attribution, which is not quite certain, see J. 
P. Six, Xum. Chr. 1890, p. 202 (where these coins are given to Alyattea) ; 
Babelon, Hev. A^im. 1895, p. 317 f. (Miletos) ; and Head (B.M. Catal. Lydia, 
p. xviii.) [PI. XVI.] 

Circa B.C. 400 — 350. 
Under Hekatomnos. 

672 [EKA] above; head of lion 1., 
jaws open, tongue protruding; below, 
leg of lion r. 

Ornamental star, in incuse circle. 

■^ 16 mm. Wt. 4-13 grammes (63-7 grains). Attic drachm. The type of the 
obverse is a disintegration of the old Milesian type of the forepart of a lion with 
head reverted {see Head, B.M. Catal. louia, p. "l87). [PI. XVI.] 



Circa B.C. 350—334- 

673 Head of Apollo 1. laureate, hair 

Mou. no. 104, 1., [Alo]noMn[oS] 
below ; lion standing I., looking back 
at eight-pointed star. 

JR 17'5 mm. Wt. 3'5 grammes (54'0 grains). Phoenician drachm. For the 
magistrate's name, nee Mionnet, Tom. .S, p. 164, no. 733 and Suppl. Tom. 6, 
p. 264, nos. 1181 foil. [PI. XVI.] 

674 Similar. Similar, but magistrate's name 


JR 12 mm. Wt. 1 '78 grammes (27 -4 grains). Phoenician hemidrachm. 

[PI. XVI.] 

After B.C. igo. 

675 Head of Kybele r., hair in j IMYP|NAI.n.N above, AHMHTPl|oZ 
loose locks on neck, wearing turreted j and mon. no. 10.5 in ex. Lion advancing 
crown. I r. ; the whole in oak-wreath. 

JR 32 mm. Wt. 15"88 grammes (245'0 grains). Attic tetradrachm. [PI. XVI.] 

Second or First Century B.C. 

[lMY]PNAinN r. j[A]noAAoAn[ 
PoZ r. Homer seated 1., r. raised to 
his chin, 1. holding roll on his knees. 
M 20-.") mm. Wt. 8-01 grammes (123-6 grains). 

676 Head of Apollo r. laureate, hair 
in formal plaits on neck. 

Late Sixth or early Fifth Century B.C. 

Quadripartite incuse square. 

677 [T] H [i] o [a/] ? around; 
griffin, with curled wings, seated r., 1. 
fore-leg raised. Border of dots. 

JSi 24 mm. Wt. 1 1 44 grammes (176-6 grains 

[PI. XVI.] 


^ ^"^ -^ ^^^^^^' Late Sixth or beginning 

of Fifth Century B.C. 
Xo. 681. 

678 Sphinx with curled wing seated 
1. ; [in front of it, amphora] ; the whole 
in wreath. | 

JR 18 mm. Wt. 7-93 grammes (122-3 grains). Chian didrachm. 

679 Similar, but amphora visible, I Similar, 
and no wreath. I 

• J\\, 19 mm. Wt. 7-74 grammes (119-4 grains). Chian didrachm. 


No. 683. 
Quadripartite incuse square. 

[PI. XVI. 1 

[PI. XVI. J 



B.C. 478—412. 
680 Circular shield, on which, sphinx Quadripartite incuse square, 

with curled wing seated 1. ; before it , 
amphora surmounted by bunch of 
grapes. 1 

JR 14 mm. Wt. 3-77 grammes (.58"2 grains). Chian drachm. [PI. XVI.] 

681 Sphinx with curled wing seated 
1. ; in front, bunch of grapes. Border 
of dots. 

After B.C. 84 ? 

AE-n-MEA^N r. | XI oZ 1. Am- 
phora ; in field 1., prow 1. ; the whole in 
vine-wreath ; concave field. 

JR 2-2omm. Wt. 412 grammes {63-6 grains). Attic drachm. 

682 Similar to preceding. EoNoMo?r. |Xlosl. Amphora; 

in field 1. ear of barley. Border of 
^ 18 mm. Wt. 4-28 grammes (66-0 grains). Attic drachm. [PI. XVI.] 

Third Century A.D. 

683 XI n N above; sphinx with • o -1. MHPoC r. Homer seated r. 
curled wing seated 1., r. fore-foot on on chair, opening a roll with both 
amphora. Border of dots. [Die of B.M. , hands. 

no. 140.] ! 

JEi 16'5 mm. Wt. 3'25 grammes (oO'l grains). CI lias the form no. 79. 

684 Lion's scalp. 


Circa B.C. 439—394- 

S A above ; forepart of swimming 
bull r. ; behind, olive-branch with two 
berries ; the whole in incuse square. 
J^ 24 mm. Wt. 13 '05 grannnes (201 '4 grains). Samian tetradrachm. 

From the Bnnhury Hale (11. 226). [PI. XVI.] 

Circa B.C. 205 — 129. 

685 Lion's scalp. Border of dots. 
[Die of Bunbury specimen, II. 232, 
now in B.M.] 

Z A M I n N above ; forepart of swim- 
ming bull r. ; below, vase (hydria ?). 

JR 20-5 mm. Wt. 4 22 grammes (6.5-2 grains). Kistophoric trihemidrachm. 

[PI. XVI.] 


Circa B.C. 650 — 550. 

686 Head of lion r., mane treated 
formally. [Die of B.M. no. 2.] 

Head of Aphrodite r., hair dotted, 
wearing circular eai-riug and cap with 
riband passing three times round it; 
the whole in incuse square. [Die of 
B.M. no. 2.] 
J^ 16-5 mm. Wt. 6-19 grammes (9.5-6 grains). Aiginetic drachm. [PI. XVI.] 


Circa B.C. 550 — 500. 

K A/ r., I 1. Head of Aphrodite 
r., hair dotted, confined with cord 
and tied in queue ; she wears circular 
earring and necklace ; the whole in 
incuse square. 

[Die of B.M. nos. 13, 14.] 

16 mm. Wt. 6'05 grammes (93'4 grains). Aigiiietic drachm. This coin was 
struck before the following, or the B.M. specimens, as is shown by the better 
preservation of the rev. die. [PI. XVI.] 

688 Similar (same die). | Similar (same die). • 

_/5i 165 mm. Wt. 6'15 grammes (94 9 grains). Aiginetic drachm. 

687 Forepart of lion r. 
[Die of B.M. nos. 13, 14.] 


[PI. XVI.] 

Circa B.C. 300 — 190. 

689 Head of Aphrodite r., hair 
waved, wearing stephane, drop eaixing 
and necklace. Border of dots. 

J^ 1.5"5 mm. Wt. 3'13 grammes (48'3 grains 

[AY]T0KPATH[S] r., KNI below; 
forepart of lion r. 

Rhodian drachm. [PI. XVII.] 

690 Head of Aphrodite r., wearing 
earring (?) and necklace, hair gathered 
at back ; behind, mon. no. 106. 

J^ 15 mm. Wt. 3'05 grammes (47 '1 grains 

TEAE[AI] r., [KNi] below; fore- 
part of lion r. 

Rhodian drachm. 

691 Similar. | [t]EAEAE r., KNI below; similar. 

J^ 16'5 mm. Wt. 3'08 grammes (47'6 grains). Rliodian drachm. 


692 Head of Zeus-Sarapis r 
reate, wearing atef-crown. 
[Die of B.M. no. 6.] 

First Century B.C 


MYNAinN 1., I oEoA/xPoS r. 
Crown of Isis (horns, disk and plumes, 
on two ears of com) ; below, thunder- 
bolt. Border of dots. 

JR 18'5 mm. Wt. 4'32 grammes (66 '6 grains). Attic drachm. 

From the Sale of "a late Collector," London, May 30, 1900 (374). 

[PI. XVII.] 


B.C. 377—353- 

MAYSSnAAo r. Zeus Labraundeus 
standing r., wearing long chiton, and 
himation round lower part of body, 
over 1. shoulder and 1. arm ; in r. he 
holds double-axe (labrys) over shoulder, 
in 1. lance, point downwards. 
Ai '-i-i ram. Wt. 15-08 grammes (23-2-7 grains). Rhodian tetradrachm. 

[PI. XVII.] 

693 Head of Apollo laureate, nearly 
facing, inclined to r., with flowing hair, 
[chlamys fastened round neck]. 


694 Similar. I MAYS«-n.A[Ao] r. Similar; con- 

I cave field. 

-5v 14 nim. Wt. 3'6 grammes (5i)"5 grains). Rhodiati drachm. 
From the Montagu Sale (II. 276). 

695 Similar (chlamj-s visible). I MAYSS-^AA[o] r. Similar type; 

I in field 1., wreath. 
JR 15 mm. Wt. 3'o4 grammes (54'6 grains). Rhodian drachm. 

HIDRIEUS. ^^& ^iW B-C- 351—344- 

No. 696. 

696 Head of Apollo as on preceding 

IAPIE[ns] r. Zeus Labraundeus 
as on preceding coins ; behind, in field 
1., M 

jH 14'5 mm. Wt. 3'65 grammes (56'4 grains). Rhodian drachm. 
From the Bunhury Sale (II. 257). 


B.C. 340—334- 

697 Head of Apollo as on preceding I PIZfiAAPoYr. Zeus Labraundeus 
coins. I as on preceding coins ; concave field. 

M 20-5 mm. Wt. 6-84 grammes (105-6 grains). Rhodian didrachm. [PI. XVIL] 

698 Similar. | niZriAAPo[Y] ,-. Similar type. 

-<5v 15-5 mm. Wt. .3'62 grammes (55-9 grains). Rhodian drachm. 
From the Montayu SaJe (II. '276). 

699 Similar. [Die of B.M. no. 13.] | PiZnAAPoY Similar type. 

JRi 15 '5 mm. Wt. 3 6 grammes (55 '5 grains). Rhodian drachm. 

From the MoiUagu Sale (I.e.). [PI. XVIL] 


Circa B.C. 300 — 190. 

700 Head of beardless warrior r., KAAYM[NIon] below. Kithara of 
wearing crested close-fitting helmet, five strings ; the whole in dotted 
with cheek-pieces. square. 

JJH 19 mm. Wt. 5-44 grammes (84-0 grains). Rhodian didrachm. The weight is 
abnormally low (it is wronglj- given in the Sale Catalogue as 99J grains), but 
there seems to be no other reason to doubt the coin. 

From the Sale of " a late Collector," May 30, 1900 (379) [PI. XVIL] 

Late Fifth Century B.C. 

701 KnioA/ r. Nude athlete in Crab in dotted incuse square. 

attitude of hurling the diskos which he 

holds in r. ; on 1., prize-tripod. Border 

of dots. 

JR 23 -5 mm. Wt. 16 '3 grammes (251-5 grains). Attic tetradrachm. 

From the Montayu Sale (I. 610). [PI. XVIL] 



702 K0€ r. Similar to preceding. | Crab in dotted incuse circle. 

JR 26"5 mm. Wt. 1634 grammes (•2.522 grains). Attic tetradrachm. 

[PI. XVII.] 
Circa B.C. 366 — 300. 

703 Head of bearded Herakles r. in I BITXIN r., KHloN below. Veiled 
lion's skin. I female head (Demeter ?) 1. 

Ji^ •20'.5 mm. Wt. 6'89 grammes (106'4 grains). Rhodian tetradrachm. 

V = ' |.pj_ XVII.] 

No. 704. 
Circa B.C. 300—190. 

704 Head of young Herakles r. in 
lion's skin. [Die of B.M. no. .51.] 


KnioN above, KAEINoZ below. 
Crab, below which club, handle 1. ; the 
whole in dotted square. 

19-5 mm. Wt. 6'56 gi'ammes (101'.3 grains). Rhodian didr'aehm. 

705 Head of bearded Herakles r. in 
lion's skin. 

JR 14i5 mm. 

[Kn] I [on] above, [A]M(t)IAA 
M A[?] below. Crab, below which uncer- 
tain object ; the whole in dotted square. 
Wt. 3-22 grammes (49-7 grains). Rhodian drachm. The object 
below the crab is described by Head (B.M. Catal. Caria, p. 199, nos. 65, 66) as 
a snail ? 

Sixth Century B.C. 
706 Fig-leaf with sprouts in the I Oblong incuse divided longitudinally 
intervals of the lobes. I into two halves, with rough surfaces. 

ja -iS-.Tmni. Wt. 12-03 grammes (185-7 grains). Aiginetic stater. [PI. XVII.] 


Circa B.C. 6oo — 500. 

706a Lion's head r., jaws open. 

.51 21 mm. 

No. 70Ga. 

Rectangular incuse diametrically 
divided into two oblongs with rough 
Wt. 1321 grammes (203-9 grains). Phoenician stater. 

Circa B.C. 400 — 333. 

707 Head of Helios, unradiate, PoA loN above; rose, with bud on 
nearly facing, inclined to r., hair r., bunch of grapes attached to stalk 
flowing. on 1. ; in field r., E ; the whole in in- 

cuse square. 
25 -.5 mm. Wt. 14-99 grammes (-2310 grains). Rhodian tetradrachm. Belongs 
to the same issue as the gold stater, B.M. Catal. no. 10. 

From the Montagu Sale of Dec. 1894 (287). [PI. XVII.] 





708 Similar to preceding. I PoAloN above; similar to pre- 

I ceding. 

IR 20 mm. Wt. 6'72 grammes (103'7 grains). Rhodian didrachm. Same issue as 
preceding. [PI. XVII.] 

709 !SimiIar to preceding. P o A I o N above ; rose with bud on 

r. ; on either side of stalk [e] 1., Y i". ; 
in field 1. bunch of grapes ; traces of 
incuse circle. 

-51 17 '5 mm. Wt. 6 '60 grammes (101 '9 grains). Rhodian didrachm. 

710 Similar to preceding. I Similar to preceding, botli letters iti 

I field visible, no traces of incuse circle. 
JSi 19'o mm. Wt. 6"21 grammes (95'7 grains). Rhodian didrachm. 
From the Montagu Sale (II. 284). 

711 Similar to preceding. 

P o A I o N above ; rose with bud on 
each side ; in field r. | ; the whole in 
incuse square. 

[Die of B.M. no. 39.] 
JR 15 mm. Wt. 3 -64 grammes (o6"2 grains). Rhodian drachm. 

From the Montagu Sale (II. 284). [PI. XVII.] 

712 Similar to preceding. | Similar to preceding (same die). 

JR 15 mm. Wt. 3'.S6 grammes (51 '9 grains). 

Coinage of the Symmachy. Circa B.C. 394. 

713 Infant Herakles, nude, kneel- 
ing r, on 1. knee, strangling a serpent 
in each hand. 

P on either side of rose. 

JR, 19 mm. Wt. 9 -82 grammes (151 '5 grains). Reduced Aiginetic stater. Worn. 

[PI. XVII.] 


Circa B.C 
714 Head of Helios radiate, nearly 
facing, inclined to r. 


-Al 25 '5 mm 

715 Similar. 

-31 26 mm. 

716 Similar. 


304 — 166. 

PC A I ON above, AMEIN IAS across 
field below ; rose with bnd on r. ; in 
field 1., prow r. Border of dots. Con- 
cave field. 
Wt. 13'28 grammes (205'0 grains). Rhodian tetradrachm. 
I Similar, but A M E I N I AC 

Wt. 13'3 grammes (205'2 grains). Rhodian tetradrachm. 

[PI. XVII.] 

T I M o o E o ? above ; rose with bud 

on r., on either side of stalk P o ; jn 

field 1. terminal figure facing. Concave 


22-5 mm. Wt. 6-74 grammes (104-0 grains). Didrachm. [PI. XVII.] 




717 Similar to preceding, but not Magistrate's name above obliterated ; 

radiate. rose with bud on r., on either side of 

stalk p o ; in field 1. buttertlj-. 

JR 14 mm. Wt. 2-49 grammes (38 4 grains). Rhodian drachm. 

Circa B.C. 189—166. 

718 Head of Helios radiate, nearly ANTAIoZ above; rose with bud on 

facing, inclined to r. 1., on either side P o ; in field r., ear 

of barley ; the whole in shallow 
incuse square. 

M 16 mm. Wt. 4-26 grammes (65-S grains). Draclini. [PI. XVII.] 

Circa B.C. 166—88. 

719 Head of Helios r. radiate, hair 
flowing on neck. 

ANA.:.|AoToZ above; rose with 
bud on 1-., P o on either side of stalk ; 
in field 1. omphalos round which ser- 
pent twines ; the whole in shallow in- 
cuse square. 
JR 14 mm. Wt. 247 grammes (38-1 grains). Rhodian drachm. [PI. XVII.] 

720 Head of Helios r. radiate. NlKH(t>oPoZ above, P o below: 

rose with bud on r. ; in field L, hand 
holding ear of corn, the whole in shal- 
low incuse square. 

JR 14o mm. Wt. 2-34 grammes (36'1 grains). Rlio Han drachm. 

721 Head of Rhodos r. radiate. Rose, with branch on each side ; on 

either side, below P o ; the whole in 
shallow incuse square. 

JE, 13 mm. Wt. 1 '59 grammes (24 '6 grains). 

Circa B.C. 88—43. 

722 Head of Helios radiate, nearly j P o at sides of full-blown rose ; above, 
facing, inclined to r. 1 palm-branch, below, ear of barley. Bor- 

der of dots ; concave field. 

J^ 20'5 mm. Wt. 4'06 grammes (620 grains). Attic drachm ? 

[PI. XVII.] 



• B.C. 560—546. 

723 Foreparts of lion r. and bull 1. 1 Two incuse squares, side by side, one 
confronted. I smaller than the other. 

iV IT-") mm. Wt, 10"2 grammes (16.5'4 grains). Babylonic stater. [PI. XVII.] 

1 2 


724 Similar. . ] Similar. 

jV" lo'o ram. Wt. S'Ol grammes (123'6 grains). Stater of gold standard. 

[PI. XVII.] 

725 Similar. | Similar. 

M loo mm. Wt. 5-34 grammes (82-5 grains). Siglos. [PI. XVII.] 



Series I. 

Circa B.C. 520 — 480. 

726 Forepart of boar 1., neck dotted, Kude incuse square, decorated with 
truncation marked by I'ow of dots four lines crossing in centre, forming 
between parallel lines. [Die of B.M. triangles having their bases on the 
no. -5.] sides of the square ; lower parts of the 

' triangles partly filled. [Die of B.M. 
nos. 0, 6.] 

^dl 21'o mm. Wt. 9'46 grammes (146'0 grains). Lykian stater. [PI. XVII. ] 

Series II. 
Circa B.C. 500 — 460. 

727 Boar walking r. Border of dots. I Tortoise, in dotted incuse square. 
[Die of B.M. no. 17.] I [Die of B.M. no. 17.] 

JR 20 mm. Wt. 9 '28 grammes (143 "i grains). Lykian stater. The row of dots on 
the obverse of B.M. no. 17 (PI. I. 14) belongs to the old type over which the 
type of the boar has been struck. [PI. XVII. ] 

Series III. 


Circa B.C. 480 — 460, 

728 Head of Aphrodite (?) 1., formal 
curls on forehead, hair fastened by 
band passing three times round it and 
caught up behind ; details blurred. 

M 22 mm. Wt. 9-91 grammes (153 -0 grains). Lykian stater. [PI. XVIL] 

T^X XE FtE BE around; tetra- 
skeles, with central ring, 1. ; the whole 
in dotted incuse square. 

Circa B.C. 380—362. 

729 Lion's scalp. [ri]tP EK 'A1^ in angles of tri- 

skeles 1. with central ring. 

^' 15 mm. Wt. 2'24 grammes (34 'o grains). Lvkian tetrobol. 
From the Monta</u Sale (I. 634). 




No. 730. 
Fifth Century B.C. 


730 Nude warrior, wearing crested 
helmet, fighting r. with spear in r., 
round shield on 1. arm. 

E ? above. Triskeles of human 
legs 1. ; the whole in incuse square. 


20'5 mm. \Vt. 10-53 grammes (162-5 grains). Babylonian stater. 
From the Bunbury Sale (II. 347). 

Fourth Century B.C. 

731 Two wrestlers grasping each 
other's arms; between them A? 
Border of dots. 

E?TFEAMY? 1. Slinger wearing 
short chiton discharging sling to r ; 
in field r. triskeles of human legs 1. ; 

JR 25 mm. 

the whole in dotted square. 
Wt. 10'83 grammes (167'1 grains). Babylonian stater. [PI. XV^II.] 

Second Century B.C. 

732 Head 
hair rolled ; 
Border of dots. 

of Artemis r., laureate, 

quiver behind neck. 

[Same die as B.M. 


Artemis, wearing short chiton with 

apoptygma, and hunting boots, bow 

no. 1.] and quiver at shoulder, standing 1., 1. 

resting on sceptre, r. holding wreath ; 
beside her, stag standing 1. looking up 
at her. Border of dots ; concave field. 

■M 31mm. Wt. 16-96 grammes (261-8 grains). Attic tetradrachra. That this coin 
is from the same obv. die as the B.M. specimen is proved by the arrangement 
of the dots in the border ; otherwise there is a curious difference in the relief 
of the two coins. From the Bunbury Sale (II. 350). [PI. XVII.] 

Shortly before B.C. 36. 

733 Head of Athena r. in crested 
helmet, hair falling on neck. 

KAE YX across field. Nike, wear- 
ing long chiton and peplos, advancing 
1., in extended r. wreath, 1. wrapped in 
peplos; in field 1. pomegranate. 

JR 29-5 ram. Wt. 1597 grammes (-246-5 grains). Attic tetradrachm. 

[PI. XVII.] 



Fourth Century B.C. 

734 Nude rider, with whip in r., 
riding sideways on horse to r. ; with 1. 
he holds bridle on near side of horse ; 
exergual line. Border of dots. 

J& 22 mm. Wt. 1072 grammes (165"4 grains). Babylonio stater. 

KEAEA/ above. Goat kneeling r., 
head reverted, on exergual line; con- 
cave field. 


KEAEA/ above; similar type to 1. ; 
concave field. 

735 Similar type of more advanced 
style ; exergue off the flan. Border of 

JR 24 mm. Wt. lO'oS grammes (163-3 grains). Babylonic stater. 

Circa 425 — 385 B.C. 


736 Beardless male figure, winged, 
with plume on head, draped from 
waist downwards, running r., hold- 
ing in both hands before his body 
a disk, on which star. Border of dots. 

[Dieof B.M. no. 14.] 

JR 22 mm. Wt. 1(V4.") trnimmes (161 -.3 grains). Babylonic stater. 

MAP above. Swan standing 1. ; in 
field 1., fish downwards ; r. sign no. 107 ; 
concave field. 



736a Bare head of Herakles r., 
bearded, lion's skin fastened round 
neck ; border of dots. [Die of B.M, 
no. 28J. 

JR 22 mm. Wt. 1017 grammes (157 grains). 

36 a. 

-333 B.C. 

MAA 1.; head of bearded satrap r., 
in Persian tiara. [Die of B.M. no. 28.] 

Babylonic stater. 
From the Montagu Sale (I. 657). 


Circa B.C. 374—333- 

N A r I A I H o N (sic) r. Bearded Dio- 
nysos standing 1., wearing himation 
over 1. shoulder and from waist down- 
wards ; in r., vine-branch with leaf, 
tendrils and bunch of grapes; 1. rests 
on thyrsos ; in field 1. A////, astragalos, 
' and AS Border of dots. 

^ 21-5 mm. Wt. 9"43 grammes (145 '6 grains). For the form of the ethnic, cf. B.M. 
Catal. Cilic. no. 22 (PI. XX. 6). The dies are different from any of the seven 
published ibid. pp. -xliv. f. [PI. XVIII.]. 

737 Aphrodite, wearing polos, neck- 
lace and bracelets, chiton, and peplos 
about lower limbs, seated 1. on throne ; 
in field 1. Eros flying towards her with 
wreath in both hands ; imder throne, 
mouse 1. Border of dots. 






Circa B.C. 450—386 
738 Archer, half-kneeling to 1. 

SOAEHA/ 1.; bunch of grapes and 
tendril; in field 1. above, EY, r. below, 
fly ; the whole in dotted incuse square. 

wears bonnet, loin-cloth, and bow-case 
at side; he examines cord of bow 
which he holds in both hands ; in field 
r., uncertain symbol. Border of dots. 

JR 22 mm. \Vt. 1061 grammes (16.3-7 grains). Babylonian stater. The symbol is 
the same as on B.M. no. 3. [PI. XVIII.] 


Circa B.C. 450 — 380. 

739 King (of Kilikia ?) on horse- Aramaic inscription (;-if^) r. Hop- 
back to r. Plain border. lite, nude, wearing crested Korintliian 

helmet, sword in sheath at 1. side, 
kneeling 1. ; in r. couched lance, on 1. 
arm shield adorned with wreath. Con- 
cave field. 

M 22 mm. Wt. lO'.iQ grammes (16.3-4 grains). [PI. XVIII.l 

B.C. 378—372- 

740 Female head with streaming Aramaic inscription (l?22"m) ^• 
hair, nearly facing, inclined to 1., wear- Bearded male head (Ares ?) r., wearing 
ing ean-ings and necklace, ampyx over crested Athenian helmet decorated 
forehead. Border of dots. with floral scroll, chlamys fastened at 

neck. Border of dots. 

^ •2-2-.5 mm. Wt. 10-28 grammes (158-6 grains). Babylonian .stater. Stabbed. 



Circa B.C. 361— 333- 

Aramaic inscription (^-77^) above; 
lion bringing down stag 1. ; in field r., 
below, letter (y) ; traces of incuse 

741 Aramaic inscription (^'^j-^'^y^) 
r. Baaltars, nude to waist, seated 1. 
on diphros, in r. ear of barley and vine- 
branch with bunch of grapes ; under 
diphros, sign no. ] 08. Plain border. 

J& 23 mm. Wt. 10-74 grammes (165-7 grains). Babylonic stater. 

From the. Carfrae Sale (286). [PI. XVIII.] 

742 Aramaic inscription (T^Ji^y^) Similar to preceding, but letter 
r. Baaltars, nude to waist, seated 1. on in field below is different (f) ; plain 
diphros, head facing, in r. eagle, ear border. Concave field. 

of barley, and grapes ; in field 1., letters 
obliterated ; under diphros letter (j^)- 
Border of dots. 

ja -27 mm. Wt. 10-74 grammes (U;.")-7 grains). Babylonic stater. Stabbed. 

[PI. xvm.] 



Aramaic inscription ("r^^m N'^n^'^m^ 
hi! ^t ^7T?2) ^bove and 1. ; two lines 
of wall, each with four towers ; above, 
lion 1., head facing, attacking bull 
which kneels r. Border of dots. 

743 Aramaic inscription (f^nbys) 
r. Baaltars, nude to waist, seated 1. 
on diphros ; 1. wrapped in himation 
rests at his side, r. holds sceptre in front 
of him ; in field 1. ear of barley, bunch 
of grapes, and letter (>) ; under diphros 
letter (j^)- Border of dots. 

JR 24 '5 mm. Wt. lO'/i grammes (165'7 grains). Babylonic stater. Twice stabbed, 
From the Carfrae Sale (287). [PI. XVIII.] 

Time of Mazaios [Struck for Mallos?] 

744 Baaltars, himation over lower 
limbs and 1. shoulder, seated 1. on diph- 
ros ; 1. arm wrapped in himation rests 
at his side, r. holds sceptre ; in field 1. 
ear of barley and bunch of grapes; 
under diphros M ; in field r. [b] 
Border of dots. 

Bust of Athena in triple-crested 
Athenian helmet nearly facing, in- 
clined 1. ; wears earrings and necklace ; 
bust draped. Border of dots. 

JR 23 mm. Wt. 10-52 grammes (162-3 grains). Babylonic stater. Stabbed. 



[All Attic Drachms.] 

Head of the king r., diademed. 

Athena standing 1., wearing crested 
helmet and long chiton, in r. Nike with 
wreath, 1. resting on shield, beside 
which spear ; to r., 1., and below, titles ; 
in field 1. and r. monograms or letters ; 
in ex., date. 


B.C. 220 — 163. 

BASIAEnZ r. | APIAPAooV 1. | 
EVZEB-VZ below; in field 1. T r. A ; 
dateC' (6 = 215/214 B.C.) Nike r. 

wt. 4-02 grammes (62-0 grains). 

EVZEB«VZbelow;infieldl. mons. nos. 
60, 109, r. mon. no. 110; date TA 
(33 = 188/187 B.C.) Nike 1. 
Wt. 417 grammes (64 3 grains). [PI- XVIII.] 

Inscr. as preceding, in field 1. mon. 
no. Ill, r. mon. no. 112 (?) ; date TA ; 

Nike 1. 

JR 17-5 mm. Wt. 3-97 grammes {61-3 grains). 

745 Head youthful, 

JR 18 mm. 

746 Head older. 

JR 18 mm. 
747 As preceding 



748 As preceding. Inscr. as preceding; in field 1. mons. 

nos. 113, 111 ; date TA ; Nike 1. 
JR, 18 mm. VVt. 3 '99 grammes (61 '5 grains). 


B.C. 125?— Ill ? 

749 Head youthful. BAIIAEnZ r. | APIAPAOoV 1. | 

EHI+AN.VZ below; in field 1. A, r. A; 
date A ; Nike 1. [Die of B.M. no. 1.] 
M 18 mm. Wt. 4-08 grammes (63-0 grains). [PI. XVIII. ] 


B.C. Ill ?— 99? 

750 Head youthful. BASIAEHZ r. | AIIAIAooY 1. | 

[+]lAoMHTIS below; in field 1. mon. 
no. 114, r. A ; date H ; Nike r. 
IR 18 mm. Wt. 3'23 grammes (49'8 grains). Blundered; cf. B.M. no. 1. 

751 As preceding. [Die of B.M 
no. 3.] 

Similar, but P in king's name, 
+IAoMHToP[o2], and date not legi- 
ble ; Nike r. 

[Die of B.M. no. 3.] 
M 18-5 mm. Wt. 4-21 grammes (65-0 grains). [PI. XVIII.] 


B.C. 99—87. 

752 Hair flying; style of Mithra- I [BA]ZIAEn2 r. | [A]PI APA0o[V] 
dates the Great. ! 1. | EVZEBoV[z] below; in field l.' 

mon. no. 115; date off the flan; 

Nike r. 

j5i 17'5 mm. Wt. 3-97 grammes (61 '3 grains). 

From the Montagxi Sale (II. 320). 



B.C. 95 — 62. 

763 Head old. BASIAEoZ r. | [APLJBAPZ AN*' 

j 1. I 4)IA.PnMAI.V below ; in field 1. 
i mon. no. 116; date KA (24 = 72/71 
, B.C.); Nike r. 
JR 17'5 mm. Wt. 3'82 grammes (58'9 grains), cb has the form no. 1. 



754 As preceding. 

1. I 4) 1 A. Pn. AAA I?' below; in field 1. 
mon. no. 117; date ZK (27 = 69/68 
B.C.); Nike 1. 

M, 17 mm. Wt. .3-88 grammes (o9-8 grains). cb has the form no. 118. 


B.C. 52—42. 

BAZIAEnZ above, | [A]PI.BAP 

755 Head bearded 

SA - - r. I EVZEBOVZ 1. | 4)IAo 
P j^ M A - - below; in field 1. star in cres- 
cent, r. mon. no. 119 ; date I A (11 = B.C. 
42/41) ; Nike r. 

JR 16"7 mm. 

Wt. 3'62 grammes (55 "8 grains). 

From the Montwjn Halt (II. 320). 




TEPM around. Head of Traianus r. 
laureate. Border of dots. 

AHMAPXEZ VriAT r around. 
Head of Zeus Ammon r., bearded, with 
ram's horn. Border of dots. 

.(5? IG'5 mm. Wt. 187 grammes (28-8 grains). 

From the Moutwjii Salt (II. 443). 





B.C. 449—425. 

757 Herakles, lion's skin on head Phoenician inscription Oy^y^^^) 

and back, fighting to r. with club in r. above ; lion r., bringing down stag ; 
raised above his head, bow in 1. Bor- the whole in dotted incuse square, 
der of dots. 1 

^1 22 mm. Wt. 10'52 grammes (162-4 grains). Babylonic stater. [PI. XVIII.] 


B.C. 425 — 400. 

Phoenician inscription (["f'^Jti'^y:!';!) 
above ; similar type to preceding ; 
the whole in dotted incuse square. 
/R 16 mm. Wt. 3-59 grammes (55-4 grains). Babylonic tetrobol. 

758 Similar type to preceding. Bor- 
der of dots ? 

1 For Araathus, No. 756a, Rhoikos, No. 756b, Paplios, No. 759a, sec p. 153. 


B.C. 361—312. 

759 Herakles, one lion's skin on 
head and another hanging over 1. arm, 
fighting r., with club in r. raised over- 
head, bow in 1. ; in field r. sign no. 120 ; 
[border of dots]. 

Phoenician inscription ([7r\'']QD 
"tI^qI^) above ; similar type to preced- 
ing ; in field r. ? (20 = 341/0 B.C.) ; 
the whole in dotted incuse square. 
N 12-5 mm. Wt. 4-09 grammes (6.3-1 grains). Drachm. [PI. XVIIL] 



B.C. 411—374. 

760 Head of Herakles r., bearded, I Forepart of goat kneeling r. ; below, 
wearing lion's skin. Plain border. I club (handle r.) Plain border. 

N 8-5 mm. Wt. -71 gramme (11 '0 grains). Tenth of stater. [PI. XVIIL] 

B.C. 374—368. 

761 Head of Aphrodite 1., wearing 
tall, richly ornamented Stephanos, ear- 
ring and necklace, hair falling on neck. 

Head of Athena 1., wearing crested 
Korinthian helmet and circular earring, 
hair falling on neck. 

Jf 9'5 mm. Wt. 'oS gramme (9'0 grains). Twelfth or tenth of stater. 

Circa B.C. 331—312. 

762 Head of Aphrodite r., wearing Head of Apollo 1., laureate, bow 
turreted crown and earring, hair tied 1 behind shoulder; behind, BA 
behind and falling on neck, one plait I 

on shoulder ; behind, mon. no. 211. , 

JR 19 mm. Wt. 6"2.3 grammes (96"1 grains). Rhodian didrachm. 

From the Sale of "a late Collector," May 31, 1900 (405). [PI. XVIIL] 




B.C. 306—281. 

763 Head of young Herakles r. , ZEAEYKoY r. i BAZIAE/^Z below; 
wearing lion's skin. Border of dots. Zeus, nude to waist, seated 1. on throne 

with back, on r. eagle r., 1. resting on 
sceptre ; in field 1. mon. no. 36, under 
\ seat mon. no. 30. Border of dots ; con- 
i cave field. 
.51 28'.5 mm. Wt. 17'02 grammes (262'7 grains). Attic tetradrachm. 

From the Montaijit Sale oj Dec 1894 (327). [PI. XVIIL] 

' For Salamis, No. 759i!, No. 761a, No. 761 b, Kypros under the Romans, No. 762a, seep. 154. 
- Several of the coins of Seleukos were struck at BaV)ylon ; tee Imhoof-Blumer, Num. Zt. 
xxvii. pp. 9 tf. 



764 Similar to preceding. SEAEYKoY r. | BASIAE/^-S in ex. ; 

Zeus as on preceding ; in field 1. raons. 

nos. 121,41, anchor (stem r.) , andforepart 

of horse grazing 1.; under seat, S-^ 

JR, 26 mm. \Vt. 17 17 grammes (265 '0 grains). Attic tetradrachm. 

[PI. XVIII. 1 

765 Head of Zeus r. laureate. Bor 
der of dots. 


Athena, helmeted, with shield on I. 

arm, thunderbolt in r., standing in 

quadriga of horned elephants r. ; above 

anchor (stem 1.), P, Z Border of dots. 

JR 27 "5 mm. Wt. 17 '22 grammes (265 '7 grains). Attic tetradrachm. 

Froyn the Montagu Sale (I. 690). [PI. XVIII.] 

766 Similar to preceding. 

BASIAEnC 1,. SEAEYKoY in ex. ; 

Athena in quadriga of elephants r. as on 
preceding ; in field above, anchor 
(stem l); under her shield, o Border 
of dots. 

No. 766. 
JR 15'5 mm. Wt. 3'76 grammes (58'0 grains). Attic drachm. 

767 Similar to preceding. 

Similar to preceding, but under 
shield mon. no. 122 and o 

JR 16 mm. Wt. 3'71 grammes (57 '3 grains). Attic drachm. 

768 Similar to preceding. Similar to preceding, but only two 

elephants, mon. no. 122 beliind Athena, 
o under her shield. 

M 13-5 mm. Wt. 2-01 grammes (31 -0 grains). Attic triobol. [PI. XVIII.] 

769 Similar to preceding. Similar to preceding, but exergue 

off flan, no monograms or letters above, 
in field above, lance-head r. instead of 
anchor, and r. E 

j5i 14 mm. Wt. 1 '68 grammes (25 '9 grains). 

770 Head of Seleukos r., wearing 
helmet with bull's horns and ears, 
covered with panther's skin, and having 
cheek-pieces ; panther's skin fastened 
round neck. Border of dots. 

r., wearing long chiton, attaching helmet 
to trophy ; in field 1. H, r. AX 

.51 17 mm. Wt. 4'16 grammes (64 '2 grains). Attic drachm. 

[PI. XVIII. ] 

771 Bridled horse's head r., horned. 
Border of dots. 

1. ; bow-case with bow and quiver with 
arrows, combined. Border of dots. 
JR 11-5 mm. Wt. 1-32 granunes (20-4 grains). Attic diobol. [PI. XVIII.] 




772 Tripod-lebes. Border of dots. 

^ASIAEflE 1. I 2EAEYKo[y] r. ; 
anchor (stem upwards), between mon. 
no. 86 and :♦; ? Border of dots. 

J^ 9o mm. Wt. '54 gramme (8-3 grains). Attic obol. 

773 Similar to preceding. I Similar to preceding, but BASIAEHS 

I r., SEAEYKoY 1., anchor stem down- 

I wards, and A and >K ? to 1. and r. of it. 

JR 10 mm. Wt. 'oT gramme (8 '8 grains). Attic obol. Cf. B.M. Cat. no. 42 and 
Babelon, Rois de Syrie, p. 10, no. 58. 

774 Head of Medusa r., winged. BASIAEHS above, | tEAEYKoY 

in ex. ; humped bull butting r. ; in ex. 
Z Border of dots. 

JE ^O'.l mm. Wt. 7'23 grammes (111 '6 grains). 

B.C. 281—261. 

775 Head of Antiochos r., diademed. BASIAE-ruS r. | ANTloXoY J.; 

Apollo seated 1. on omphalos, chlamys 
over r. thigh and covering the seat ; 
holds in r. arrow, in 1. bow, end of which 
rests on ground ; in field 1. star, ^ and 

■^ 18-5 mm. Wt. 8-36 grammes (129-0 grains). Stater. 

From the Sale of "a tale Collector," May ,31, 1900 (421). [PI. XIX.] 

776 Head of Antiochos r., diademed. 
Border of dots. 

BAZIAEnZ r. 1 ANTI oXoY 1. ; 
Apollo as on preceding; in field 1., 
mon. no. 94, r. mon. no. 123. Border 
of dots. 
JR .30 mm. Wt. 17-0.5 grammes (263-1 grains). Attic tetradracbm. [PI. XIX.] 

777 Head of Antiochos r., diademed 
Border of dots. 

B.C. 261 — 246. 


r. I ANTloXoY 1, 
Apollo seated 1. as on preceding coin ; 
behind, mon. no. 124, in ex. mon. 
no. 125. 

.Al -29 mm. Wt. 16-87 grammes (260-3 grains). Attic tetradrachm. 

Frmn the Carfrae Sale (298). [PI. XIX.] 

778 Head of Antiochos r. as Hermes, 
diademed and winged, 
[Die of B.M. no. 7.] 

BASIAE/^S r. | ANTloXoy I. 
Apollo as on preceding ; in ex. horse 
grazing 1. between mon. no. 126 on 1. 
and mon. no. 127 on r. 

-^ 31 nmi. Wt. 16-78 grammeR (259-0 grains). Attic tetradrachm. 
Montagu Sale (II. 331). 



B.C. 246 — 226. 

779 Head of Seleukos r., diademed, 
beardless. Border of dots. 

Apollo, nude, standing L, 1. elbow rest- 
ing on tripod beside him, r. holding 
arrow; in field 1. AZ I HZ 

IR- 30 mm. Wt. 16'89 grammes (SBO'T grains). Attic tetradrachm. 
From the Bunhnry Sale (II. 461). 

Died 227 B.C. 

[PI. XIX.] 

780 Head of Antiochos r. diademed. 
Border of dots. 

BAZIAEnZ r. | ANT loXoY 1. 
Apollo seated 1. on omphalos with 
arrow in r., bow in 1. ; in field 1. mon. 
no. 127, r. 128. 

M, 30-5 mm. Wt. 17'06 grammes (263-3 grains). Attic tetradrachm. [PI. XIX.] 

B.C. 226 — 222. 

781 Head of Seleukos r., diademed, 
with slight whisker. [Border of dots.] 
[DieofB.M. no. 1.] 

Apollo seated 1. on omphalos, as on pre- 
ceding coin ; in field 1. mon. no. 129, 
r. mon. no. 130. 

M, "^9 mm. Wt. 16-85 grammes (260-1 grains). Tetradrachm. [PI. XIX.] 


B.C. 222. 

782 Youthful head of Antiochos r. BAZIAEnZ r. | ANTI oXoY 1.; 

dindemed. Fillet border. , Apollo seated 1. as on preceding coins ; 

in field 1. tripod; in ex. uncertain 

I& 27 mm. Wt. 16-99 grammes ('262-2 grains). Tetradrachm. 
From the Buuhnry Sale (II. 465). 

B.C. 222 — 187. 


[PI. XIX.] 

783 Head of Antiochos r. diademed. 
Border of dots. 

r. I ANTio XoY 1. 
Apollo seated 1. on omphalos, as on 
preceding coins (but chlamys does not 
cover thigh) ; in field 1. rose, r. mon. 
nn. 131. 

JR, .30 mm. Wt. 16-8 grammes (259-2 grains). Attic tetradrachm. Pierced. 

[PI. XIX.] 



No. 78-t. 

784 Head of Antiochos r. diademed. 
[Die of B.M. nos.31, 32.] 

JR 16o mm. 

in e.x. ; elephant walking r. ; in field r. 
mon. no. 132. [Die of B.M. no. 32.] 

Wt. 3"51 grammes (o4'l grains). Attic drachm. 

B.C. 187—175. 

785 Head of Seleukos r. diademed. BAZIAEHZ r. | ZEAEYKoY 1. 

Fillet border. Apollo with arrow in r., bow in 1., seated 

1. on omphalos, chlamys over r. thigh ; 
in field 1. palm-branch and wreath ; in 
ex. mon. no. 133. Plain border. 
IR 31 ram. Wt. 16-95 grammes (261-5 grains). Attic tetradrachm. [PI. XIX.] 


B.C. 175—164. 

of Antiochos r. diademed. [BJASIAEnZ | ANTloXoy r. 

oEoy j Eni(j)ANoY[z] 1. Zeus, 

j nude to waist, seated 1. on throne with 

' back, r. holding Nike r. with wreath, 

1. resting on scej)tre ; in ex. mon. 

no. 133. 

Wt. 16-77 grammes (258-8 grains). Attic tetradrachm. [PI. XIX.] 

B.C. 164 — 162. 

786 Head 
Fillet border. 

IR 30 mm. 

787 Head of Antiochos r. diademed. 
Fillet border. 

[B]A2IAEnZ r. | ANTloXoY 1. | 
EVnAToPoZ in ex. Zeus as on pre- 
ceding coin, but Nike 1 ; in field 1. 
mon. no. 37. 


•29-5 mm. Wt. 15.39 grammes (237-5 grains). Tetradrachm. 
From the Boyne Sale (480). 

B.C. 162 — 150. 

[PI. XIX.] 

788 Head of Demetrios r. diademed, 
suiTounded by laurel-wreath. 

I& 33 mm. 

Tyche seated 1. on seat with lion's legs ; 
she wears close-fitting chiton and 
peplos over lower limbs ; in r. short 
sceptre, in 1. comucopiae ; in field 1. 
mon. no. 133. 
Wt. 16-59 grammes (256-0 grains). Attic tetradrachm. [PI. XIX.] 



789 Head of Alexandros 
demed. Fillet border. 

B.C. 150—145. 

dia- I [B]ASIAEn[z] | AAEZANAPoV 
j r. I OEoHAToPoZ | EVEPTEToV 1. 
Zeus, nude to waist, seated 1. on throne 
with back ; in r. Nike r. with wreath, 
1. resting on sceptre ; in ex. mon. 
no. 37. 
JSi 29 mm. Wt. 16-71 grammea (257'9 grains). Attic tetradrachm. [PI. XIX.] 

790 Bust of Alexandros r. diademed 
and draped. Border of dots. 

Eagle, wings closed, standing 1. on 
prow ; in front and over shoulder, 
palm-branch ; in field 1. mon. no. 134, 
combined with club (Tyros); r. EZP 
(165 = B.C. 148/7) and mon. no. 135. 
Border of dots. 

JR -2.5 -5 mm. Wt. 14'13 grammes (218'0 grains). Phoenician tetradrachm. Struck 
at Tyros. From the Montagu Sale of 13 Dec. 1894 (336). [PI. XIX.] 

First Reign, B.C. 146—138, 
791 Head of Demetrios r. diademed. BACIAEaC 


Fillet border. AAAEA4)oV|NIK AToPoC 1.; Tyche, 

wearing long chiton, seated 1. on seat 
(the leg of which has form of a winged 
snake-bodied nymph) ; in r. short 
sceptre, in 1. cornucopiae ; in ex. mon. 
no. 74. 
J^ 30 ram. Wt. 15'79 grammes (243'6 grains). Attic tetradrachm. (D has the 

form no. 1. From the Montagu Sale of 13 Dec. 1894 (.338). 

[PI. XIX.] 

792 Bust of Demetrios r. diademed 
and draped. Border of dots. 


eagle, wings closed, standing 1. on prow, 
palm-branch in front and over shoulder ; 
in field 1. mon. no. 134 combined with 
club (Tyi-os), r. HZP (168 = B.C. 145/4) 
and mon. no. 136? Border of dots. 


17 "5 mm. 

Wt. 3 '59 grammes (53 '3 grains). Phoenician 

B.C. 145—142. 

ilrachm. Struck at 
[PI. XIX.] 

793 Head of Antiochos r. diademed 
and radiate. Border of dots. 


18-5 mm. Wt. 
no. 137. 

EniC^A NoVZ I AIONV ZoV 1. ; 
Apollo seated 1. on omphalos, chlamys 
on r. thigh ; in r. arrow, in 1. bow ; in 
field 1. bunch of grapes ; between feet, 
K ; in ex. HZP (168 = B.C. 145/4). 
4'07 grammes (62'8 grains). Attic drachm. CI has the form 

[PI. XIX.] 

PI. XX. 



794 Similar, but fillet border. 


BAZIAEfiZ I ANTloXoY above, | 
Enic|)ANo\/Z j AloNVZoV below; 
the Dioskuroi, wearing conical caps 
surmounted by stars, chlamydes flying 

• behind, charging 1. on horseback, 
lances couched ; in field r. TPY, mou. 

i no. 138 and Z T A, under horses, op (170 
= B.C. 143/2) ; the whole in wreath of 
lotos, ivy and barley. 

30'5 mm. Wt. 16'o8 grammes {'255'8 grains). Attic tetradrachm. il has the 
form no. 137. From the Montagu Sale of 13 Dec. 1894 (342). [PI. XX.] 

B.C. 138—129. 

795 Head of Antiochos r., diademed 
Fillet border. 

TEToV 1.; Athena, wearing crested 
helmet and long chiton, standing 1. ; in 
r. Nike 1. with wreath, 1. resting on 
shield and supporting spear ; in field 1. 
mons. nos. 139 and 133; the whole in 

IR 32o mm. Wt. IT'Ol grammes (262'5 grains). Attic tetradrachm. Ci has the 
form no. 137. From the Montaiju Sale of 13 Dec. 1894 (343). [PI. XX.] 

Second Reign, B.C. 130 — 125. 

796 Head of Demetrios r. bearded, | [B]AZIAEnZ 

and diademed. Fillet border. 

©EOY I NIK A ToPoZl. ; Zeus, nude 
to waist, seated on diphros 1. ; in r. 
Nike flying 1., 1. resting on sceptre ; in 
field 1. mon. no. 69, under 
140, in ex. QHP (186 = BC. 127/126). 
IR 28-5 mm. Wt. 16-50 grammes (254-7 grains). Attic tetradrachm. Cl has the 
form no. 137. Frmn the Montagu Sale of 13 Dec. 1894 (338). [PI. XX.] 


1^1 Head of Alexandros 
denied. Fillet border. 

B.C. 128—123. 

r. dia- 


29'5 mm. 
form no. 


I. -57 

Zeus, nude to waist, seated 1. on di- 
phros; in r. Nike 1. with wreath, 1. 
resting on sceptre ; in field 1. 1 Z I , under 
seat Z surmounted by star. 

16*56 grammes (255'5 grains). Attic tetradrachm. n has the 
From the Montagu Sale of 13 Dec. 1894 (345). [PI. XX.] 



B.C. 125 — 121. 

798 Heads r. jugate of Kleopatra, 
wearing diadem, stephane, veil and 
necklace, and of Antiochos diademed. 
Fillet border. 



T I o X o Y 1. Zeus, wearing himation 
over lower limbs, seated 1., holding 
Nike on outstretched r., 1. resting on 
sceptre ; in field 1. mon. no. 141. 

.30 mm. Wt. 16'49 grammes (254-5 grains). Attic tetradrachm. B has the 
form no. 96. [PI. XX.] 

B.C. 125—96. 

799 Head of Antiochos r., diademed. 
Fillet border. 

[Die of B.M. no. 9.] 

4>ANoVZ 1. ; Zeus Ouranios, hima- 
tion over 1. shoulder and lower part 
of body, crescent on head, standing 1., 
in r. star, 1. resting on sceptre ; in field 
1. IE and A, r. cj), below K; the 
whole in laurel- wreath. 

IR 30 mm. Wt. 16-46 grammes (254-0 grains), 
the forms nos. 96, 137. 

Attic tetradrachm. 

B and n have 
[PI. XX.] 

800 Similar, but border unusually 

Similar inscr. ; Zeus, nude to waist 

! seated 1. on throne with back ; in r. 

Nike r. with wreath, 1. resting on 

: sceptre; in field 1. mon. no. 142 and 

A, under seat A ; the whole in laurel- 

I wreath. 

M "27-5 mm. Wt. 16-08 grammes (248-1 grains). Attic tetradrachm. [PI. XX.] 

B.C. 116—95. 

801 Head of Antiochos r., slightly 
bearded, diademed. Fillet border. 

M, 28 

4>IAonAToPoZ 1. Pyre of Saudan, 
who stands r. on horned lion between 
two altars ; the base garlanded ; in 
field 1. mons. nos. 17, 30. 

Wt. 16 -.33 granmies (252 grains). Attic tetradrachm. [PI. XX.] 


B.C. 94—83- 


802 Head of Antiochos r. diademed. 
Fillet border. 

BoVZ I 4)IAonATop[oS] 1- ; Zeus, 
nude to waist, seated 1. on throne with 
back; in r. Nike r. with wreath, 1. 
resting on sceptre ; in field 1. mon. no. 
13 [and A ? ] J t^® whole in laurel- 

.51 27 mm. Wt. 15-41 grammes (237-8 grains). Attic tetradrachm. B has the form 
no. 143. Frcm, the Bunbury Sale (II. 588). [PI. XX.] 

B.C. 92—83. 

803 Head of Philippos r. diademed. 
Fillet border. 

BAZIAEHZ I 4)IAinno\/ r. | EHI 
4)ANoVZ I 4'IAAAEA4)oV 1.; Zeus 
as on preceding coin ; under throne, 
A ; the whole in laurel-wreath. 

JR -29 mm. Wt. I5'97 grammes (246-5 grains). Attic tetradrachm. B, H and Cp 
have the forms 143, 137, '20. From the Bunbury Sale (II. 591). [PI. XX.] 

804 Similar (small head). 

Similar inscription and type ; in field 
1. mon. no. 144, under throne /|\^ ; the 
whole in wreath. 

.dv 29 mm. Wt. 14-7 grammes (226-8 grains). Attic tetradrachm. 

From the Montagu Sale (II. 373). [PI. XX.] 


B.C. 97—56- 

805 Head of Tigranes r., wearing 
Armenian tiara, adorned with star be- 
tween two eagles. Fillet border. 

BAZIAEn Z r. | TITPANoV 1. ; 
the Tyche of Antiocheia seated r. on 
rock ; she is turreted, and veiled, and 
holds in r. palm-branch ; at her feet, 
half-figure of River Orontes swimming 
r. ; in field r. mon. no. 145, 1. below 
mon. no. 146. 

JR' 26-5 mm. Wt. l.^-l grammes (2.33-0 grains), 
form no. 137. 

Attic tetradrachm. CI has the 
[PI. XX.] 
K 2 





Head of M. Antouius r. Border of 


€ CO TCP A around; bust of Kleopatra 
r., wearing diadem, earring, and neck- 
lace ; dress and hair adorned with 
pearls. Border of dots. 

27 '5 ram. Wt. 15'06 grammes (232-4 grains). Phoenician tetradrachm. 

From the Montagu Sale of 13 Dec. 1894 (412). [PI. XX.] 


807 KAIZAPoZZE r. BAZToV 1. 
Head of Augustus r. laureate. Fillet 
border. [Die of B.M. no. 137.] 

JR 27-5 mm. 

EToVZ 1. HK (28 = 4/8 B.C.) above, 
N I K H Z r. Tyche of Antiocheia seated 
r. on rock ; she wears turreted crown 
and veil, and holds in r. palm-branch ; 
at her feet, half-figure of River Orontes 
swimming r. ; in field r. mon. no. 147 
and IB (cos. XII) and mon. no. 148. 
Border of dots. 
Wt. 15-24 grammes (235-2 grains). Tetradrachm. [PI. XX.] 

808 Bust of the Tyche of Seleukeia 
r., wearing turreted crown, veil, earring 
and necklace. Fillet border. 


First Century B.C. 

KAI I AVToNoMoV below. Thun- 
derbolt supported on throne, between 
legs of which 81 (12 = B.C. 97/6?) 
r. © 

Si 30 mm. AVt. 14-42 grammes (222->') grains). Phoenician tetradrachm. 

[PI. XX. J 



Circa B.C. 400 — 350. 

809 Dagon r., body from waist j Galley with row of shields r. ; below, 
downwards fish-like, holding in each hippocamp r. ; the whole in dotted in- 
hand a dolphin by the tail ; above, cuse square. 
Phoenician letters (^j^) 

JR 14 mm. Wt. 3-16 grammes (48-7 grains). Babvlonic tetrobol. 

From the MoiUagu Sa/t (II. 379). [PI. XX.] 


Circa B.C. 350—332. 

810 Head of Melkart r., laureate 
hair (except beard) indicated by dots. 

Galley with row of shields r., figure 
(Pataikos) on the prow ; above, Phoe- 
nician inscription (» ^^) ; the whole in 
dotted square. 

JR 18 mm. Wt. 10'45 grammes (161'3 grains). Babylonio stater. 

Frmi the Montagu Sale (II. 379). [PI. XX.] 

811 Similar, but style rather more Inscr. off the flan ; galley r. with 

advanced. Border of dots. 

row of shields ; below, waves. 

■^ lo'o mm. Wt. 3'49 grammes (53'8 grains). Babylonia tetrobol. 

From the Montagu Sale (II. .379). [PI. XX.] 

Circa B.C. 170—147. 

812 Bee ; to 1. P, to r. mon. no. 149. I [a]PA Ain[N] r. Stag standing r. ; 
Border of dots. I behind it, palm tree. 

.51 17 mm. Wt. 3'62 grammes (56"2 grains). Attic drachm. 



Circa B.C. 360. 

813 Galley 1., with lion's head at Lion 1. devouring bull, of which body 
prow, three shields visible above bul- is incuse, head in relief. Traces of 
warks; below, hippocamp with curled inscription above. 

wing 1. 

.51 26 mm. Wt. 14-3.5 grammes (221 "a grains). Phoenician tetradrachm. 

[PI. XX.] 



B.C. 346—332. 

Phoenician letters (^y) above. King 
Artaxerxes III. Ochos in car drawn 
by three horses 1., driven by charioteer. 
Plain border. 
J^ 13'5 mm. Wt. 2-57 grammes (.396 grains). Phoenician triobol? [PI. XXL] 

814 Galley 1., with row of shields, 
with Pataikos on prow ; below, waves ; 
above, 1 1 1 1 II? (6). 

After B.C. iii. 

815 Head of Tyche of Sidon r., 
wearing turreted crown, veil, eaning, 
[and necklace. Border of dots.] 

Z I A n N I n N r. Eagle, wings closed, 
standing 1. [on prow] ; in front and over 
shoulder, palm-branch; in field 1. LE 
(5 = B.C. 107/6) and mon. no. 150. 
[Border of dots.] 

IR 2.5-5 mm. Wt. II -4 grammes (175-9 grains). Phoenician stater (worn). H has 
the form no. 100. [PI. XXI.] 



Autonomous Era of Tripolis. 

816 Busts of the Dioskuroi, jugate, 
r., laureate and draped [surmounted 
by stars ; fillet border]. 

M 26 

AYTONOMOY 1.; Tyclie standing l, 
wearing long chiton and peplos, r. 
resting on tiller, 1. holding cornucopiae ; 

in field 1. r r. "' in ex. GZ (69); the 

whole in laurel-wreath. 

Wt. 15-29 grammes (2.35'9 grains). Attic tetradrachm. The date of 
this coin is fixed by Rouvier (Les Kres de Tripolis, Journal Asiatique, 1898, 
vol. xi, pp. 24 f. ) at 104/103 B.C. ; he supposes the autonomous era to begin in 
105 B.C., and reads the date ©2 (according to the Seleukid era). I find it, 
however, difficult to read the date as anything but O Z [PI- XXI. ] 

•lo'd mm. 

Circa B.C. 450 — 332. 

817 Melkart riding v. on hippocamp 
with curled wing, shooting with bow ; 
below, waves and dolphin r. Guilloche 

Owl standing r., head facing; over 
its shoulder, flail and sceptre with 
crook ; no inscr. ; guilloche border; 
incuse circle. 

JR, 15 ram. Wt. 3-30 grammes (51 '0 grains). Phoenician triobol. 

[PI. XXI.] 

Second Era of Tyros (B.C. 125). 

818 Head of Tyrian Herakles r., 
beardless, slight whisker, laureate, 
lion's skin round neck. [Border of 


eagle with closed wings, and palm- 
branch over shoulder, standing 1. on 
prow; in field 1. ©| (19 = 107/6 B.C.) 
and club, r. mon. no. 151. Border of 



28 mm. Wt. 14'2 grammes (219'1 grains). 

Phoenician tetradrachm. 

[PI. XXL] 


Revolt of A.D. 66—70. 

819 Hebrew inscr. (Sfc^lti^'' hp^) 
around. Chalice ; above which letters 
(jtl^ = y^^^" ^)- Border of dots. 

M 22-5 mm. Wt. 13-87 grammes (214-0 grains). 

Hebrew inscr. (n'tt^npH Q'^'rUrTT') 
around. Lily with three flowers. Bor- 
der of dots. 


[PI. XXI.] 



Under Seleukos. 
Circa B.C. 312 — 306. 

Lion walking 1. ; above, anchor. 
Border of dots. 

820 Zeus (Baaltars), nude to waist, 
seated 1., on diphros, r. resting on 
sceptre, 1. on seat. Border of dots. 

JR 20 '5 mm. Wt. 16'05 giammes ('247"7 grains). Attic tetradrachm. Thick fabric. 

[PI. XXI.] 

[For other coins probably struck at Babylon, see under Seleukos.] 

Incuse impression with irregular 


Fifth Century B.C 

821 The Great King, bearded, run- 
ning r. ; he wears kidaris and kandys ; 
in extended 1. bow, in r. spear. 

6^ 16omm. Wt. 8-24 grammes (127-2 grains). Dareikos. [PI. XXL] 

822 Similar. | Similar. 

J^ 17'5 mm. Wt. 5'4I grammes (83"5 grains). Siglos. [PI. XXI.] 


Revolted from Syria, circa B.C. 248. 

823 Head of Diodotos r., diademed. BAZIAE/^vZ r. | AloAojoY I.; 

Zeus, nude, striding 1., seen from 
behind, fighting with aigis on 1. arm, 
and thunderbolt in 1. ; at his feet, 
eagle 1. ; in field 1., wreath. 

N 19 ram. Wt. 8-38 grammes (129-3 grains). Stater. 

Prom the ScUe of " a late Collector^ May 31, 1900 (449). [PI. XXI.] 

End of Third Century B.C. 

824 Head of Euthydemos r., dia 
denied. Border of dots. 

Herakles, nude, seated 1. on rock ; 1. 
rests on seat, r. holds club which also 
rests on rock. Border of dots. In 
field 1. E 

■^ 27-.') mm. Wt. 16-11 grammes (248-6 grains). Attic tetradrachm. 

From the Balmanno Sale (.303). [PI. XXI.] 



825 Similar. 

Similar, but Herakles' club rests on 
his nslit thigh, and lion's skin is thrown 
over his seat ; in field, behind seat, 
mon. no. 152. No border. 

JR 28'j mm. Wt. 16-18 grammes (•249"7 grains). Attic tetradrachm. 
Frovi Oen. Cunningham's Collection. 

[PI. XXI.] 

826 Similar, portrait elderly. Bor- 
der not visible. 

Similar to preceding. 

JR 28 -5 mm. Wt. 15 '99 grammes (2467 grains). Attic tetradrachm. 

From Oen. Cunningham's Collection. [PI. XXI. ] 

Circa B.C. igo — i6o. 

827 Bust of Agathokles r., diademed 
and draped. 

1. ; Zeus standing facing, wearing hima- 
tion over 1. shoulder and round waist, 
and boots, 1. resting on sceptre, in r. 
statuette of Hekate holding torch in 
each hand ; in field 1. mon. no. 153. 

JR 19 '5 mm. Wt. 4 '02 grammes (62-0 grains). Attic drachm. 

From the Sale of a late Collector," 31 May, 1900 (454). [PI. XXI. ] 


828 Bust of Antimachos 
kausia. Border of dots. 


1. Poseidon, standing to front, wearing 
wreath, and himation over 1. shoulder 
and lower limbs; rests with r. on trident, 
and holds in 1. filleted palm-branch ; in 
field r. mon. no. 154. 

JR 32-5 mm. Wt. 16'59 grammes (256 grains). Tetradrachm. 

[PI. XXI.] 

Circa B.C. igo — i6o. 

829 Bust of Eukratides r., diademed 
and draped. Border of dots. 

in ex. ; the Dioskuroi riding r. on horse- 
back, each carrying spear couched and 
palm-branch over shoulder ; in field r. 
mon. no. 153. 

■Av 33 mm. Wt. 16 '32 grammes (251-9 grains). Attic tetradrachm. 

From Gen. Cunningham' t Collection. 

830 Similar to preceding. 

Possibly cast. 
[PI. XXI.] 

JR- 20 nun. 

Similar to preceding, but in field 1. 
A, r. mon. no. 155(?). 

Wt. 408 grammes (62'9 grains). Attic drachm. Plated. 
From the Montagu .Sale of 13 Dec. 1894 (384). 

Fl. XXI. 





831 Bust of Eukratides r., diademed BASIAEriSMETAAoY above | 
and draped, and wearing crested EYKPATI AoY in ex. The Dioskuroi 
kausia-shaped helmet adorned with riding r. as on preceding coins; in 
bull's horn and ear. Fillet border. field v. mon. no. 156. 

J^ 33 mm. Wt. 1674 gi-ammes (2o8'4 grains). Attic tetradrachm. [PI. XXI.] 

832 Similar to preceding, but bor- I Similar to preceding, but in field r. 
der of dots. I mon. (mA ?) 

JR 21 ram. Wt. 3 '69 grammes (57 '0 grains). Attic drachm. 
trom the Montaiju Sale of 13 Der. 1894 (384). 

833 Similar to preceding, 

Fillet Similar to preceding, but inscr. and 
monogram (uncertain) partly off the 

Wt. .5'46 grannnes (84'3 grain.s). 

Circa B.C. i6o — 120. 

No. 832. 
834 Bust of Heliokles r. diademed 
and draped. Fillet border. 


No. 840. 
BAZIAEnZ r. | HAI • KAE • YZ 1. | 
A I K A I • V in ex. Zeus, nude to waist, 
standing to front, 1. resting on sceptre 
surmounted by small eagle, in r. 
thunderbolt ; in field 1. mon. no. 157. 

31 mm. Wt. 16-15 grammes (2493 grains). Attic tetradrachm. B *"'! fl have 
the forms 96, 163. From the Moiitarjn Sale o/UDec. 1894 (.383). [PI. XXI.] 

835 Barbarous copy of the above (same monogram on reverse ; legends 

-^ 28 mm. Wt. 1 1 '83 grammes (182'5 grains). 

From the Montagu Sale o/13 Dec. 1894 (383). 

836 Bust of Heliokles r. diademed I Horse 1., raising fore-leg ; inscr. 
and draped. Fillet border. I blundered. 

JEi 17-5 mm. Wt. 3'47 grammes (53-6 grains). This and 24 other coins (inchiding 
nos. 8i>0, 856-8, 862-6, 868-71, 873, 874, 877) come from the Monlayu Sale of 
13 Dee. 1894 (456). 


837 BAZIAEaSNIKH4>oPoY a- 
roundl, ANTI AAKI Ao Y below. Bust 

of Antialkidas r. diademed and draped. 

Prakrit legend in Kharoshti char- 
acters, around ; Zeus seated 1. on 
throne with back; wears chiton and 
hiniation about lower limbs ; in r. 
Nike 1. with wreath, in 1. sceptre; 
before him, forepart of elephant r. ; 
under seat mon. no. 158. 

No. 837. 
]\K 17 mm. Wt. 244 grammes (.37'7 grains). H has the form no. 163. This and 
nos. 8.37-843, 845-849 are from the Bunhnry Collertimi (II. 661). 



838 Similar to preceding. 

M, 17 mm. Wt. 2-38 grammes (36 

839 Similar to preceding, but the 
king wears kausia-shaped crested hel- 
met, adorned with bull'.s horn and ear. 

M 16 mm. Wt. 2-47 grammes (38 

840 Similar to preceding. 

JR, 17 mm. Wt. 2-40 grammes (37' 

841 Similar to preceding, but king 
wears plain kausia. 

J^ 17 mm. Wt. 2-43 grammes (37' 

Similar to preceding ; monogram 
under seat illegible. 

' grains). 

Similar to preceding ; monogram 
behind seat 159. 

. grains). , ~ 

Similar to preceding ; monogram 
under seat 160. 

Similar to preceding. 

842 Similar to preceding. 

grains). [PL XXL] 

Similar to preceding, but forepart of 
elephant 1., and monogram behind 
seat 159. 

JR 17 mm. Wt. 2'47 grammes (38"1 grains). 


843 BASIAEnZANlKHToYaround 
AYSloY below; bust of Lysias r., dia- 

Prakrit legend around and below; 
Herakles, nude, standing to front, with 
r. crowning himself, holding in 1. club, 
palm-branch and lion's skin ; in field 1. 
mon. no. 159. 
M 17 mm. Wt. 2-43 grammes (37-5 grains). [PI. XXL] 

demed and draped, wearing elephant's 

No. 844. 

Prakrit inscr. 1., above and r.; humped 
bull standinff r. 

il has the form no. 163. 


844 BAZIAEnZ 1. AfloAAoAo- 
ToY above ZflTHPoE r. ; elephant 
walking r. ; below mon. no. 161. 

JH square 15 mm. Wt. 2-34 grammes (36-1 grains). 

845 Similar. | Similar. 

j51 square 15 mm. Wt. 2-40 grammes (37'1 grains). 

846 Similar. | Similar. 

JSi square 15 mm. Wt. 2-41 grammes (37 '2 grains). 

847 Similar, but mon. no. 162. | Similar, but below mon. no. 162. 

J^ square 16 '5 mm. Wt. 2-41 grammes (37'2 grains). 

848 Similar, but mon. no. 152. | Similar, but below C 

JSi square 16'5 mm. Wt. 2-37 grammes (36-6 grains). 



ATIAT-P.Z around I Afl-AA-A-T.!- 
below ; bust of Apollodotos r. diademed 
and draped. 

H^ 18 mm. Wt. '2-41 grammes (37-2 grains), fl has the form no. 163. [PL XXL] 

Prakrit legend around ; Athena, hel- 
meted, fighting 1. with aigis on 1., 
thunderbolt in r. ; in field r. mon. no. 

850 BAZIAEnZZHTHPoZ around, 
I ARoAAoAoToY below; Apollo 
standing r., quiver and chlamys at 
shoulder, holding arrow in both hands ; 
in field 1. mon. no. 165. Plain border. 

J£, 31 mm. Wt. 15'97 granmies (246'4 grains). 


Prakrit legend around; tripod be- 
tween letters no. 166 1. and no. 167 r. 

Cl has the form no. 163. 

Prakrit legend around and below ; 
Athena, helmeted, fighting 1. with 
aigis and thunderbolt ; in field i-. mon. 
no. 168. 

851 BAZIAEriZZOTHPoZ around, 
I MENANAPov below; bust of 
Menandros 1., seen frona behind, wearing 
diadem and aigis, thrusting with lance 
held in r. 

■^ 18 mm. Wt. 2-48 grammes (38'2 grains). Ci. has the form no. 163. 

From Gen. Cunningham's Col/ection. [PI. XXI.] 

852 Similar inscr. ; bust of the king I Similar, but mon. no. 169. 
r., diademed and draped. I 

IR 18 mm. Wt. 2'46 grammes (38'0 grains). 

From Gen. Cunningham' n Collection. [PI. XXI.] 

853 Similar inscr. ; bust of the king 
r. wearing kausia-like crested helmet, 
diadem, and draper}'. 

JR 19 mm. Wt. 2'44 grammes (37'6 grains). 

From Gen. Cunningham's Co/lection. 


Similar, but mon. no. 159. 

No. 853. 

PoZ around, | mnoZTPAToy below; 
bust of king r. diademed and draped. 

Prakrit legend around ; king dia- 
demed and helmeted, chlamys flying 
behind, on horseback r. ; in field r. 
mon. no. 170, 1. no. 171, in ex. no. 172. 

ja 28 mm. Wt. 9"72 grammes (loO'O grains). Ci has the form no. 163. 

From the Bunhury Sale (II. 663). [PI. XXI.] 

855 B A ZlAEnZZHTHPoZ around Prakrit legend around ; Zeus seated 

I EPMAIOY below; bust of Hermaios nearly to front on throne, r. advanced, 
r. diademed and draped. in 1- sceptre; in field r. mon. no. 173. 

JR 27 mm. Wt. 9'25 grammes (142" grains), n has the form no. 174. 

From the Bxmhury Sale (II. 663). [I'l. XXI.] 




around, | [EPMAIDY] below; bust of 
Hermaios r. diademed and draped. 

Prakrit legend ; Zeus, nude to waist, 
seated 1. on throne, r. advanced, in 1. 
sceptre ; in field 1. mon. no. 175, r. 
uncertain letter. 

^ 24 mm. Wt. 9'3 grammes (143'5 grains). 


around, | [ePMAIDV] below; bust of 
Hermaios r. diademed and draped. 

JE 18o mm. Wt. 4-55 grammes (70 '2 grains). 

Prakrit legend : 
ing (degraded) ; 

Zeus as on preced- 
in field, uncertain 

858 Head of elephant 



Fillet BAZIAEflZ r. | mAYoy 1.; cadu- 

ceus ; in field 1. mon. no. 176. 

^ 28 mm. Wt. lO'lo grammes (lo6'6 gi-ains). 



METAAoy around, | AZoY below; 
Azes riding r., holding lance couched. 

Prakrit legend around ; female figure 
standing 1., in r. uncertain object, in 1. 
palm-branch tied with fillets ; in field 
1. mon. no. 177, r. no. 178. 

^ 27-5 mm. Wt. 8-6.3 grammes (1.33-2 grains). XI has the form no. 163. 
From the Bunbury Sate (II. 663). 

860 Similar to preceding. Prakrit legend around ; Zeus, hi- 

mation over 1. shoulder and round lower 
part of body, standing to front ; in r. 
thimderbolt, 1. resting on sceptre ; in 
field 1. mon. no. 179, r. no. 180. 
j5i 25-5 nim. Wt. 9.76 grammes (150-6 grains), fl has the form no. 163. 
From the Bunbury Sale (II. 663). 

861 Similar to preceding, but n in 
legend, and letter no. 178 in field r. ; 
king holds whip. 


Prakrit legend ; Zeus standing 1. 
holding in r. Nike with wreath, in 1. 
sceptre ; in field 1. letters nos. 181, 182, 
r. nos. 183, 184. 

base 23 mm. Wt. 8-18 grammes (126-3 grains). 

862 Similar to preceding, but □ in 
legend, and AZDZ (sic) below; in 
field r. letter no. 185. 

.31 base 23 mm. Wt. 9-11 grammes (140-6 grains). 

Prakrit legend around ; Athena r., 
r. advanced, in 1. spear and shield ; in 
field 1. mon. no. 186, r. mon. no. 187. 

863 Similar to above (lower part of 1 Similar to above, but in field 1. mon. 
inscr. off the flan) ; no letter in field. | no. 177, r. no. 178. 
JR 17-5 mm. Wt. 2-46 grammes (37-9 grains). 



864 Inscr. as on preceding, but 
AZDY below; goddess seated nearly 
to front on throne, r. raised, in 1. cornu- 

M 27'5 mm. \Vt. 12-4 grammes (191-3 grains). 

865 Inscr. as above, but slightly 
blundered ; the king seated to front 
cross-legged on cushion ; r. raised hold- 
ing ankus, in 1. sword which rests on 
his knees. 

JE, 25 mm. Wt. 9-04 grammes (139-5 grains). 

Prakrit legend around ; Hermes 1., 
r. raised, in 1. caduceus ; in field I. un- 
certain monogram, r. mon. no. 188. 

Prakrit legend around ; Hermes 1., 
chlamys flying, r. raised, in 1. cadu- 
ceus ? ; in field 1. mon. no. 189, r. 
A and no. 190. 

866 Inscr. as usual, with D ; humped 
bull walking r. ; in field above mon. no. 
191 ?, r. no. 192. 

M 25 mm. Wt. 13-.30 grammes (205-3 grains) 

Prakrit legend around ; lion walking 
r. ; above mon. no. 187. 


Aov around | AZIAICoy below ; king 
on horseback r., lance couched ; in field 
r. uncertain letter. 
M 26 mm 

Prakrit legend ; female figure stand- 
ing 1., in r. uncertain object, in 1. palm- 
branch with fillets ; in field 1. mon. no. 
193, r. no. 194. 

Wt. 7-44 grammes (114-8 grains). O. has the form no. 163. 
Fr(ym the Bunbury Sale (II. 663). 


868 BACIAE ct)EnrDv Bust I Prakrit legend around ; Nike r. with 

of the king r. diademed. I wreath and palm-branch. 

JS, 24 mm. Wt. 9-09 grammes (140-3 grains), (b has the form no. 195. 


869 Bust of the king r. radiate 
holding spear tied with fillets in r. 
hand; behind no. 196. 

the king r. on horseback, holding 
ankus ? ; in field r. no. 196. 

JEi 19 mm. Wt. 8-.5 grammes (131-1 grains). 

870 Similar to preceding. Border I Similar to preceding (inscr. nearly 
of dots. " I obliterated). 

JE 19-5 mm. Wt. 7-93 grammes (122-4 grains). 

871 Similar to preceding. Border I Similar to preceding (inscr. blun- 
of dots. I dered ?). 

JE, 14-5 mm. Wt. 2-01 grammes (31-0 grains). 


872 XoPANCY ZAooy KoZoAA I Prakrit legend around; king seated 
KAAA4)EC around. Head of king r. | r. on chair, r. raised ; in field 1. ;sign 
diademed (imitation of head of "O- 1^7. 

Augustus). I 

JEi 19 mm. Wt. 3-51 grannnes (54-2 grains). 



THPMerACooHMKV>(j)l - - ; the 
king 1., sacrificing at the altai- ; he 
wears helmet, coat and trowsers ; to 
1., trident and axe combined ; to r. chib 
and sign no. 198. 

JE, 25-5 mm. Wt. 16-78 grammes (•2o9-0 grains). 

Prakrit legend around ; Siva facing, 
holding trident; behind him. bull r. ; 
in field 1. sign no. 199. 

874 Similar (legend obliterated). | Similar (legend obliterated). 
JSj 19'5 mm. Wt. 4"26 grammes (65'8 grains). 


875 BA - - r. NHPKI 1.; the king 
sacrificing 1. at altar, 1. resting on 
lance; he wears helmet, cloak and 
trowsers. Border of dots. 

HAloC r. ; Helios 1., diademed, clad 
in chiton and himation, radiate disk 
behind head, r. advanced ; in field 1. 
sign no. ] 98. Border of dots. 

JE, -i-i mm. Wt. 7'63 grammes (117'8 grains). 

876 - - K ANH r. ; the king 1. as on 
preceding coin ; in field 1. sign no. 200. 

JEi 13 mm. 

Mlot^o (for MioPo) r. ; Mithras 
standing 1., r. advanced, in 1. sword ; to 
1. sign (as on preceding). 
Wt. 2'55 grammes (39"4 grains). 


877 PAON - - - - PAN around; 
the king r. riding on elephant, holding 

Inscr. obliterated ; sun-god 1., draped, 
radiate disk behind head, r. extended. 
Border of dots. 

JE 25 mm. Wt. 14'66 grammes (226 '2 grains). 

Uncertain (Tatar ?). 
878 Bust of king r. Border of dots. 


Fire-altar ; around, uncertain in- 
scription. Border of dots. 
18 mm. wt. 1'89 grammes (29 '2 grains). 

879 Similar. | Similar (type degraded). 

JSi 17 mm. Wt. 1 '79 grammes (27 '7 grains). 


As Governor for Alexandros IV. 

880 Head of Alexandros 
r., with ram's horn, wearing elephant's 
scalp headdress and aigis. Border of 

[Die of B.M. no. 3 ?] 

IR 27 mm. Wt. 17"11 grammes 

B.C. 316— 311. 

IV. (?) AAEZANAPoY r. Zeus, nude to 

waist, seated 1. on diphros, in r. eagle 
r. ; 1. resting on sceptre ; in field 1. 
thunderbolt ; under seat mon. no. 201. 
Border of dots. Graffito A A 

(2641 grains). Attic tetradrachm. For the 

identification of tlie portrait, see ,T. ISix, ROm. Milth., 1899 p. 88 f, 

From the Montagu Sale of 13 Dec. 1894 (396). 

[PI. XXL] 



881 Similar to preceding. 


Circa B.C. 316 — 305. 

AAEZANAPoYl. Athena striding 

r., wearing crested helmet, chlaina over 

shoulders and long chiton, fightina: 

with lance in r., shield on 1. arm ; in 

field 1. mon. no. 201, r. mou. no. 202, 

and eagle r. on thunderbolt. Border 

of dots. Graffito SI 

•28 mm. Wt. lo'o6 grammes (240"2 grains). Rhodian tetradrachm. 

From the Carfrae Sale (342). [PI. XXII.] 

882 Similar to preceding. Similar to preceding, but no mono- 

gram in field 1., r. crestless helmet r. 
and mon. no. 203 as well as eagle. No 
border visible. 
JR. 27 mm. Wt. 14'99 grammes (2.31 '4 grains). Rhotlian tetradrachm. Broken. 

[PI. XXII.] 

As King. 
B.C. 305—284. 

883 Head of Ptolemaios I. r. wear- 
ing diadem and aigis. 

[pt]oaemaioy I [bJasiae^c 

above. Alexander as young Zeus 
Ammon ? 1. in quadriga of elephants ; 
he holds thunderbolt in r., reins in 1. ; 
in ex. I and mons. nos. 204, 205. 

■^ 18 mm. Wt. 7'1 grammes (109'o grains). Phoenician didrachm. 
From the Montayu Sale (I. 782). 


B.C. 305— after B.C. 284. 

Border HToAEMAloY 

Eagle standing 1. 
Border of dots. 
./K 27 mm. Wt. 13'39 grammes (206'6 grains). Phoenician stater. 

884 Similar to preceding, 
of dots. 

[PI. XXII.] 

on thunderbolt. 

[PI. XXII.] 

885 Similar to preceding. 

M, 28 mm. 

PToAEMAloy 1. BASIAE^S r. 
Eagle standing 1. on thunderbolt ; in 
field 1. P and mon. no. 206. Bnrder 
of dots. Crescent-shaped countermark. 
Wt. 1419 grammes (219'0 grains). Phoenician stater. [PI. XXII.] 


(Struck in time of Ptolemaios II. and III). 

886 AAEA4)nN above; busts ju- 
gate r. of Ptolemaios II. diademed, 
wearing chlamys, and Arsinoe II. dia- 
demed and veiled ; to 1., oval shield. 
Border of dots. 

OEHN above; busts jugate r, of 
Ptolemaios I. diademed and wearing 
chlamys, and Berenike I., diademed 
and veiled. Border of dots. 


) mm. Wt. 27 '76 grammes (428'4 grains). Plioenician octadraohm. 

Frmn the Afontarju Sale of 13 Dec. 1894 (400) 

[PI. XXII.] 



{Struck hy Ptolemaios VII. or VIII.). 
887 Head of Arsinoe r, with horn APZINoHZ 1. 4>IAAAEA4)0Y r. ; 

of Zeus Ammon, weaving stephane and 
veil ; behind head, sceptre ; in field \. 
K Border of dots. 

double cornucopiae bound with tillet; 
border of dots. Concave field. 

-AT^ 29-5 mm. Wt. 27 'ST grammes (430 •! grains). Phoenician octadrachm. From 
the Faj'oum. 

From the Sale ofifi Jan. 1898 (1.37). [PI. XXII.] 

{Struck hy Ptolemaios II. w III). 

Similar to preceding. 

888 Head of Arsinoe r., with horn 
of Zeus Ammon, wearing stephane and 
veil ; behind head, sceptre ; in field 1. 
n Border of dots. 

IR 36 mm. Wt. ,35'32 grammes (545'1 grains). Phoenician dekadrachm. 

From the Montarju Sa/e of 13 Dec. 1894 (404). [PI. XXII.] 

889 Similar, but in field L MM I Similar to preceding. 

.31 34 mm. Wt. 34 '8 grammes (537 '0 grains). Phoenician dekadrachm. 

B.C. 247 — 222. 

890 Bust of Ptolemaios III. r. wear- BASIAEHS r. PToAEM Aioy I. ; 
ing radiate diadem and aigis : over radiate cornucopiae bound with fillet ; 
shoulder, trident-sceptre. Border of in field r. A I Border of dots. 


N 27 '5 mm. Wt. 27 '70 grammes (427 "5 grains). Phoenician octadrachm. 

From the Montagu Sale of 13 Dec. 1894 (407). [PI. XXIL] 

891 Head of Zeus Ammon r., wear- 1 PToAEMAloY 1. BASIAEHS r. ; 
ing diadem and disk ? Border of • eagle standing 1. on thunderbolt ; in 
dots. I field 1. cornucopiae ? ; between legs, Z ? 

' Border of dots. [Double struck]. 

ISi 41mm. Wt. 71'97 grammes (1110'6 grains). 

892 Similar. 

Similar inscr. and type ; in field 1. 
cornucopiae bound with fillet ; between 

legs mon. no. 207. 

2Si 3o mm. Wt. 35'3o gramn)es (545"8 grains). 


B.C. 222^ — 204. 

Eagle standing 1. on thunderbolt, wings 

893 Head of Ptolemaios IV. r. as 
Dionysos, wearing diadem intertwined 
with ivy-wreath ; thyrsos over shoulder. 
Border of dots. 

open ; in field 1. uncertain symbol. 
Border of dots. 

^ 19'5 mm. Wt. 6'41 grammes (98'9 grains). Phoenician didrachm. 




B.C. 204—181. 

894 Bust of Ptolemaios V. r. dia- 
demed and draped. Border of dots. 

Eagle standing 1. on thunderbolt ; in 
field 1. mon. no. 208, r. disk and horns. 
Border of dots. 

JR' 26 mm. Wt. 14'90 grammes ('iSD'O grains). Phoenician tetradrachm. 

[PI. XXII.] 

895 Head of Ptolemaios I. r. dia- 
demed and wearing aigis. Border of 


Head of Libya with formal curls, wear- 
ing tainia and necklace ; in front, 
cornucopiae. Border of dots. 

Wt. 8-38 grammes (129 3 grains). 


Regent for Ptolemaios VI., Philometor I. 

B.C. 181 — circa 174. 

896 Busts r. jugate of Zeus Sarapis, 
laureate, wearing atef crown, and Isis, 
wearing com-wreath and disk and 
horns. Border of dots. [Die of B.M. 
p. 79, no. 7.] 

Eagle standing I. on thunderbolt, head 
reverted towards double cornucopiae 
bound with fillet ; between legs A I 
Border of dots. 

JR 26 '5 mm. Wt. 11 '92 grammes (183-7 grains). Phoenician tetradrachm. 

From the Sale of "a late Collector" 31 May, 1900 (479). [PI. XXII.] 

B.C. 170 — 117. 

897 Head of Kleopatra I. r., with 
formal curls, wearing wreath of corn. 
Border of dots. 

Eagle standing 1. on thunderbolt, wings 
open ; in field 1. mon. no. 53. Border 
of dots. 

M 27.5 mm. Wt. 13-93 grammes (2149 grains). 

898 Similar ; border off" the flan. I Similar, but no monogram. 
JEi 27'5 mm. Wt. 16'.)2 grammes (254-9 grains). 

B.C. 117— 81. 

899 Head of Zeus Ammou r. dia- 
demed. Border of dots. 

Two eagles standing 1. ow. thunderbolt ; 
in front, double cornucopiae. Border 
of dots. 

J\fj 29 '5 mm. Wt. 19 '26 grammes (297 2 grains). 



No. 892. Xo. S!J2. 




Head of Ptolemaios I. r. dia- 
and wearing aigis. Border of 

njoAEMAloV 1. BASIAEnS r. 
Eagle standing 1. on thunderbolt; in 
field 1. LE (5 = B.C. 77/6), r. HA 
[Border of dots.] 

JR 24'5 mm. Wt. 13'2 grammes (20.S'7 grains). Phoenician tetradrachm. B and 
fi have the forms nos. 96, 100. 

901 Similar to preceding. Similar to preceding, but LI (10 = 

B.C. 72/71). Border visible. 
JR 24 'o mm. Wt. 14'04 grammes (2167 grains). Phoenician tetradrachm. 




Bust of Kleopatra r., diademed, 
of dots. 

^ 21-3 mm. Wt. 9-3 grammes 
(14.S'5 grains). 

eagle standing 1. on thunderbolt ; in 
field 1., double cornucopiae, r. M Bor- 
der of dots. 

903 Silphion plant. 

Circa B.C. 480 — 431. 

BAP[KA]|oH around a dotted 

circle, within which head of Zeus Am- 
mon r. bearded, with ram's horn ; the 
whole in slightly incuse circle. 

IR 30 mm. Wt. 16'82 grammes (259'5 grains). Euboic tetradrachm. 

[PI. XXII.] 

KYRENE.— Circa B.C. 480—431. 

K V I P A in corners of incuse 
square, within which, in circle of dots, 
head of Zeus Amnion r., bearded, with 
, ram's horn. 

IR 16'5 mm. Wt. 3'28 grammes (0O6 grains). Phoenician drachm. 

904 Silphion plant. 

Frotn the Montagu Sale (II. 442). 


905 Similar to preceding. 

K V r. ; similar type ; the whole in 
dotted incuse circle. 

IR 11 '5 mm. Wt. 1 '67 grammes (25 8 grains). Phoenician hemidrachm. 

From the Montagu Sa/e (II. 442). [PI. XXII.] 



No. 911. 

No. 912. 

No. 914. 

Circa B.C. 431 — 321. 
906 KVPANAI 1. ON above; quad- XAIPIOS r. 

riga r., horses prancing, driven by 
female figure holding goad ; above, 
star. Plain border. 

[Die ofB.M. specimens 1881-12-6- 
1 and 1876-5-2-4.] 

N 19-5 mm. Wt. 8-59 grammes (132-6 grains) 

Zeus Ammon, nude 
to waist, seated 1. on throne with back ; 
r. holds eagle L, 1. rests on back of 
throne ; in front, thymiaterion. Bor- 
der of dots. 



907 XAIPlog 1., horseman r., peta- 
sos behind neck, on prancing horse 
Border of dots. 

■^ 14 mm. Wt. 4'28 grammes (66'0 grains). Drachm. 

From the Sale of "a late Collector," 31 May, 1900 (483). 

908 KVPA 1.; horseman r. on high- 
stepping horse ; above, P Border of 

[Die of B.M. specimen, T. Combe p. 
239 DO. 1.] 

■^ 13'5 mm. Wt. 4'29 grammes (6G'2 grains). Drachm. 

From the Loscomhe ami Biinbury Collections (II. 720). 

909 Head of Zeus Ammon 1. 
bearded, with ram's horn ; behind 
n [o ■?] Plain border. 

[Die of B.M. specimen, 1881-12-6 


K 1., Y r. ; silphion plant. Border of 
P A dots. 

[PI. XXII.] 
K 1., Y r. ; silphion plant. Border of 
A I dots, 
o € 

[Die of B,M. specimen, R. P. Knight 
p. 213 B 1.] 


[PI. XXII.] 

r. ; head of Libya r. with 

A'' 7 '5 mm. 

formal curls, wearing earring and neck- 
lace. Border of dots ; slight incuse 

[Die of B.M. specimen 1881-12-6- 
Wt. -87 gramme (13 '4 grains). One-tenth of stater. [PI. XXII.] 

Circa B.C. 321 — 308. 

KY 1. PA r. across field; silphion 
plant ; in field 1. star, r. mon. no. 209 ; 
concave field. 

910 Youthful male head 1., with 
ram's horn. [Die of B.M. specimen 
E.H. p. 697 n. 7.] 

JR 22 mm. Wt. 7 '82 grammes (120 '7 grains). Rhodian rtidrachm. 
From the Monlaijn Sale (II. 442). 

911 Similar to preceding. 

JR 20 -.5 mm. Wt. 

[PI. XXII.] 
Similar, but in field 1. serpent, r. 
I and mon. no. 58. 

^•79 grammes (120'2 grains). Rhodian didrachm. 
From the Carfrae Sale (.348). 

912 Similar type r. 

JR 22'5 mm. 

Similar, but in field 1. tripod, r. mon. 
no. 86. 

Wt. 7 '84 grammes (121 grains). Rhodian didrachm. 

L 2 



913 Similar type r. 

[KY 1. P]A across field, below; sil- 
phion plant ; in field r., cornucopiae ; 
concave field. 
JSi 20-5 mm. Wt. 7"61 grammes (117'5 grains). Rhodian didrachm. 

914 Head of Apollo r. laureate. 

KY PA across field, above; sil- 

phion plant ; in field 1. K E r. crab. 

JR 23 mm. Wt. 674 grammes (104 grains). Rhodian didrachm. Restruck. Found 
in Krete. From the Sale of 20 Jan. 1898 (144). 

Circa B.C. 247 — 222. 

915 Head of Zeus Amnion r., 
bearded, with ram's horn. [Border of 

K ]. Or.; silphion plant. [Border 
I N of dots.] 

[o] N 

JE '23 mm. Wt. 8-99 grammes (138-7 grains). 


After circa B.C. 900. 

916 Head of young Herakles 1. in 
lion's skin. Border of dots. 

[AlBjYilNA in ex.; lion walking r. ; 
above, Phoenician letter (j^)- Border 
of dots. 

Ji\ 21 mm. Wt. 7'16 grammes (llO-o grains). Phoenician didrachm. 

From the Montaiju Sale (II. 443). [PI. XXII.] 


Circa B.C. 264 — 241. 

917 Head of Persephone 1., wearing 
wreath of barley, triple-drop earring, 
and necklace. Border of dots. 

Horse standing r. 

EL 18 mm. Wt. 7'69 grammes (118'7 grains). 

From the Monlaijii Collection (II. 4,58). 

918 Similar. Plain border. I Horse standing r. ; in background, 

I date-palm. Plain border. 
^ 17 mm. Wt. 2-81 grammes (43-3 grains). 

I Similar to preceding. Border not 
I visible. 
JE 15 mm- Wt. 2-57 grammes (.396 grains). 

920 Similar to preceding. I Similar to preceding. Plain border. 

JE 15'.> mm. Wt. 2-36 grammes (36'4 grains). 

Circa B.C. 241 — 218. 

919 Similar to preceding. 

921 Head of Persephone 1.. wearing 
wreath of corn, triple-drop earring, and 

Horse standing r. ; above, disk and 
horns. Concave field. 

EL 22 '.5 mm. Wt. 10 '91 grammes (168 '4 grains). 

From, the Sale of'alate Collector," 31 May, 1900 (489). [PI. XXII.] 



922 Similar, but single-drop earring. 
Border of dots. [Die of B.M. specimens, 
E.H. p. 179 nos. 7 and 8.] 

Horse walking r. ; between fore-legs, 
pellet. Plain border. 

.51 25 mm. Wt. 13'07 grammes (201 7 grains). Serrate fabric. 
From the Montaiju Sale {II. 460). 

[PI. XXII.] 
Horse walking r. 

923 Similar to preceding. Border I 1 1 1 1 1 H above, 
noi visible. I Border of dots. 

Si 21 mm. Wt. 8'45 grammes (130'4 grains). 

From the Montaiju Sale (II. 460). 

924 Similar to preceding. Horse standing r., head reverted ; in 

background, date-palm ; in field r. star. 

JH 19-5 mm. Wt. 7'39 grammes (114'1 grains). 

925 Similar. Border of dots. 

Similar. Border of dots. 

-^l 20 mm. Wt. 7'53 grammes (116'4 grains). 

From the Montayu Sale (II. 460). 

[PI. XXII.] 

926 Similar to preceding (triple- I Horse standing r. ; in background, 
drop earring). Plain border. I date-palm. Border of dots. 

M, (base) 28 mm. Wt. 10-29 grammes (158-8 grains). 

927 Head of Persephone 1., wearing 
wreath of barley and single-drop ear- 
ring. Border of dots. 

2Si 21 -5 mm. Wt. 4-78 grammes (73-7 grains). 

Horse standing r. ; above, disk and 
horns ; below, letter no. 210. 

928 Similar (but triple-drop earring I Head of horse r. ; in front, date- 
and necklace). Border of dots. I palm. 

JEt 19 mm. Wt. 5-12 grammes (79-0 grains). 

Circa B.C. 218—146. 

Horse standing r. 

929 Head of Persephone 1. wearing 
wreath of coi-n, single-drop earring, and 
necklace. Border of dots. 

EL 15 I""- Wt. 2-81 grammes (43-4 grains). 

Plain border. 

930 Head of Persephone 1., hair 
wavy, wearing wreath of barley, single- 
drop earring, and necklace. Border of 

[Die of B.M. specimen E.H. p. 179 
n. 4.] 

Jf 13 mm. Wt. 2-01 grammes (31-0 grains)- 

Horse standing r. Border of dots. 
[Die of B.M. specimen E.H. p. 179 
n. 4.] 

[PI. XXII.] 

931 Similar ; necklace and border 
not visible. 

Similar. Plain border. 
JSi 14 mm. Wt. 1-95 grammes (30-1 grains). 



B.C. 106—60. 

932 Male head r., wearing wreath Horse galloping r. ; below, Phoenician 
of barley. Border of dots. letter (p) ; the whole in olive-wreath. 

^ 18-5 mm. Wt. 3-08 grammes (47'5 grains). 

B.C. 60—46. 

933 REX -IVBA r. Bust of luba r. Inscription (n^Sj^OH 1- I "'irnV 
bearded, sceptre over r. shoulder. Bor- r.) ; temple faqade with eight columns; 
der of dots. in central space, pellet ; flight of .steps 

leading up to the podium. 
M 17-0 mm. Wt. 3-76 grammes (58-0 grains). Denarius. [PI. XXIL] 


B.C. 25— A. D. 23. 

934 REX 1. IVBA r. Head of 
luba II. r. diademed. Plain border. 

E 1. T r. Club (handle upwards) ; 
A A the whole in laurel- 
wreath. Border of dots. 

JR 19 mm. Wt. 3'14 grammes (48'5 giains). Denarius. Year 34 = 9/10 A. D. 



Second or First Century B.C. 

935 Veiled female head r. wearing 
stephane and necklace. Border of 

Phoenician inscr. (nj^) r., repeated 1. ; 
tripod. Border of dots. 

IR 17 mm, Wt. 3 '03 grammes (46 '8 gi'ains). For the attribution, see A. Mayr, die 
ant. Miinzen der Ins. Malta, &c. (Miinchen, K. Wilhelms-Gymnasium Pro- 
gramm, 1894), pp. 12 f. 

936 Veiled female head r. wearing 
stephane and necklace. Border of 

JE, 16-5 mm. Wt. 3-29 grammes (50-8 grains). 

[mJeAI r. I TAIHN 1. Kithara. 
[Border of dots.] 





237a € E AI VAoi I o\A (sic) 
around ; Herakles, nude r., contending 
with bull r. ; he holds its horn with ]., 
and wields club in r., pressing his 1. 
knee against bull's flank. Border of 

[Same die as B.M. nos. 34. 36.] 

Circa B.C. 461 — 430. 

HYi 1., AS r. River-god Hypsas, 
nude, standing to 1., sacrificing with 
phiale in r. over garlanded altar round 
which a bearded serpent twines ; he 
holds in 1. laurel-branch ; in field r. 
leaf of wild celery, and crane walk- 
ing r. 

JR, '22.5 mm. Wt. 8-62 grammes (1,33 grains). Didrachm. 


• • 

B.C. 214 — 212. 

No. 347a. 

347a Head of Apollo 1. laureate, 
with flowing hair. Border of dots. 

ZYPA[KoZinN] 1. Female figure 
(Tyche ?) wearing long chiton, and in- 
flated peplos, moving 1., with uplifted 
face, holding in r. half- unrolled volume, 
in 1. branch to which fillets are at- 
tached ; [linear border]. 

[Same die as B.M. no. 662.] 

-^ 14-5 mm. Wt. 2-18 grammes (33-6 grains). For the goddess on the reverse, see 
Holm, Ge^ch. Sic. iii., p. 7(J0, no. .V)0. 


Third Century B.C. 

No. 351a. 

351a Head of Apollo r., laureate, | TAYPoME r., [nJiTAN 1. Tripod- 
long hair; behind, omphalos with j lebes ; in field r. monogram (PEY ?). 
serpent encircling it. Border of dots. I Plain border. 

■" 10'5 mm. Wt. I'Oo grammes {16"2 grains). 




Circa B.C. 

No. 364a. 

364a Female head 1. wearing ampyx 1 Phoenician inscr. ziz (No. 25) in 
decorated with swastika, triple-drop ! exergue. Fast quadriga r., charioteer 
earring, and necklace ; around, three holding goad in 1., reins in both hands ; 
dolphins; concave field. above, Nike flying 1. to crown him; 

exergue marked by dotted and plain 
lines ; in exergue, sea-horse r. Border 
of dots. 

[Die of B.M., p. 247, no. 8.] 
Ai 27 mm. Wt. 17"53 grammes (270'5 grains). Attic tetradrachm. 


416a iSimilar to no. 415. 

No. 416a. 

Circa B.C. 450 — 400. 

AINI above. Goat walking r. ; in 
field r., crab; the whole in incuse 
I square. 
Jii 12 mm. Wt. 1-24 grammes (19-2 grains). Euboic diobol. 


Circa B.C. 330 — 280. 

No. 579a. 

579a [n]oA 1., Y^HN above, l-^^N 

PoAY 1. I PHA/I r. Arrow-head 
with broad blade, having two extra 
lateral ribs running out into barbs ; 
concave field. 
.31 20 mm. Wt. 5'22 grammes (80'o grains). Aiginetic drachm. 

r. Bull's head with fillets hanging 
from horns. Border of dots. 




Circa B.C. 394 — 364. 

Nil. oSd.\. 

589a Head of bearded Herakles 1., I HPAK above | AEIA below. Club 
wearing lion's skin. ' with handle 1. ; concave field. 

JR 11mm. Wt. 1'20 grammes (18'6 grains). Triliemiobol. 



ABYDOS. Circa B.C. 320—280. 

625a Head of Apollo r. laureate. 

AB\ 1., H<})AISToAE-n-S r. Eagle 
with closed wings, standing 1. In 
field 1. Nike flying 1. with wreath, r. 

[Die of B.M. no. 16.] 

No. 62uA. 
■Sa 14'5 iiini. Wt. ■2-44 grammes (.37"7 grains). 


Fifth Century B.C. 

No. 662a. 

662a Nude man restraining by 
bridle horse prancing 1. 

E P Y O in corners of incuse 
square, within which stellate flower 
of sixteen petals. 
JR loo mm. Wt. 4'54 grammes (70 grains). Persic drachm. 


A M A T H U S. 

Circa 390 B.C. 

No. 7.56b. 
Forepart of lion r., jaws open ; traces 
of inscription in field. Concave field. 

No. T.'iOA. 

756.V Inscription (Z<»-ti-/x<o) in ex. ; 
lion couchant r., 1. fore-paw raised, jaws 
open ; above, eagle flying r. ; e.xergue 
marked by plain and dotted lines. 
Border of dots. 

JSi 21 mm. Wt. 6'32 grammes (97'6 grains). Rhodian didrachm, 

EHOIKOS. Circa 355 B.C. 

756b Head of lion r., jaws open. 
Border of dots. 

Forepart of lion r., head facing ; in 
field r., sign ('Po) ; plain border, con- 
cave field. 

J\{. 14 mm. Wt. 2-16 grammes (33'4 grains). Rhodian tetrobol. 

P A P H O S. 

Circa 460 B.C. 

No. 7oyA. 

759a Bull standing 1. ; above, in 
scription {Uv-vv). 

Head of eagle 1. ; below, line of 
guilloche pattern ; in field 1. above, 
floral ornament ; the whole in dotted 
incuse square. 

JR 22-.> mm. Wt. 10'77 grammes (166-2 grains). Persic stater. From same dies as 
a specimen in B.M. (1871-7-1 -t). 



No. 759b. 



Early Fifth Century B.C. 

759b Ram couchant 1. ; inscription, 
above E-y-fe, below Xe-ro-ro-ae. Bor- 
der of dots. 

Crux ansata, the circle dotted, and 
containing sign Kv; the whole in in- 
cuse square with floriations in corners. 

2R, 22 ram. Wt. 1092 grammes {168'o grains). Persic stater. 


B.C. 351—332. 

761a PN r. Bust of Aphrodite 1., 
with long hair, wearing myrtle wreath, 
earrinof, and necklace. 

No. 76 IB. 

[b]A r. Bust of Artemis 1., hair 
taken up and tied in bunch ; she 
wears earring and necklace, and quiver 
at her shoulder. 

J^ IS mm. \Vt. 6'83 grammes (105'4 grains). Rhoilian didrachm. 

761b Similar to preceding. 

[b]A 1. Bust of Artemis r., as on 
preceding, but without quiver. 

j5? 12-5 mm. Wt. 2*2,5 grammes (.34'8 grains). Rhodian tetrobol. 

\o. 762.\. 



762a Bust of Vespasianus 1., laureate; 
around, AYToKPATnPoYeCnACIA- 
NoCKAICAP Border of dots. 


Temple of Paphian Aphrodite, con- 
taining conical baitylos in central com- 
partment ; around, e[T]oYCNeoYie 
RoY H (the last letter in exergue). 
Border of dots. 
25'5 mm. Wt. 12"89 grammes (198'9 grains). Piece of four denarii. 






























• • 

















C 3 















































































































































































































1 °' 










( 10-. ) 

From the Tomb uf JIkrkhi, Xauthus. (Jiritish Museum.) 

( 150 ) 




And yet how lovely in thine age of woe, 
Land of lost gods and godlike men ! art thou ! 
Thy vales of evergreen, thy hills of snow. 
Proclaim thee Nature's varied favourite now ; 
Thy fanes, thy temples to thy surface bow. 
Commingling slowly with heroic earth. 
Broke by the share of every rustic plough : 
So perish monuments of mortal birth. 
Ho perish all in turn, save well-recorded Worth. 





Grecian Bkuxze .SrAiti; of Poseiuox, mjcently Discovered at Rome. 

(From Dr. Murray's Handbook to Greek ArclMeology,) 



( 157 ) 



Naples, the Akcient Neapolis. 


"Italia! Oh Italia! Thou who hast the fatal gift of beauty." — Byron. 

Before commencing the Imaginary Tour (which I propose to start 
with a visit to Southern Italy, the ancient Magna Graecia), let us notice 
the little pieces which are described at the beginning of Mr. Hill's Catalogue. 

The first coin in the collection (No. 1, Plate I.) is one of the third 
centurj- B.C., which was most probably struck in the proximity of Cartagena. 
This was the ancient Karthago Nova, which Hamilcar Barca founded to 
consolidate the Carthaginian colonies in Spain. There were great silver mines 
in that country and the invaders established a mint at this city, the capital of 
the colony. The portrait on the coin may be that of Hamilcar, or indeed of 
Hannibal. There is no inscription ; but it has all the characteristics of a Greek 
coin. The elephant seems to represent one of the African species, which the 
Carthaginians are said to have trained for military service. 

The Carthaginians had originally no money of their own, but, as we shall 
learn later on, began to strike coins to pay mercenaries in their Sicilian wars. 
In this case, however, the piece may have been struck for purposes of trade with 
the Greek merchants. 

The next coin (on Plate I.) is from one of the greatest Mediterranean ports 
of modem times. Massilia, now Marseilles, was originally founded as 
a Greek colony, 600 B.C., from Phocaea in Ionia. [No. 2.] This coin is a 

( 159 ) 

M 2 


Phocaic drachme, showing how careful the Hellenic colonies were to adhere to 
the weights of their native lands. There were other Greek colonies on the 
Western Mediterranean. An important one called Rhoda, a short distance 
west of Marseilles, was founded from Rhodes, in Asia Minor. Its coins with 
Greek legends exist of about 350 B.C. Then there was another in the same 
district, Emporiae, founded from Marseilles, which eventually eclipsed its. 
neighbour Rhoda and was a flourishing place for several centuries.^ 

Kntranxe to the Port of Marseilles. 

The southern part of Italy became in the sixth and fifth centuries B.C. so 
extensively colonised by the Hellenic people as to be known as Greater 
Greece. This remarkable race had even earlier set the impress of their language, 
their literature, their religion, and their art, on several advanced points in the 
Mediterranean, east and west of the little islands from which they sprang ; 
whether merely from the results of an adventurous spirit, and a desire to see the 
world, or from the love of gain inherent in a people who always were a trading 
community, we cannot clearly tell. It may have been that even before the first 
Persian invasion the population of the towns on the coasts of their native 
Hellas, and even of some of their inland cities, had increased so much that 
emigration became a necessity, the younger birds being crowded out of the 
parent nest. But in any case it is no wonder that so many of the colonies 
selected such a favourable land as Southern Italy. Their native shores and 
islands were comparatively bleak, mountainous, and barren. Here were perennial 
rivers, rich plains, a splendid climate and many secure harbours. In those early 
' Note C — Ancient Phoenician Colonies in Spain. 


days the coast and plains of Southern Italy were healthy. Now unfortunately 
they are not so. Malaria, from some unascertained cause, has seized upon 
many districts which were noted for extreme healthiness in ancient times. 
This, and the absence of roads, in our days has prevented many travellers from 
visiting a land that is still one of the loveliest. It is so much easier now to 
visit the wide new world opened up to us by modern advantages, that places 
comparatively at hand are neglected. 

Fifty years ago Southern Italy was destitute of railways, and yet Mr. 
Edward Lear was able to visit it as a wandering " Landscape Painter," giving us a 
charming account of his experiences, and excellent drawings of its scenery, some 
of which adorn these pages. Now that railways have been made round the toe 
of Italy, travelling thither should be more popular than formerly. 

For j'ears after Lear's time brigandage was rife, and though it has been 
almost eradicated, the dreaded malaria scourge still haunts many ancient sites of 

Magna Graecia — Brcttian Scenery — San Georgio. 

(After Edward Lear.) 

Grecian civilisation. There are now hopes that this pest may be much lessened, 
if not driven from the country, and great efforts are being made by the Italian 
Government, aided by the recent scientific discoveries of the causes of this 
terrible calamity, to eradicate it. Fortunately there is no malaria in spring. 

We shall commence our imaginary journey at Naples. But we must 
linger awhile at Rome, if only to see the fine specimens of Greek bronze 
statues. Two magnificent works were recently found when digging the 



foundations of a new theatre. They had actually been used to decorate 
the atrium of another theatre which had existed on the same spot, forty 
feet below, 2,000 years ago ! These two old Greek bronzes are amongst 

the finest works of 
their kind and no 
doubt were carried off 
from Greece by the 
Romans, who had such 
fancy for bronze sta- 
tues that not one was 
left in the old land. 
The standing figure 
resembles several on 
Hellenic coins, and 
" the prize-fighter, with 
his eyeballs of enamel, 
glares out his anxiety 
for a new encounter." 
Both these works Dr. 
Murray, in his admir- 
able Hnndbook of 
Greek Archaeology, 
would attribute to 
Lysippus. They are 
both now preserved in 
the new museum at 
the Baths of Diocletian 
in Rome. 

Rome had apparently at no time coins of its own such as the Greek. When 
the Hellenic colonies had beautiful little pieces of money of the precious metals, 
or at of respectable bronze| the Romans had in current use great cast blocks 
of rough metal, ingots representing its value, some of them as large as bricks. 

Some of the small states around or south of Rome, originally colonised 
by Greeks, continued to strike pretty little pieces of money while under Latin 
protection or actually under Roman dominion. Some of these bear inscriptions 
in the native Oscan characters. [No. 3.] In the Roman Campania we have 
coins of the fourth century B.C. [No. 4] with a beautiful female head with 
a crested bonnet ; an eagle's head and dolphin below. On the reverse we find 
a good figure of Victory with a palm-branch, and RoMANo (Plate I.). 

Another [No. 3], with Apollo's head and Ro M A. A striking coin [No. 6] with 

Grecian i;i;uNzi: Statue — A Boxer — Reoently Discovered 
AT Rome. 

(From Dr. MuiTay's Handbook to Greek Arclmeolojpj.) 


Capua. — The Theatre. 
the double Janus-head ; on the reverse Jupiter in a chariot, Victory driving, and 
Ro M A in incuse letters. Cales gives two coins [7, 8] of the third and fourth 
centuries B.C. and Capua another [No. 9], which bears KAPU in Oscan characters. 
This once fashionable Graeco-Roman city has given the museums of Europe 
many specimens of its ancient art.^ In the neighbourhood of Capua, pretty 
figurines in terracotta have been found in tombs, resembling those from 
Tanagra. One of these, engraved on p. 168, is in the British Museum, a pair 
of girls playing at " knuckle-bones." This group may have suggested Sir 
Edward Poynter's beautiful picture, of which an engraving is given. 

NoLA, Phistelia, Suessa, Nuceria, Hyria, were all in this district and 
were offshoots of the older Greek colonies. Hyria had beautiful coins [11, 
11a] and the one with a facing goddess would seem to be suggested, if not 
copied, from the celebrated head of by Kimon [296, PI. VII.] only 
that Hera on the Hyrian coin bears a golden crown richly decorated. No. 11a, 
with a profile head of Athena, is nearly as beautiful. A place which could 
strike such coins must have been one of importance, and yet the site is lost. 
Indeed, all the little pieces of these vanished cities show fine taste. Further 
north, Samnium [No. 3] and the early colonies of the wide district known as 
Campania, have also pretty pieces, as described above. 

' Capua still exists as an important town, the site of Cales is unknown. 



The coin shown pf Phistelia 
[No. 18] is excellent for the date 
(420 Ji.c), hailing from a remote 
place, whose site is now unknown. 
CuMAE was the oldest Greek 
colony, and was founded, it is said, 
more than 1000 years B.C. by 
wanderers from Chalcis, in Eu- 
boea. The site of the once great 
city of Cuniae shows onl}' ruins 
now, and is deserted. It was still 
an important place in Roman 
days. Cumae was the abode of 
the famous Sibyl, whose fame 
lasted down to mediaeval times, 
and was depicted by Michael An- 
gelo in the Sistine Chapel. Great 
™ „ ,, volcanic changes have happened 


(Naples Museum.) 

in this district. The Sibyl's oracular utter- 
ances came to an end when the mud volcano 
poured out its sulphurous flood, and the 
district must have become uninhabitable. 
But her traditional cavern is still shown ; the 
subterranean River Styx is not far off. 

The Grotto del Cane, where the ancient 
Cumean Sibyl was consulted as an oracle by 
the great ones of the earth, is now provided 
with a wooden door, and made a vulgar 
canine show. 

The coin of Cumae, No. 10, is inter- 
esting. The mussel-shell probably alludes 
to the purple dye of which it was the origin. 

The Greek Neapolis is still in evi- 
dence, a great port and the most populous The Psyche of Capua. 
city in Ital}^ with its name scarcely changed. (x.ipies Museum.) 
It got its title of " new city " from its parent CuMAE (of which we have 
spoken above), round the northern corner of the Bay of Naples. 



There are extensive classic ruins all along the coast, as far as its parent 
city's site, but these are mostly of Roman times. 

Neapolis was also known as Parthenope. It has always been such a 
great city that any Greek ruins must have been built over and entombed by 
constant rebuilding. But some ancient coins turn up occasionally. Nos. 12-15 
are pretty little pieces of the fourth century B.C. with Greek inscriptions. 
Neapolis fell into the hands of the Romans, 290 B.C., but always remained 
essentially a Greek city (Plate I.). 

Naples now boasts the finest collection — indeed the only one — of Hellenic 
bronzes in the world, and a remarkable store of Greek statues. Its Museum is 
magnificent, well-arranged, and accessible to all. The numismatic collection is 
very rich in Grecian coins, especially of Magna Graecia and Sicily. It is now 
under the care of an accomplished gentleman, Dr. Gabrici. The paintings from 
Pompeii and the Hellenic bronzes from Herculaneum, together with the splendid 
marbles brought from Greece in Roman times, make a week spent in the incom- 
parable Museum of Naples an excellent preparation for a tour round Magna 
Graecia and Old Greece. The collection of Etruscan and Hellenic vases is 
also superb. For those who appreciate painting there are about a dozen of the 
finest pictures in the world (mixed up with hundreds of inferior merit) in the 
Royal Galleries. 

Pabstcm (from a Sketch by the Author). 


Journeying southward from Naples along the coast of ancient LuCANlA,we 
come to the ruins of Poseidonia, better known to us by its Latin name of 
Paestum. Here is the most perfect group of Grecian temples in the world, 



three remarkable buildings of hoary antiquity. The Temple of Poseidon, of 
true Doric architecture, is nearly perfect, the columns very similar to the few 
left at Corinth. The other buildings have variations in detail and arrangement 
from any other Greek temples known. Poseidonia was founded 524 B.C. by the 
citizens of Sybaris, of which we shall speak latei". During Hannibal's invasion 
of Italy, Paestum remained faithful to Rome. 

A visit to Paestum is one of the most interesting excursions from Naples. 
Unfortunately, the region immediately in the neighbourhood of Paestum, though 

Magna Graecia — Temple of Poseidon (Neptune), Paestuji. 

once healthy and fertile, is now desolated by malaria. The visits to Paestum 
should be made in spring, and in the day-time, when there is no danger of 
malaria. The trip, by way of Pompeii, La Cava, and Salerno, is charming all 
the way. This, for those pressed for time, can be done in a day, but is well 
worth the dalliance of several weeks, making one's quarters at La Cava, or other 
of the healthy towns in the neighbourhood, at several of which there are now 
excellent hotels to be found. 

Though the three buildings (for they may not all have been temples) 
are wonderfully perfect, yet they are quite destitute of sculpture. In this 
respect Selinus, in Sicily, which we hope to visit, must be nearly as ancient, and is 
a remarkable contrast. The double, or triple, temple at Paestum is a puzzle 
to architects. There is nothing in the least like it anywhere else. There were 


Temple of Demeter (Ceres) (?), Paestum. 

double tiers of columns in the inte- 
rior. As it is quite unlike any known 
temple, it is called a " Basilica." 

The scene in the evening, as the 
sun sets over the sea, lighting up the 
crumbling walls and columns with 
ruddy hues, is wonderfully beautiful. 
But it is risky pleasure. I once con- 
tracted severe illness while sketching 
there, which was only dispelled by a 
sea voyage. The walls of the city 
and the foundations of its four gates 
are intact. Scientific excavations would possibly unearth many ancient remains 
I picked up a terracotta lamp with various types of the marine attributes of the 
place. Paestum is now some distance from the sea, owing to the volcanic 
upheaval of the coast. The experiments in ex- 

tirpating the malarial ^t^jm- "^^BBL mosquito now being so 

successfully carried on ^V^^ ^^^BA ^^ other parts of Italy 

should be tried here, for, ^^■^■■hmh^^^^ were it only rendered 
healthy, Paestum would ^^^^^^^^^^^ have many visitors. 

But it is recorded that, ^^^^^^ although undoubtedly a 

healthy place in its early amp f o i um. days, it suffered so much 

from malaria in Roman times that it was even then being deserted by its 

The early coins of Poseidonia have all the appearance of their great 
antiquity. [No. 62, Plate 1] The large thin fabric, embossed on one side 
and hollow on the other, and " in- 
cuse," that is, depressed, on the 
reverse, is curious, and yet the figure 
of Poseidon has much grand style 
about it. It is very probably copied 
from a celebrated ancient statue. 
This large coin is a Campanian 
stater, the coin No. 63 is a Cam- 
panian drachm. Both these coins 
are of great antiquity, 550 }S.C. The 
next specimen, No. 64, is about a 
century later. Here the archaic 
style gives way, and the reverse has an excellent representation of a bull, well- 
modelled. Nos. 65 and 66 have similar devices, and additions of sprigs of olive 

The "Basilica," Paestum. 



and grains of corn. The three last are of the 
Achaian standard, showing a desire to conform 
to that of the mother country. 

Velia was situated 20 miles further south, 
along the coast. It was founded from Asia Minor 
by Phocaeans in 540 B.C., who voluntarily left 
their native town rather than submit to the 
Persian yoke. The city's origin is proved by 
■k ^^^H the fact that its coins bear the Ionian alphabet. 

^^^ » * mS^ ^^H Some of them, however, show good Greek taste 

^^^ ^ and are well executed [80-90, Plate II.], but 

^^^K 1 the early pieces show strong evidence of oriental 

^^^^ft origin. They retained the system of weights, 

^^^^T' ,^J"' ' "^ as well as the dialect, they had been accustomed 

Zeno, BORN' 488 B.C. ■' 

(Vatican Museum.) to in their formcr home. This city was the 

birthplace of the earlier Zeno and other philosophers, who founded a school 
which bore the name of the place. 

Cicero resided here for some time and speaks of it as being a healthy place 
in his day. But in the time of Strabo it was in decay. It is now a malarious 

district and no ruins 
of the once import- 
ant city seem to be 
known. It seems 
strange if there be 
no remains of the 
great temple of De- 
METER (Ceres), for 
which the city was 
celebrated, but it is 
yet to be discovered. 
Some of the 
coins are verj' ele- 
gant, particularly 86 
and 89. No. 89 has 
a really beautiful 

head of Athena, the crested helmet decorated with olive in fruit ; on the reverse a 
lion, well-modelled,holding a ram's head in its paws. The engraver has been careful 
to put his monogram on both sides. Mr. Head thinks some of the earlier coins, such 
as 80, were struck in their early home in Asia Minor, and date back to 540 B.C. 

Girls Playing Knlckle-Bones. 
(Terracotta from Capua. British Museum.) 



Tarasto — Entrance to the Mare Piccolo, 


( 169 ) 


Takanto, from the Mare Piccolo. 


" Wrecks of another world whose ashes still are warm." — Byron. 

We shall now transport ourselves to the eastern side of Italy, and visit 
Taraxto,! on the Peninsula of Calabria, in the wide Gulf of Tarentum. 

Taras was the ancient name of Taranto. The fine harbour, which 
induced the Spartans to settle there in 708 B.C., makes it still an important 
place. The mediaeval town, with narrow, steep streets, however, only occupies 
the site of the ancient acropolis. There is now a handsome new quarter with 
modern wide streets spread over the ancient site. It was the greatest city of 
Magna Graecia, possessed fine fleets, and could place 30,000 men in the field. It 
had fourteen tributary towns and was a place of vast wealth, as its profuse and 
beautiful coinage testifies. The mediaeval town having been built over the 
Greek city, few ancient remains exist. The coins, terracottas, and the sculptures 
recently found testify to the love of the people for horses and equestrian sports. 

Taras espoused the cause of Hannibal in Roman times, and the people 
thus brought about their own subjugation. It was for some time in later days 
part of the Byzantine Empire. Even to-day the language of the people is 
strongly tinged with Greek. 

The coins show the popularity of the Dioscuri in the cult of the old 
Greeks, and the dolphin carrying Taras in every varying attitude testifies to its 
' The modern name is pronounced TAranto, tmI Taranto. 
( m ) 



boasted origin in the old myths of Hellas. [20-43.] Tabas, we are i gravely- 
told, was thus saved from shipwreck by the command of Poseidon (Neptune). 
Mr. Arthur Evans has written an interesting book on the " Horsemen 

Terracotta Reliefs found at Taeanto. 

OF Tarentum," which gives a full history of the interesting coinage of the 
place, and describes and illustrates several remarkable finds that have come to 
light — as many as 3000 pieces being in some hoards, and as if fresh from the 
mint.^ Taranto was, and is, the only secure port along many miles of coast. 
It has a busy aspect still, and its two harbours have a large fishing popula- 
tion. As in ancient times, there are prolific fisheries here, the fish entering the 
harbour at night (under the huge bridge that connects the island city with the 
mainland), and being netted in large quantities. There are nearly a hundred 
different varieties, and they are exported in all directions. Shell fish are bred 
in large quantities and there are prolific beds of excellent oysters. There are 
extensive naval docks and an arsenal. It is never unbearably hot in summer ; 
the region is extremely fertile and its honey and fruit are justly celebrated. 
Even the date-palm beai-s fruit here. The district still produces the best wool in 
all Italy, as it did in ancient times. 

There are ruins of a Doric temple of great antiquity, but two columns 

' Quuritch, 1890. 


like those of Paestum are all that remains of it. There are also a few 
traces of an amphitheatre and other scanty ruins, and many terracotta reliefs 
have lately come to light. 

Our specimens [Nos. 20-43] of the coins of Taras extend over three 
hundred years. No. 20 [Plate I.] has excellent work for such an early date, 
520 B.C., with Taras riding on the dolphin which had miraculously saved him 
from ship^vreck, his name in retrograde letters, and a wheel on the reverse. 
No. 22, somewhat later in date, shows Taras in joyful attitude, a well-modelled 
figure. In No. 25 we have an equestrian scene of much merit, and a figure 
resembling the " St. George " of our own gold coins, while Taras, on the other 
side, is beautifully treated. 

The variety of these little coins is marvellous. No. 26 bears the initials of 
the engraver's name. An exquisite little gold piece'[No. 27] has a pretty female 
head, and shows the young Taras with a distaff and a skein of wool (weaving 
of woollen garments being then, and still, a valuable industry of the district). 

On No. 30 we have Athena's head with Scylla on her helmet, and a quaint 
owl on the reverse. The heavenly twins are in evidence on No. 34, and Taras 
on the reverse, Nike crowning him with a wreath. No. 36 presents a beautiful 
head of Athena. 



Herakleia was allied to Taras, if not actually founded by it, and its fine 
coins are sometimes difficult to distinguish from those of the parent city. 
[44-47.] The city was .sacred to Herakles (Hercules). 

The portrait of some lovely woman of the place, in the garb of Athena, 









. m. 

Pakt of a Cuirass. 

(British Museum.) 

is one of the best [PI. I., No. 44] we have yet seen in the collection. The 
helmet bears a fine figure of Scylla hurling a rock. Athena is decorated with an 
elaborate earring and necklace. The initials most likely refer to an engraver's 

name. The group of Hercules and the Lion on 
the r. is very spirited, and is probably taken 
from a statue of the tutelary deity of the place. 
The standing Hercules on No. 45 is also well 
(lone, the figure being beautifully modelled. 
There are some ruins of Herakleia near the 
modern town of Policoro, and more might be 
found by excavation. 

At Herakleia Pyrrhus with his elephants 
fii-st defeated the Romans, 280 B.C. 

On the banks of the River Siris, not far 
from Herakleia, there were recently found the 
two bronze hinges of a cuirass, beautifully worked 
in the highest style of art : they represent the 
combat between Greeks and Amazons, and may 
have belonged to some ancient warrior who 
perished here, the weight of his bronze armour 
causing him to sink in crossing the morasses near the river. The illustration 
is about one-third of the size of the original. 


Metapontiox was an offshoot of Sybaris and Croton, founded about 
700 B.C. by Leukippos, whose head often appears upon its coins. It was situated 
in a fertile plain, and the ear of bearded grain (emblem of Demeter) was its 
crest. Many of its coins are very fine specimens of numismatic art. [48-61.] 
The Romans called it Metapontum. The surrounding country is very beautiful. 

It was a great Grecian city, art and letters were encouraged, and it became 
the abode of many eminent men. Among these was the philosopher Pythagoras, 
who, when his doctrines became unpopular at Croton and elsewhere in Magna 
Graecia, fled to this state for refuge and died at Metapontion in his ninetieth 
year, 497 B.C. His tomb was still shown in the time of Cicero. 

In later times Metapontion sided with Hannibal, and drew down upon it 
the vengeance of Rome. It was destroyed, and never rose again. Now it is 
only marked by a solitary railway station (Metaponto), and the remains of a 
Greek temple (engraved on the next page), called by the natives the " Table 
of the Paladins." There are ruins of a second temple at some distance. 

There is a refinement about the coins of Metapontion, although an agricul- 
tural district. Owing its wealth to the rich crops, it took for its crest an car of 


Metaponto — Ruins of the Great Temple. 

com. My earliest specimen date.s from 550 B.C. [No. 48], and my latest about 
300 B.C. The shell, engraved with perfect correctness on No. 57, shows the skill 
of the artist. This is also shown by the poppy plant in seed on No. 59. [Plate I.] 


Classic Sybaris must have been near this part of Bruitium, but we cannot 
visit its ruins, none being visible. There is a poor place now called Sibari, and 
the river is called the Crati (Crathis of the ancients). No remains of the 
city have been found to prove where the ancient votaries of pleasure lived. 

The people point out the serpentine bendings of the altered river's course, 
which was ingeniously diverted so as to entomb and destroy the conquered 
city. The district is malarious now, and a scene of desolation. Sybaris was 
founded in 720 B.C. by Greeks from Achaia. It grew rapidly and became the 
greatest Greek city of its day. Its citizens were so rich and luxurious that 
their characteristic epithet, " Sybarite," remains with us still, though the city 
was swept off the face of the earth in 510 B.C. The story told of its destruction 
is, that the neighbouring Greeks of Croton, moved by jealousy, determined to 
destroy the city, and, gathering a great army, invested it. They conquered the 
place, killed the inhabitants or sold them as slaves ; then turned the river 
Crathis so as to wash away every trace of the city of their hated rivals. 

The few coins of it that remain all bear the aspect of their great antiquity. 

N 2 



[PI. I., 67-68.] These coins, of large size and thin fabric, are peculiar to this part 
of the Greek world. It would seem as if Nos. 67 and 62, of a similar class, of 
Poseidonia, and those of Caulonia and Croton, had been made by the same hand. 
We are told that in its palmy days the city of the Sybarites was six miles 
in circumference. They ruled over twenty-five towns, and were able, we are 

^_^^^ , told, to put 300,000 

"■^ WSii^m'T iiii inir . , ,-^'=i^,,«^ men into the field, a 

number that seems in- 
credible. They carried 
cjn trade with Asia 
Minor and all parts of 
the world, and became 
> normously rich and 
vainglorious in conse- 
quence. But their 
glory was short-lived. 
Still it seems strange 

The River Cr.\ 

Supposed Site or Sybaris. 

that not a vestige of 
such a great city has been found, and it appears as if the spade, if applied at all, 
has not been used at the proper spot. Mr. Head explains ingeniously {Historia 
Numorwni) how the Sybarites made such 
great fortunes. Their territory extended 
across the narrow part of Italy from sea to 
sea, and was the land on which both buyer 
and seller disembarked or transported their 
goods. The Milesian trader unloaded his ship 
in the port of Sybaris, while the Etruscan 
merchant sailed into the port of Laus, on the 
other side, also belonging to Sybaris. The 
Sybarites controlled the intermediate dis- 
trict and charged what they pleased for the 
transit. The seas further south were infested 
with pirates, so the land transit was safer. 
The dispersed Sybarites who had made 
their escape got shelter in various cities, and 
sixty years afterwards got the Athenians and (Frum the Museum, xapies.) 

others from Old Greece to help them to found a new home near their old one. 
Thus Thurioi sprang up afterwards not far off the spot where Sybaris must have 
been, and became a great and opulent city, as is shown by its very beautiful coins. 



among the finest of Greek art. [PI. II., 69-79.] Pericles sent a colony of 
Athenians to Thurioi in 443 B.C., among whom was the historian Herodotos, who 
became a citizen of the new colony, and there wrote much of his famous History. 
The new city rapidly advanced in prosperity and attained great power, becom- 
ing one of the most important Greek colonies in Italy. It was able to put 
14,000 foot soldiers and 1,000 horse into the field against the Lucanians. 

Thk Castle i>f Chaklks V., Cotrose— (the Ancient (Jkoton). 

Long after, the city, having allied itself with Rome, was plundered by 
Hannibal. The site is marked by scanty ruins, and is quite deserted. 

Some of the coins of Thurioi are very beautiful, and evince higher art 
than those of the neighbouring cities. Mr. Head accounts for this by the fact 
that nearly all the fine coins we have were struck during their time of greatest 
wealth and prosperity, when they were occupied in the carrying-trade across 
their country similar to that which had enriched old Sybaris. They were able to 

employ a celebrated engraver cb whose mark appears also on coins of 

Neapolis, Velia, Terina, etc. As Mr. Head justly says, nothing can exceed the 
delicacy and purity of style of this artist's work. The coin No. 73 is an 
exquisite specimen of the art. The Scylla on the helmet is wonderful. On the 
reverse the butting bull is one of the finest ever portrayed. 

The people of Bruttium were not of Greek blood, but were originally a 



native race, who, learning civilisation from their Greek masters, in their turn 
conquered small settlements of the foreigners, and assumed the language, religion, 
and civilisation of the Hellenes. Their coins are often of good style, and show 
how they had assimilated Greek types and issued coins of their own, and even 
seem to have embraced the Greek religion. 

Our first Bruttian coin [PI. II., No. 91], is a very beautiful one. Poseidon 
(perhaps as we are in Italy we should call him Neptune), standing, is evidently a 
copy of some well-known bronze statue of that deity. We have almost the same 
figure on a coin of Demetrios Poliorketes of Macedon [Plate X., 400 and 401]. 
The head of Amphitrite, wearing a veil over her tiara, is very graceful. Another 
Bruttian coin [92] has a good bust of winged Nike (Victory) with a pretty arrange- 
ment of the hair. On the reverse, DiONYSOS (Bacchus, the Latins irreverently 
called him), standing, is also possibly copied from a statue. No. 93 has a good 
head of Apollo, with his sister Artemis (Diana) in hunting dress and boots, her 
quiver at her shoulder ; the hound beside her looks up to his mistress. 

Taranto — Column of a Doric Temple built into a modern House. 

Then we have a fine bronze coin [No. 94] with Ares (Mars) helmeted. On 
the reverse, Athena wears a long robe, advances to the fray, holding a great 
shield with both hands, and a spear under her left arm — a fine specimen of a 
" barbarous " people's coinage. Several bronze coins of lower denomination 
have heads of Zeus and Nike equally well executed. 



Part III. — Ix the Bruttian District 

The Temple of Hera Lacinia, Cotrone, on the Capo de Colonna. 

{Fi'Oiii a photograph taken by lag. Abalino.) 


( no ) 




"Save where some solitary column mourns." — Bybon. 
Croton, a colony founded 710 B.C. by the Achaeans, became a great city 
possessed of boundless wealth, and so populous that 100,000 men could be sent 
against its rival Sybaris. It possessed a magnificent temple dedicated to Hera 

Lacinia, of which one lone column now 
stands, on a lofty promontory looking over 
the sea, called, from its scanty ruins, Capo 
Colonna. This is about six miles from the 
little seaport, Cotrone — all that remains to 
recall the great Croton of classic days. 
Croton po.ssessed a renowned medical 
school, and some remedial agents still re- 
tain its ancient name. The celebrated 
temple possessed the masterpiece of the 
Greek painter Zeuxis — his famous " Helen 
of Troy." The coins of Croton testify to 
the taste and wealth of its ancient Greek 
masters. [PI. II., 102-113.] Of its Hellenic 
origin we still have evidence. The young girls 
of Cotrone go thence to the church near the 
temple in procession every Saturday, in bril- 
liant costumes and with bare feet. This is 
ostensibly to do honour to the Virgin, but is really a survival of the old Greek 
worship of Hera, the Queen of Heaven. 

If the earl}' inhabitants of Sybaris had left an unfavourable impression 
on posterity, those of Croton handed down a much higher record : " Mens 
sana in corpore sano." It was the healthiest position on the south Italian 
coast, and this may have helped their conduct. We are told that the virtue of 
the people of Croton, and the excellence of their institutions, combined with its 
extensive commerce, made it the most powerful and most flourishing town in 
Southern Italy. It owed much of its culture and high moral tone to the 
teaching of Pythaooras,^ who established here his great school of philosophy. 
Gymnastics were held in high repute and were more cultivated than in any 
other Grecian city. One of its citizens, MiLO, was the most celebrated athlete 

1 The typea of the coinage of Croton and other places in the neighbourhood form an illustration of the strong 
Influence of the religious ideas of Pvthaooras on the locality, llio TRlPOD(the emblem of Apollo) represented the sacred 
munlwr tinxf. to which they attached a mystic importance. The Eaole (emblem of the supreme god) wus believed to 
have been sent to Pyth;igoras from heaven with evidence of his divine mission.) The Crane was typical of the witness 
from aljove of all that hapi^ens on earth, and was the symbol of the all-seeing eye of the God of Light. 

Croton Ijecame the centre of the whole of the South of Italy of this deep religious movement, and this accounts 
for the constant recurrence of the head of Apollo on the coins. 

( 18 ) 


(Capitoline Museum, Rome.) 


in all the Hellenic world. In destroying Sybaris, in 510 B.C., Croton added 
much to its own greatness. But it in turn suffered defeat at the hands of the 
LocRiANS. Unfortunately for its otherwise high reputation it drove away 
its great teacher, Pythagoras, in his old age. 

The temple of Hera must have been a splendid structure ; its one re- 
maining column has enabled an Officer of the Italian Engineers, Signer Abating 
(Inspector of Antiquities for the South of Italy), to calculate the size and extent 
of the edifice. The column is in the perfect proportion of a Doric temple. It 
is of about the same date as that of Corinth, about 700 B.C. The column 
shows finer taste than the architecture of Paestum. It was on this temple that 
Hannibal inscribed, in Greek, the record of his deeds in Italy. 

Recurring to the history of Croton, it early fell from its high estate. 
From its commanding position it could hardly escape the successive invaders 
and marauders who devastated these coasts for many centuries. 

DiONYSius of Syracuse humbled the proud city ; Agathocles made siege 
and war upon it, and the stormy petrel Pyrrhus, with his host of adventurers, 
laid it waste. It suffered much in the Carthaginian troubles and by the time 


of the second Punic war the greater part of it was uninhabited. So it is not 
to be wondered at that so little remains to testify to the palmy Grecian days of 
ancient Croton. Only the good name of its early people survives. 

The modern representative of the old city — Cotrone — about six miles from 
the Capo Colonna, owes its important appearance to the fine castle of Charles V., 


which is well worthy of a visit. Oranges and lemons thrive here and are largely 

The coinage of Croton was important. It preserved its fine style for 
several centuries. The earliest piece is of the same embossed thin fabric as 
those of Sybaris, Poseidonia, and Metapontion [PI. II., No. 102]. The tripod, 
the eagle, and their great protecting goddess, Hera (Juno), are the principal 
emblems [Nos. 103, 105]. The youthful Herakles (Hercules) is introduced 
[Nos. 106, 110, 111] in fine style, and a good head of Apollo [112]. Numis- 
matists note how the change from the antique Cp to the later l< takes place, 
and the o to the O. in the spelling of the city's name. This assists to give the 
date of the coins. 


Caulonia was a true Greek settlement of the Achaeans, and in the seventh 
century B.C. was in alliance with Croton and Sybaris. It must have been a 
powerful city in very early times. Its coins show great resemblance to those of 
Croton and Sybaris, but are very archaic in style. [98-101.] 

In fact, in the early stages of their colonisation, all these pioneers of Greek 
enterprise must have been good friends. Possibly they had enough to do to 
resist the aborigines, and so had no time to quarrel among themselves, as 
they did in after times, when we hear of bloody battles and the total destruction 
of Greek cities by Greeks. As has been said before, the earliest coins seem to 
be all made by the same mint. Of course that is impossible, for the distances 
apart were in some cases considerable. But still the resemblance of style is very 
great. The earliest coin of Caulonia is No. 98, with a fine, archaic, embossed 
figure of Apollo with his stag. There is a curious little running figure in the 
field, which has not been explained ; possibly some local tradition or myth lost to 
us now. No. 99 is similar, but has a good stag on the reverse. Nos. 100 and 
101 are very curious types. 

Poor Caulonia had no long term of prosperous existence. That restless 
tyrant DiONYSlUS of Syracuse carried off all its inhabitants to his capital, and 
gave its territory to LoCRl. Rebuilt, it was again destroyed by Pyrrhus, and 
a third time in the second Punic war. Considerable traces of its former extent 
are to be seen at Castel Vetere, but no scientific excavations have been made. 

The district is noted for its beauty. The modern town of GlOiosA has a 
fine position, but looks grander from a distance than on nearer examination. 
The town was possibly constructed from the abundant classic remains in the 
vicinity, and this may account for their disappearance. The glorious scenery of 
this part of Southern Italy, its massiveness and its breadth, is still in full 
evidence, and the sites of the modem towns are remarkably picturesque. The 
blue sky and sunshine, the healthy, well-grown peasantry — whose women still 



retain their picturesque ancient costumes (unfortunately only seen on Sundays 
and fete-days) — make it one of the richest gi-ounds for the artist. If only some 
of our modem water-colour painters would spend their spring or autumn 
holidays there, they might then show us that Mr. Lear, the " Landscape 
Painter" of fifty years ago, only gave us a small sample of its inexhaustible 
loveliness I When he was there, the country was in a state of impending 
revolution. Now it is peaceful and under settled government. 

With a few clean and moderate hotels at the principal points of interest, 


the facilities now given by railways should make Bruttium a favourite resort of 
our artists and antiquarians. 

LocRi Epizephyrii, which was a settlement from Locris in Old Greece in 
683, was extolled by Pindar and Demosthenes for its wealth and love of art. It 
had a noted lawgiver, named Zaleukos, whose wise laws were promulgated a 
century before the time of Pythagoras, about 660 B.C. These laws, though 
severe, produced good citizens, and a fine people amenable to discipline. The 
town enjoyed great prosperity down to the time of the younger Dionysius of 
Syracuse, who invaded it and sacked the place, treating the inhabitants with 
extreme cruelty. The Romans conquered Locri after the second Punic war, 
and it soon after sank into oblivion. 

The surrounding country is beautiful. A modern town, Gerace, now 
exists on the spot, whose church preserves the Greek columns of one ancient 
temple of the Locrians. Other scanty ruins lie in an orange garden. 



The only coin I possess of the place [115] is restruck on a coin of Corinth. 

On the eastern coast, still in the Bruttian territory, stood the cities of 
Terina and Vibo, in beautiful scenery. This part of the coast is well- wooded, 
watered with many streams, and most picturesque. However it possesses to- 
day no important towns, but many populous villages. 

Terina, although on the Mediterranean shore, on the west, was a colony 
of Croton. Beautiful little coins of it are found, of about 450 B.C. Its precise 
site is unidentified. [PI. II., 125^129.] The quality of its coins shows how 
prosperous Terixa must have been in the fifth century. Nos. 125 and 126 

Gebace — THE Ancient Locroi Epizephyrioi. 

are very beautiful. The nymph seated on the amphora is a lovely figure, while 
on the other coin the portrait of one of the pretty ladies of the city, as she no 
doubt was, is exquisitely engraved. A later coin [No. 129] is also very fine 
on both sides. Mr. Head extols the coins of Terina as among the most 
beautiful of Hellenic work. Several bear the initials of the artist. 

Terina was unfortunate ; burnt by Hannibal, it was never re-built. 

The ruins of Vibo are not far off, they lie on a lofty hill ; its once famous 
seaport was destroyed by the Saracens. It was called Hipponium by the Romans. 
[114.] This coin is of late date and bears " Roma," with a good figure of 

Sailing southwards, along the western coast of Calabria, we come to 
SciLLA, a bright little town, near the battlefield of Aspromonte. Tourists 




nowadays go more to visit the place where the modern hero, Garibaldi, got his 
wound, than to see the locality of the ancient fabled sea-monster of whom 
Homer sang. 

The beautiful terror (a lovely woman above, wolves' heads at her waist, and 
a dolphin's body below) is represented on many Greek coins issued throughout 
the district, which was associated with all sorts of dangers by timid mariners 
creeping along the coast, as well as on the opposite shores of Sicily. So that, 
although there appears to have been no ancient town of ScYLLA, we seem to 
know all about the district. 

All the way SiciLY has been looming in the distance and at last seems to 
overlap the Italian coast and for the moment to be a part of it. 

The mention of this fine island recalls many delightful voyages through 
the straits. The sail along the Italian coast from Naples is wonderfully lovely, 
and where the volcanic islets of Lipari rise out of the blue water, with the green 
hills and the bold coast foreground of Sicily beyond, it is beautiful beyond de- 
scription. Stromboli, one of the islands, is an active volcano, a striking object 
by night or day. The Strait of Messina is only three miles wide and presents 
the appearance of a series of promontories and reaches on each side, owing to the 
windings of the coast. It is one of the loveliest scenes in the world. The 
wooded mountains rise out of the blue waters, and are crowned by the snow- 
tipped peaks behind. No wonder the adventurous Greeks were tempted to land 
and select sites for their colonies at the rivers' embouchures, for though seemingly 



a mountainous region, there are many wide valleys which are perennially watered, 
and rich crops are possible on level patches along the banks of the streams. 

The current runs strongly through the strait, and doubtless had terrors in 
plenty for the small vessels of early navigators. 

Charybdis probably lay next the Sicilian coast, a dangerous quicksand, 
but now innocent of the fearful renown which classic writers gave it. It is won- 
derful how long ancient impressions last. " Out of Scylla, and into Charybdis," 
has been understood as an effective simile for thousands of years. The earthquakes 
of the twelfth century altered the whole coast and abolished Charybdis. 

Passing Messixa on our right, the bay of Reggio opens. The whole line 
of the Bruttian coast is studded with picturesque groups of villages, many 
heights still possessing their mediaeval watch-towers or ruined strongholds. 
The line of constant surf breaks on the hidden rocks or creeps along the bright 
sandy margins of the little bays and coves, of enchanting beauty, contrasting 
with the vivid green and azure of the clear Mediterranean waters. 

Rbooio, the ancient Rheoion. 

Rhegion and Messana were, in ancient times, always associated, almost as 
parts of one city. Most accounts agree in calling them both colonies of 
Chalcis, in EuBOEA. The Messenians from the old country had something to 
do with them, and thus the name Messana may have arisen. In any case, 
Rhegiox was a colony from Messene in the Peloponnesus, founded in 723 B.C. 
Dionysius of Syracuse destroyed it in 387, and Romans, Goths, Normans and 



Saracens in their turn have wrecked its ancient structures. As if this were not 
enough, it was in modern days (in 1783) ahnost obliterated by earthquakes. So 
little or nothing remains above ground to show its Greek origin, save its 
remarkably fine coins. [PI. II., 116-124.] Even now, however, Reggio is a 
notable seaport, its handsome villas studding the green hills behind and its bell 

towers and church spires enlivening the view. 

The cathedral is a handsome modern building. 
In the little museum are terracottas, vases, pre- 
historic and Etruscan in style, and a relief of a 
dancing female of sixth century B.C., mosaics, small 
bronzes, coins, and Greek inscriptions, a very inte- 
resting little collection. The forest-clad Aspro- 
monte rises behind the town, beech trees above and 
pines below. This neighbourhood has long been 
free from brigandage and during early spring or 
late autumn is a most enjoyable district for active 
pedestrians. Sicily is a glorious object from this 
side, with the white cone of Etxa above the 
clouds. The straits are barely three miles wide at 
the narrowest part. 

We must now say a few words about the 
coins of Rhegion. At first, they resemble 
greatly those of Messana [No. 116]. Then 
colonists from Samos in Asia Minor arrived, 
and introduced the Lion's head from their city 
as the emblem of RiiEGiON also. [119.] This 
coin is a large piece, with a good seated figure of 
ihe Demos of the town, or, as Mr. Head thinks, a 
local deity, the patron of rural life and pursuits. 
No. 122 has a remarkably fine head of ApOLLO and 
a spray of olive. The lion's head on this coin is very fine work. There is a 
legend that the hare on the coins of Rhegion and Messana records the introduc- 
tion of this animal into Sicily for sporting purposes. If so, the biga of mules may 
typify the first use of wheeled vehicles in this part of the world, but we fear 
Mr. Head will not accept either solution of the difficulty. Mr. Head believes, 
and no doubt correctly, that all early coin-types referred to objects of worship. 
The hare was sacred to the great god Pan, and what more appropriate sylvan 
emblem could there be for such an interesting rural deity ? 

The mule-car, according to Mr. Head, is typical of the Olympic Games, or 
of similar local competitions. 


A Colossal Bronze Statue. 

(British Mviseuin.) 

Archytas of Tarentum. 

Philosopher, Mathematician, General, and Statesman, 

c. 400-370 B.C. 

Bronze from Herculaneum (Naples Museum). 

Hannibal, Cartliaginian (icneral. 

247-183 B.C. (the Scourge of Southern Italy). 
Marble Bust found at Capua. (Museum 
of Naples. 

Aesop, Author of Faldes. 
(His works preserved by the I,atin translation of 
Aesop lived about .'i70 B.C. 
(Villa Albani, Rome.) 



Chief of Lyric Poets. Born at Thebes, .522 B.C. 

Visited Syracuse, 473 b.c. Died, 442 b.o. 

Friend and Panegyrist of Hieron I. 

( p. 188. 



Taobmixa — The Theatre before the Excavations. 

(From an ori^nal Drawing.) 



( 189 ) 

Pindar's Description of an Erufhon of Mount Etna {written about 
450 B.C.) may he appropriately quoted here : — 

" By snowy Etna, nurse of endless frosts, 
The pillared prop of heaven, for ever pressed ; 

Forth from whose nitrous caverns issuing rise, 
Pure liquid fountains of tempestuous fire, 

And veil in ruddy mists the noonda}' skies. 
While wrapt in smoke the eddying flames aspire. 
Or gleaming through the night with hideous roar, 
Far o'er the reddening main huge rock fragments pour." 

Pindar. — West's Translation, First Pythian Ode. 

( iw ) 


Messina, showing its natural Breakwater in the form of a Sickle, from which its 



" My spirit flies o'er mount and main." — Byron. 

As I have said in another place, the BritisTi Museum collection of SiClLlAN- 
Greek coins is the finest. This unequalled cabinet came to be formed in a 
rather strange manner. 

In 1777 a distinguished dilettante, Richard Payxe Knight, made a tour 
in Sicily, in company with a German fellow-traveller. Their account of their 
wanderings is told by Mr. Warwick Wroth in the Dictionary of National 
Biography. The travellers found ancient Greek coins in circulation in many 
parts of the island. Mr. Knight collected all the coins that came in his way, 
and when he brought his treasures to England the}- attracted great attention. 
This was the first time these magnificent coins had become generally known to 
the modern world. All Mr. Knight's coins found their way ultimately to the 
British Museum, and formed the nucleus of the present unparalleled collection 
and indeed, the beginning of its Greek numismatic department. 

We must now return to our Imaginary Tour through the parent lands of 
Greek coins. We paused at Reggio to enjoy the beauty of the Straits of 
Messina. Let us cross over and land on the Sicilian shore.^ It is hard to 
believe that we are on an island. It has all the look of another continent, while 
the broken coast of Calabria has more the appearance of a succession of islands. 

Messana still shelters behind the sickle-shaped promontory which gave it 
its primitive name of Zankle (a reaping-hook). Founded in 732 B.C. by 
' Note D — Sicily : Its Mytliology, History, and Poetry. 

( 191 ) O 2 


Cumaeans and Chalcidians (possibly not much better than sea-rovers, who drove 
out the native Sikels), it has undergone many vicissitudes, but still exists as a 
very important port, with a population of 70,000 or 80,000. Our own Richard 
Coeur de Lion did not pass it without injuring it considerably. It has been so 
often ruined that nothing of Greek time is visible. It is essentially a modem 
town, but boasts a line cathedral of Norman times, with much Saracenic style 
of architecture. Now and then a pot of money is dug up in the neighbour- 
hood, disclosing proofs of the earlier history. 

I possess a series — the earliest about 550 B.C. — of the coins of Zankle 
(spelt in the old lettering DANKAE), which I owe to the kindness of my friend 
Mr. Arthur J. Evans, who happened to be in Sicily, and was not far off when 
the last hoard was discovered. [PI. IV., 201-205.] The sickle is boldly in 
evidence on these five or six pieces, with the dolphin, typifying the deep water of 
^ its adjoining living sea. A row of pellets on each side of the sickle denotes 

*■ the sandy fringe of the natural breakwater. 

Another coin shows the line of square forts built along the promontory. 
One of these [202] coins is the only piece of Zankle, of two drachms weight, 
known to exist. Several of them are quite fresh, and must have been buried 
while the bloom of the mint was still upon their surface. Their date is about 
550 B.C. Their makers were not forgetful of the aquatic origin of their 
town, and the marine shell is shown on the reverse. Though barbarous in 
appearance, these pieces are of true Aeginetic weight, and of pure silver. 

When the name was altered to Messana, the coins assumed Greek types of 
decoration [PI. IV. V., 206-217.], and some of them bear very excellent numis- 
matic work. But before describing the later coins a few words may be said of 
the history of this remarkable city. Herodotos tells us that when the Persians 
invaded Asia Minor the Zankleans invited the lonians to settle "on this beautiful 
coast." A number of Samians and other Ionic Greeks accepted the offer. 

Ultimately the place became subject to Rhegion, and Anaxilas, the tyrant 
of that place, changed its name to Messana, because he was himself from 
Messene, in Old Greece. After many changes those pests of the Mediterranean, 
as we have learned to regard the Carthaginians, destroyed the place in 396 B.c. 
Dionysius of Syracuse rebuilt the town, and it was for some time subject to 
Syracuse, and then a free city again. But Agathocles, on one of his roving 
raids, conquered it in 312 B.C. His mercenaries, barbarous Oscans, remained 
behind him and seized the place, calling themselves Mamertines, or sons of 
Mars, and changed its name to Mamertinoi. 

Shortly after this the Romans took possession of Messana, to have a position 
to enable them to hold the straits, and territory also, against the Carthaginians. 
This action of the Romans brought about the first Punic War. The Romans 
held the place as long as their power continued. 



There are scarcely any remains of the ancient Greek days, the coins are 
the only memorials left to us. The earliest pieces bearing the name of Messana 
are 206 and 207 [PL IV.]. They bear a biga of mules almost the same as those 
of Rhegion, and with the hare on the reverse. 208, 209, 210, 211, 212 form 
a remarkable series, all differing in attributes and advancing in quality of their 
art. No. 213 [PI. v.] has a hippocamp, and No. 211 a fly, for adjuncts ; No. 214 
a well-modelled hare. No. 215 a dolphin under the hare, and two facing, under 
the biga of mules. No. 217, though a bronze coin, is one of the best in work- 
manship. On the whole my collection of Zankle-Messana coins is one of the 
best. Of the Mamertine period onl}' bronze coins are known. (218 220.] The 
later coins of the Mamertine rule, however, show the gradual decay of the 
numismatic art. 

The Theatbk, Taokmina (from a Drawing by the Author). 

We travel along the eastern coast of Sicily ; if by sea, all the better for the 
enjoyment of the scenery. As we proceed southwards, Etna rises up, its snow- 
crowned peak towering into the clouds nearly 11,000 feet above the sea. 

The effect of the great volcano, piled up on terrace after terrace of green 
forest-clad mountains rising up out of the deep blue water, is very grand. But 
there is always a narrow line of level coast, along which creeps the railway. 
When we get near enough we see many towns and villages at the water's edge 
and rich patches of cultivated land. 

Soon we find ourselves at Giardini — the site of part of Naxos, once a 
powerful city, the earliest Greek settlement in Sicily, 735 B.C. It was a colony 
firom prolific Chalcis, but no doubt included many natives of the island of 
Naxos of Old Greece, who gave the new settlement their name. 

Dionysius of Syracuse destroyed the place, 403 B.C., and whatever he spared 
of the lower town has slipped into the sea in later times. Only one piece of 



ancient wall remains ; an earthquake has given the site over to Neptune's realm. 
The district still produces the strong red wine, the effect of which is graphically 
shown in the attitude of ancient Silenus, as depicted on the coins. But the 
two citadels of lost Naxos still remain. Right above the strip of coast, where 
we have to believe the main city once stood, towers the rocky promontory, 
400 feet above, to which Taormina now clings. This was the lower acropolis of 
Naxos; but still higher up, 400 feet and more, are the castle and walls of 
Mola representing the upper citadel. Mola is now a small village. 

Of the coins of Naxos some exist, and they are fine specimens of early 
numismatic art. [Pi. V., 221-225.] 

Gesekal View of Taormina, from the Greek Theatre. 

(The village of Mola on the heights.) 

Not much of Greek Tauromenion is in evidence, save its incomparable 
Theatre — one of the best preserved, in some respects, and the most picturesquely 
placed. The scene from the upper tiers of the rock-hewn seats is beyond the 
power of artist to paint or words to describe. 

Giant Etna fills up the background ; the richly fertile plain, studded with 
glittering villages and spires, gives an effective centre, and sparkling streams, 
threading their way to the resounding sea, vivify the foreground of the 
picture. The turquoise-blue Mediterranean, merging into sapphire and lapis 
lazuli in the distance, fills up the remainder of the scene, while a line of white 


surf marks out the coast. Sails of innumerable fishing-boats seem like flocks 

of white-winged birds. All is framed by the rich terracotta proscenium of the 

theatre, relieved with its marble 

columns. The benches of the 

theatre are carpeted in early 

spring with a profusion of wild 

flowers. There is a tiny purple 

and orange iris, which is a 

minute glory in itself 

The remains of Taormina 
are mostly of Saracenic style. 
The Romans in their time made 
this lovely place a health resort. 
Most of the coins remaining to 
us are of the Greeks, when they 
occupied this part of their city 
after the destruction of their 
town below. [351-355.] (We 
must search for these coins on 
Plate VIIL, Mr. Hill's alpha- 
betical arrangement putting 
them far in advance.) The 
place was a noted theatrical 
centre, and in ancient days music and drama being associated with religion, 
we naturally find Apollo represented on the coins. Two of the little pieces 
are of gold (a rarity in these parts) ; all have the head of " glorious Apollo," and 
his tripod shown on the reverse. The coins are very beautiful little pieces. 

On the terrace above the theatre there has been uncovered the tesselated 
pavement of a Greek building, possibly that of a small temple of Apollo. 
Taormina is at the present time one of the loveliest spots in the world, 
especially in early spring, for a short stay. There is a comfortable little hotel in 
the theatre precincts, where I have resided, and have since advised many friends 
to do likewise. I found there several English residents who went every year. 
One of these, an English lady, was an admirable amateur artist. She had 
become very grateful to the villagers and having received much civility and 
many kind actions from the primitive population of the neighbourhood, was 
anxious to show her gratitude, so she offered to the chief Catholic clergyman 
of the place, to repaint for them the picture of the Virgin (which had long 
adorned a niche above one of their fountains, but had become faded), 
asking if they would accept it from a heretic Englishwoman. The offer was 

Badia Vecchia, 



gratefully accepted, and the picture in due time was completed and unveiled. 
On her return to Taormina, she found herself the recipient of a deputation of 
the women and children and chief men of the place, who had got up a procession 
in her honour, and she was offered their public thanks. They made a striking 
assemblage, dressed in their native costumes. Many of them retain the Greek 
features which we see on the coins. 

Some of the old monastic establishments are now made into villas, such as 
the one illustrated. The place is full of beautiful Saracenic ruins, which are 
found at every turn. 

My apology for this digression, and for giving so much space to Taormina, 
is that it really represents lost Naxos. As I have said, Mr. Arthur Evans 
considers the theatre and the heights of Mola to be portions of the ancient 
city. The coins of Naxos are very interesting. This was, and still is, 
a district famous for producing a strong red wine. Naturally DiONYSOS 
(Bacchus) was the deity of the place. On No. 221 (Plate V.), we have an 

archaic portrait of the god 
of wine and other good 
things, with a fine bunch of 
grapes on the reverse. This 
was found alongside the 
coins of Zankle, already 
described, and proves its 
date, about 550 B.C. (the 
piece is unique, as regards 
the head. The British 
Museum possesses a coin 
with the same reverse.) 

On No. 222, we have 

a fine head of DiONYSOS 

(Bacchus) and a figure of 

the less reputable Seilenos 

squatting, on the reverse. 

The strong grape juice 

seems to have been too 

much for the old man's 

dignity — and yet he still 

plies the wine cup. The 

Villa Catarina, fig^jj-e is well-modelled and 

from the constant recurrence of it on the coins of Naxos, seems to represent an 

ancient bronze statue preserved there [223, 224, 225]. 


Distant View of Etna. 

No. 205 is the finest specimen of engraving on Naxos coins. The Silenus 
with the climbing vine, is good work, and the head of Dionysos is remarkably fine. 

The devotion to Bacchic 
rites evidently did not prevent 
the people of ancient Naxos 
from cultivating good art. 

Many of the peasant 
women and children in this 
part of what was once Grecian 
territory, recall the fair skin, 
erect figure, and beautiful 
eyes of their Hellenic parent- 
age. They are a most inter- 
esting peasantry, and wherever 
their old costumes prevail, 
afford abundant studies for the 
artist's pencil, or the modem 
ubiquitous Kodak's snapshot. 

On the way by railway 
to the south, we appreciate the 
enormous mass of the greatest 
volcano in Europe, which fills 

Fountain at Taormina. 



The Rocks of the Cyclops, ah Keale. 

up the country for twenty miles or more. All along the coast the line crosses 
solid torrents of black lava belched forth by the great " earth shaker " above 
us. We get peeps of the snowy summit now and then, rising above the 
dense forests of chestnut, beech, oak, and pine, which clothe the giant mountain's 
slopes. Homer is by some supposed to have been here, and the Isles of the 
Cyclops are shown to prove the story from the Odyssey, while Polyphemus may 

i;k.\lb. Cyclops Rocks in the Distance. 


be a poetical allusion to Etna. But others doubt it, for " the blind old man of 
Chios' rocky isle," they say, never left his native Archipelago at all I Certainly 
he never speaks of Etna. But the others say, Etna may not have begun 
his infernal business in those days ! Certainly the eruptions since classic times 
have altered all the features of the coast. 

Aci Reale is a lovely place, with warm baths and good hotels, and is 
much frequented nowadays. The ancient geological formations and recent 
volcanic operations around make it interesting. An old Norman Castle on a 
volcanic promontory recalls the days of King Roger, while its name (Aci) reflects 
the classic tale of Acis and Galatea.^ 


Winding round Etna through rich scenery and crossing a succession of 
lava-beds, we come to Catania, built over and upon ancient Katane. It was 
a Chalcidian colony, an offshoot of Naxos, 730 B.C. It has been many times 
overwhelmed by its dangerous neighbour, and always rebuilt upon the same 
spot. I was conducted downwards to the Greek amphitheatre about eighty feet 
beneath the town. The aqueduct which supplied its mimic seas still runs, a limpid 
stream. The lava has arched over the ancient seats and corridors. The Cathedral 
of mediaeval days was built, unwittingly, exactly over an ancient Greek theatre, 
which has been discovered and excavated in modern times fifty feet below. 

Catania is a busy place and has much trade, but the surrounding landscape, 
veined with its horrid black lava streams, has an uncanny aspect and one does 

' Ovid, Metamorphones, xiii. 750. 


not wish to remain there long, but hopes to escape up to Nicolosi or some 
other village high up the slopes in the midst of zones of forest. 

Its coins of Greek time are very fine. [172-179.] A wonderful hoard of 
coins, mostly of Syracuse, was found recently by a peasant at Santa Maria 
di Licodia, a small town on the western slopes of Etna. The deposit lay 
beneath a layer of lava. Many of these were the finest of their kind. Mr. A. J. 
Evans gives an interesting account of the discovery in his Syracwsan 

Catania — Lookino across the Great Plain. 

Medallions,^ and several of the pieces, through his kindness, are among the 
best of my collection. He specially visited Catania to select them for me. 

There is a curious classic relic in Catania — the Fountain of the Elephant, 
which is made of black basalt, and surmounted by an obelisk which some say 
is of Egyptian granite. 

The coins of Katane will be found on Plate IV. They are mostly 
excellent specimens of the work of the fifth century B.C. 

Nos. 172 and 173 show good heads of Apollo, and the rest generally resemble 
one another in feature so much that we may suppose they represent a well-known 
statue of the god. [176-177.] Nos. 174 and 175 show the head of Seilenos, 
also possibly from a statue. No. 177a is a beautiful little coin, very rare. The 
quadriga shows the highest style of art, and the head is an exquisite specimen 

' Quaritch, 1892. 



of engra\-ing. The fresh-water 
fishes round the head show it 
to be intended for the deified 
form of the River Amen- 
ANOS, and the signature of the 
artist, EYAI (Euainetos), who 
worked at Syracuse with such 
distinction, is clearly to be 
seen. The later bronze coins 
178 and 179 are interesting 
specimens of their class. 

A town called Aitne- 
Inessa was founded on the 
slopes of Etna in about 460 
B.C., to replace destroyed Ka- 
tane, but had not a long exist- 
ence. I possess a late coin of 
it, No. 130, in bronze. It had 
been a dependency of Syra- 
cuse, but was liberated by 


The wide and fertile plain of Catania was the seat of great wealth in rich 
crops, and the slopes of Etna produced the best wine in Sicily. Traversing 
this great rich country we come to the sites of two old Greek cities. 

Centoripa was a fortified town westwards of Catania. One of its copper 

coins is curious, having evidently been restruck on a coin of 

Syracuse, but the Syracusan die had been a large one, such as 

was used for the silver dekadrachms, possibly a die that had 

become worn.^ All the coins of Centoripa were of bronze and 

some of them are very interesting. [180-183.] Some good 

figures in terracotta have been found on the site of Centoripa. 

Lextini is now a small place, but in a rich country. 

Its name is not much altered from Leontinoi, which was 

another offshoot of Naxos. It offers us some fine coins, and 

though brought earlier under the sway of Syracuse they have 

a distinct character of their own [184-199], and some of them 

are of very fine quality of art. (Plate IV.) 

"^SepuoTe!"*'' Leontinoi must have been a fine place in 500 B.C., and 

contorbi (Centoripa). for two centuHcs after, when it was absorbed by Syracuse. 

(Terracotta in the 
British Museum.) 1 fingraved on page 28. 

A Wayside Fouktaix, xear Catania. 



It must have been a seat of learning to produce one of the greatest orators of 
his time — Gorgias, born 480 B.C. Philosopher as well as rhetorician, the fame 
of this great man reached all over the Hellenic world. He was sent to the 
Athenians as an ambassador to solicit their aid against Syracuse when quite 
an aged man. In Greece he was greatly esteemed as a teacher of rhetoric ; and 
some of his works have come down to us. The statue of Gorgias was seen by 
Pausanias at Olympia, and the pedestal with its inscription is to be seen 
there still. 

When they settled down to peaceful agriculture, the people expressed their 
gratitude to Demeter (the Ceres of the Latins), as protectress of the crops by 
repfesenting her sign — the ears of corn, on all the coins ; the sun-god, as the 
beneficent ripener of the grain, was not forgotten. 

No. 184 [PI. IV.] has a bold lion's head and a slow quadriga. Apollo 
was the god of the people, and the Lion, being the sign of the sun-god, was 
taken for the crest of the place. 

No. 185 shows their river, Lissos, represented as a nude equestrian. » The 
series of little coins, all differing, with the grains varied by Apollo's head, are 
very beautiful and rare [193-199]. Nos. 188-191 have all fine heads of 
Apollo, with slight variations, right and left. 

No. 192 bears a noble type of Apollo, with the strong resemblance to the 
coins of Macedonian Chalcidice of later date and is one of the finest coins 
of Leontinoi extant. Nos. 198 and 199 are coins struck in the time of DiON 
of Syracuse, with Corinthian types. Mr. Evans reads AEON, counterstruck, 
on the last, making the Syracusan coins serve for Leontinoi as well. 








" itVjT 

•'■■•■■ '.iJi 


The Cathedral, Catania, and the Fountain of the Elephant. 



Helmet with Inscription Commemoeatino the Victoby of Hiebon of Syracuse 
OVER the Etruscan Pirates, b.c. 474. (British Museum.) 


( 203 ) 


( 204 ) 


The Site op Syracuse, from the Roman Amphitheatre. Ortygia in the Distance. 

(From a Drawing by the Author.) 


" Eternal summer gilds them yet, 
But all, except their sun, is set." — Byron. 

Passing still southwards, we now arrive at the wide site of ancient 
Syracuse. This, the greatest Grecian city at the time of its highest power, 
is said to have been colonised by Corinthians in 734 B.C., one year after the 
foundation of Naxos. Originally it was confined to the island of Ortygia, to 
which narrow space it has again shrunk. But it extended, in the days of 
DiONYSius, over a large tract on the mainland to the east, and comprised five 
distinct towns, each surrounded by its own walls, and all encircled by a strong 
girdle-wall. At the extreme east the defences were strengthened by a strong 
fortress, much of which still exists, a model of a Grecian castle. This is Fort 
Euryalus, which has recently been excavated. Its stables for cavalry and 
barracks for infantry are cut in the solid rock, and its gates and sally-ports are 
still preserved. Much of the great northern rampart of the city still remains. 
The Amphitheatre, which some writers say was capable of accommodating 
50,000 spectators, testifies to the former populousness of this vast city, and is 
nearly perfect. In the older theatre of Greek times the seats still remain, 
inscribed with the names of their former owners — some of them historic rulers. 
The subterranean aqueduct which brought the water still gives its pure supply, 
and is still doing its work, now valuable for agricultural irrigation. 

A smaller building resembling a theatre, constructed of marble, has lately 
been exposed to view, and the whole site of the great Greek city, about five miles 
by three, abounds with remains of ancient foundations of buildings that have dis- 
appeared. Strabo states that the city, even in his time, was twenty miles round. 

( 205 ) p 



The Cathedral. 

(On the left are seen the undisturbed columns of the ancient Temple.) 

In its latter days 
Syracuse ventured to 
join the Carthaginians 
against the Romans, 
and their vengeance 
was terrible. The en- 
tire city was sacked, 
and enormous booty in 
statues and works 
of art was carried 
off to Rome. This 
was 212 B.C., and yet 
we see that it had 
recovered in the time 
of Cicero, who des- 
cribes it as the largest 

and most beautiful of cities in his day. The Cathedral is on the island, and 
is constructed within a Grecian temple, the columns of which are 28 feet by 6| 
diameter at base. This must have been a large and important Doric temple of 
very early date, possibly as old as that of Corinth. The ruins of another Greek 
temple adjoin, on the lower step of which there is a long Greek inscription. 
A greater Temple, dedicated to Zeus (Jupiter), of 
which only two huge columns remain, existed on the 
mainland. The Emperor Charles V. pulled the mag- 
nificent structure down to erect his fortifications 
round the island of Ortygia, which he converted into 
a citadel. The whole region abounds in objects of 
interest, and is well worth several days stay. It is a 
most healthy situation, and the ancient saying, that 
the sun shines every day in the year in Syracuse, is 
still true. 

But what a devastation has fallen upon it ! One 
mutilated figure of great beauty is in the museum, 
but not one perfect statue remains, although it must 
have possessed thousands of the finest works of Grecian 
art. Now there would be nothing to give us an idea 
of its treasures, were it not that its magnificent 
coinage remains to testify to the wealth and taste of 
the most refined and flourishing Greek city in the 
golden age of Hellenic times. For the coins of 
Syracuse are the finest, the most complete series, and the most interesting 

The oxly Greek Statue 
NOW IN Syracuse. 


The " Bagno di Diana," Syracuse. 

in the whole world's 
numismatics. Many 
of them are of the 
highest artistic skill 
ever bestowed on 
pieces of money. So 
proud were the rulers 
of the city of the en- 
gravers that they were 
in the best period 
allowed to sign their 
works. At the present 
time, when scarcely 
one statue of old 
Greek workmanship 
bears the name of the 
author, we have many exquisite coins bearing signatures of the great artists 
of Syracuse — possibly sculptors of such eminence that their names were thus 
honoured. My collection of coins of Syracuse numbers over a hundred 
specimens. [Plates VI., VII., VIII., 239-350.] Of these the earliest are mainly 
of Gelon's time. But at this period the Syracusans were already far advanced 
in civilisation. Their women were respected and given the influence their 
position demanded, as the following historical evidence testifies. 

At this time, a great woman's tact and merciful intercession for the fair 
treatment of a conquered foe was immortalised on the coinage, and her name has 
thus been handed down to us. Damarete, Gelon's queen, interceded with her 
husband for the humane treatment of the Carthaginians whom he had conquered 
at Himera (480 B.C.), and a solemn peace was concluded with the vanquished 
Africans, who had expected nothing short of death or being sold as slaves. The 
grateful Carthaginians in gratitude presented Damarete with a solid golden 
crown or wreath worth a hundred talents of gold. This noble woman handed 
over this valuable gift to coin money for the state, and from this a special 

coinage was struck. It took a 

special form of the unusual size 

of pieces of ten drachms of silver. 

These became very famous ; they 

were the finest coins yet struck, 

and were called after the good 

queen's name. (Damaretion.) 

Only about a dozen are known 

to exist. I have one of the tetra- 

The Damauetiox. 

The Damaretion.] 


p 2 


drachms struck at the same time and of the same design. [Plate VI., 242.] The 
lion in the exergue is typical of the conquered Africans. We may assume that the 
head of Arethusa was made to assume the likeness of the good queen Daniarete. 

After this time art becomes more evident in the coinage under Hieron, 
Gelon's brother and successor, who seems also to have had leisure to cultivate 
literature. He attracted poets and philosophers to his Court from old Greece ; 
among these were Pindar, Simonides, Aeschylus and others, whom he 
treated as personal friends.'^ HiERON was also a hero, and Syracuse derived 
world-wide glory from his rule. He drove the Etruscan pirates from the 
Mediterranean, and defeated them near CuMAE, B.C. 474. The victory is 
recorded in history, and the British Museum possesses a marvellous evidence of 
the truth of the great event. This relic is one of the most wonderful " proofs 
of history " discovered in recent days. In 1817 an English traveller found, or 
acquired from the finder, at Olympia, the identical votive helmet of HiERON, 
which, along with other valuable offerings from the spoils of the great naval 
battle, he had dedicated to Zeus. The inscription is quite legible, and the 
forms of the letters are those on the coins of the period. 

The helmet is engraved on page 203. The inscription reads thus : 

i.e., 'lepcov 6 Aetvofievovs /cat ol ^vpaKoaioi 
TcS Alt Tvpprjva airb Kv/tir;?. 

and the free translation, according to Mr. G. F. Hill, is " Hieron, son of Deinomenes 
and the Syracusans (dedicated) to Zeus (these) Tyrrhenian (spoils) from Kyme." 

To commemorate this event, the lion on the exergue of the coins (which 
had denoted the conquest of the Africans), was removed and gave place to the 
pistrix, a sea monster, typical of the great naval fight which had cleared the 
seas of the piratical pests. [Nos. 252-255, etc.] After this there is found a 
gradual improvement in the artistic rendering of the heads. There is a constant 
variety in the treatment of the hair, and the headdress is frequently adorned 
with running ornament, maeander, and other patterns. Subsequent to Hieron's 
time democratic rule gained the upper hand, Syracuse grew wealthy under it, 
and the decorative element becomes still more evident on its coins. 

Then we begin to find them bearing their sculptors' names ; "SosON"is 
thought to be the earliest signature. He was the designer of 273. Afterwards 
that of EuMENES appears [274-279] ; then we find the great name of 
EuAiNETOS [280], sometimes working alone, sometimes with another artist. 

Other names are abbreviated, viz. Euth and Phrygillos [281]. After- 

' Note E — Literary Refinement in Sicily. 



wards Euainetos works with Eukleides [282], and then possibly Eukleides 
alone [283-285]. 

The equestrian treatment of the reverse has now become very fine. 
Phrygillos and Euth .... sign one with splendid prancing horses, and Scylla 
in the exergue [281]. This coin is very rare, and when perfect must have 
been a wonderful piece. Even now it is lovely. 

Silver has been the metal hitherto; now small gold coins appear 
[286-288] in my collection, date about 412 B.C. and a great artist appears 
upon the scene — 


For many years 
all bore the heads of 
their loved patron 
Akethusa, whose 
magic fountain still 
exists, well cared for. 

At first the por- 
traits are rude, the 
heads bearing the 
archaic smirk so 
common in early art. 
Gradually evident 
portraiture is intro- 
duced, and great at- 
tention is paid to the dressing of the abundant hair of the goddess. The 
expression of the faces becomes dignified, intellectual and refined. The eye, 
instead of being laid on the cheek, Egyptian fashion, is shown in profile. 
Nos. 253 onward begin to show varieties of feature and style in the headdress, 
or arrangement of the hair. The head on 270 may have been taken from a 
statue, as there are several of this type. The features on 274 are beautiful and 
seem from life. On 282 the signatures of the two artists, Euainetos and 
Eukleides are both in evidence, but so minute that the aid of a magnifying 
glass is almost needed. The gold coin [289], Mr. Evans thinks, is Kimon's work. 
I obtained it in Catania, and believe it was found in the neighbourhood of that 
city. Mr. Evans describes a gem with a similar device,^ found in the same 
district, which he believes to be the work of Euainetos, and this artist and 
Kimon seem to have been pupil and master working in friendly rivalry. The 
little gold coin is a beautiful piece, the head of a charming girl, and the group 
of Hercules and the lion on the reverse — a fine work of art, well-preserved. 

If there be any doubt as to the name of the artist who produced the 

' Medallionn of Syracuse. — Quaritch. 

Fountain of Akethusa, Stbaccse. 



gold piece there is none about the next six. They are the famous Deka- 
DRACHMS by KiMON and Euainetos, and several are signed by them, 
some of them in several places. Some of these signatures are very minute, 
but they are all fully set out in Mr. Hill's catalogue. Mr. A. J. Evans 
has written a charming essay on these coins {Medallions of Syracuse), in 
which he analyses their origin and date, and ranges Kimon's in three different 
periods of the artist's work. These coins represent "1, 2, and 3" of this 
arrangement. Nos. 290 and 292 were formerly in Mr. Evans's collection and 
are engraved in his book. No. 291 was the gem of the Ashburnham Collection. 
The three coins differ very much in style ; the earliest being in comparatively 
low relief, the latest remarkably bold in treatment. They are not all signed, 
and might be supposed to be the work of different sculptors. I use the 
word " sculptor " advisedly, for their style rises far above ordinary engraving ; 
they are pieces of sculpture of the highest merit (PI. VII.).^ 

When the masterpieces of Kimon have been studied, let us turn to those 
of his brother artist, Euainetos. Whether these great men worked contempor- 
aneously, or which was the elder artist, we shall never know. Mr. Hill thinks 
Kimon was the earlier, other experts are confident that Euainetos originated 
these famous works. Let each of us settle the controversy, which was master 
and which was pupil, to please his own mind ; they both were employed to 
commemorate the same event. The ancient world perhaps thought most of 
Euainetos, as his medallions were copied in many places of old Greece, for a 

Fort Euryaltjs, Syracuse — Lookinq back to Etna, seventy miles away. 

(From a Dniwing by the Author.) 
The Roman fleet (under MarceUus, 215 B.c.) anchored in the Bay of Thapsus, in the centre. 

century after his time. Whatever the event was that the medallions com- 
memorated, it was a memorable one that called for the finest medallic work that 
' Enlarged engravings of the Medallions are given on the Frontispiece. 


the world has ever seen. Mr. Evans thinks that the idea that has long been 
held, that these famous medallions were struck to commemorate the victory of 
DioNYSius over the Carthaginians, is wrong. He believes they were struck to 
signalise the great victory over the Athenian fleet (413 B.C.), and the new games 
which were established to commemorate it. These were known as the A.SINARIAN 
Games, as they were held on the banks of the river Asinarus, where the 
Athenians had been signally defeated. The word AOAA on so many of the 
coins shows that they were intended to be awarded as prizes in these athletic 
struggles; while the ar- 
mour on the reverse 
tj^ifies the spoil taken 
from the Athenians. 

The three coins 
[Nos. 293, 294, 295] 
are considered to be 
among the best speci- 
mens from the hand of 
EuAiNETOS. Mr. Evans 
thought one of them, 
as regards the obverse, 
the finest in existence. 
They were all selected 
by him out of the Santa Syracuse— Castle of Eukyalus. 

Maria hoard. He went to Catania for the purpose, when I was unable to go 
myself, taking all this trouble to enrich a friend's collection. 

One cannot but be struck with the noble and intellectual type of countenance 
of the beautiful women of this age. The variety of profile and expression is 
remarkable, and convinces us that they were actual portraits, and the constant 
variety in the style of arranging the hair affords models for this art in feminine 

KiMON engraved several dies with facing portraits of Arethusa. These 
were tetradrachms, and perfect specimens are extremely rare. No. 296 has 
unfortunately suffered from wear, but shows what the coin must have been in a 
perfect state. It is so scarce that I was glad to secure a specimen of this 
celebrated piece. It was copied by other Hellenic mints for many years after 
the artist's time. Other tetradrachms signed by Parme .... No. 297, and of 
the work of EUKLEIDAS follow. [298-302.] 

It is impossible to tell how many of the coins shown on Plates VI. 
and VII. were struck during the tyranny of the First Dionysius. Syracuse 
was so prosperous under his government that the general opinion has been 



that during this reign the finest gold and silver coinage of Syracuse was 
issued. It is only from the style of work or some particular symbol that the 
approximate date can be guessed. Under Dionysius II., a cruel and 
rapacious king, the dynasty came to an end, leaving a ruined state and 
impoverished exchequer. 

Syracuse had appealed to Corinth, its parent city, for deliverance from 
its oppressor B.C. 345. Timoleon, a noble citizen of Corinth, with a con- 
quering band of volunteers, came to her assistance, drove out the tyrant, re- 
established democracy, and put the coinage on a new system of values. This 
was done by calling in the old money, and issuing it on a new basis, whereby 
twenty per cent, was gained to the State. The gold was alloyed with silver, and 
the so-called electruvi pieces issued. The silver coins were reduced in weight, 
a Corinthian stater, weighing two drachms, being made to bear the value of 
the ancient tetradrachm. This great man, an ancient Garibaldi, has been 
extolled by historians, and deservedly, for he saved the state from ruin. No. 
303 [Plate VII.] is an interesting specimen of one of these new coins struck in 
electrum, with Apollo on one side and Artemis on the other — an introduction of 
new deities ; hitherto they had always honoured Persephone or Arethusa on 
their coins. No. 304 is a smaller electrum coin of same issue. No. 305 is also 
of the new issue, but is of gold, whereas a similar coin in the British Museum is 
of electrum. Possibly it was struck as a model piece. I have specimens of the 

silver and copper coins 
of the new currency 
— but they are unin- 
teresting from an 
artistic point of view, 
being in the simple 
style of the Corinth- 
ian mint. 

Tyranny got the 
upper hand again when 
Agathocles seized 
the government, 317 
B.C. This adventurer 
was unscrupulous, he 
gradually increased in 
audacity, as his three 
issues of coins show. On the first he put only ZYPAKoSmN — the name 
of the city. On the second, his own name ATAOoKAEloZ (the earliest 
appearance of a king's name on a coin of Syracuse), and on the third 
he added to his name BAZIAEoS — basileos = king. Specimens of all three 

Latomia, Ortygia in the Distance, Syraccse. 


coinages are engraved on Plate VIII. [314 to 329]. The story of Agathocles 
is an interesting one ; he carried the war into Africa against the Carthaginians, 
who had invaded Syracusan territory, and some of these coins are believed to 
have been struck in Africa, where 
he remained several years. But 
he was a poor specimen of a ruler 
for Syracuse, though the first to 
transport the war into the 
enemy's camp. 

The next king whose name 
appears on coins is Hiketas 
[330], on a well-engraved gold 
piece. (287-278 B.C.) 

Pyrrhus came like a 
meteor from Epirus, across Italy, 
and though he only spent two 
years in Sicily, left his mark on 
the coinage, 278-276 B.C. Mr. 
Hill believes that the fine gold 
coin No. 331 was engraved in 
Syracuse, and has catalogued it 
under Sicily. It is a rare and 
costly coin, only a few being 
known. This is a fine specimen, very beautifully designed and executed, of an 
art already beginning to decay. The head of Athena and the figure of Nike, 
advancing with the oak-wreath, are very graceful. No special mention is made 
of Syracuse on the coin, as Pyrrhus had larger views — he meant to conquer 
the western world as Alexander had overrun the eastern. Of the silver coins of 
Pyrrhus, 332 and 334 are examples, but it is on the bronze ones 334, 335 that 
we find ZYPAKoZinN. Pyrrhus gained nothing by his short sojourn here and 
went back to Italy to fight the Romans and be beaten. Four years afterwards 
he was killed at Argos by a woman dropping a roof-tile on his head. 

But a young general of his came to the front at Syracuse 276 B.C. and became 
the good King Hieron II. He reigned for fifty years, and gave prosperity to the 
country. His beautiful queen, Philistis, was nmch beloved, her portrait was 
struck on a portion of his coinage, [337 and 338], and Hieron's own head was 
also engraved on the coins, of which 340 is a specimen. On the gold coins his 
name only appears. ; These were the first coins of Syracuse which bore portraits. 

His son Gelon died young, but his portrait was put on coins in honour 
of him [339]. On the lower marble benches of the Greek theatre of Syracuse, 
I saw the name of Hieron carved on the royal seat, with that of his beloved 

Stracose — The Eae of Dionysihs. 



Greek Amphitheatre, Syracuse. 

Queen Philistis at 
his right hand. The 
letters are quite legible 
and are of their date. 

Hieron had an 
enormous altar erected 
here, like the great 
one at Pergamon, and 
extensive remains 
still exist. It was 200 
yards by 75 in extent, 
and a hecatomb (of 
450 oxen) was an- 
nually offered thereon 
to commemorate some 
great victory. Judging 

from the remains it was possibly larger than the Pergamene Altar. (Page 345.) 
Hieron's grandson Hieronymus succeeded to the throne — his portrait is on 

No. 345. He only reigned a year (215-214 B.C.), and the succeeding republic'gives 

us some coins [347]. But it was an unfortunate government for Syracuse, for it 

had the insanity to declare war against the Romans, and brought about its own 

downfall. Syracuse was conquered, sacked and pillaged, and although still a great 

city in Cicero's time had fallen from its high estate and issued no more Greek coins. 
The Roman siege was rendered a difficult affair by the use of the great 

engines invented — years before, for his friend Hieron — by the great engineer 

Archimedes.1 This 

remarkable genius 

survived, an aged 

man, to direct his 

wonderful weapons of 

defence during the 

siege. At length the 

city was taken by 

assault, and Archi- 
medes was put to 

death by a Roman 

soldier. It is recorded 

that he was so busily 

engaged in solving 

some mathematical The Great Altar of Hieron, Syracuse. 

' Note F — Shipbuilding in Sicily. 

Simon IDES. 

Lyric Poet. Native of Ceoa. 

Livixl 8 years with Hieron I. Died at Syraciise, 467 b.c. 

Marble Statue (Naples Museum). 


The Greatest of Engineers and Mathematicians, 

287-212 B.C. 

Marble Bust from Herculaneum (Naples Museum). 


Pantural Poet. Born in Hyracuse. 

Visited Alexandria, "iKJ h.r. 

• ■I'lmcd to iSyracuse, where lie died at the Court of Hieron II 

Moscnus OF Syracuse. 

Pastoral Poet, School of Theocritus, c. 250 B.C. 

Attached to the Court of Hieron II. 

Marble Statue (Naples Museum). 

[p. 214. 



problem that he made 
no effort to save himself. 
Archimedes was the Isaac 
Xewton of his time, as 
his extant works prove ; 
he was also an engineer, 
and the screw was in- 
vented by him. This he 
employed to assist (b}^ 
propulsion) the launching 
of a huge vessel — the 
Celtic of the time — which 
he had constructed for 
HiERON II.; while by 
another application of the 
principle of the screw he 
contrived a pump which 
removed the water from 
its hold. Cicero, when 
quaestor of Sicily (7 5 B.C.) , 
saw the tomb of Archi- 
medes, which he had 
difficulty in finding. The great man had been quite forgotten by the 
Syracusans, the tomb was in a neglected comer, and covered with briars. 

City Walla 

Athenian Walts and Forts 

Syracusan Walls and Forts O 


'henian campt 
\and forts 

oyraiiusun nails ana rorzs-.^^-JmU,^^ 7/iX_^^^» ^;, > 

aa.. First Wall, hb. Second Wall. CCC. Third Wal/S"- uaittr''dl<ouiiii&: 


based on the maps of Lupus and Haverfield. 

English Miles Stadia Kilometres 

° V, % ! '5 ^ 9 .... ; ip 15 o i ? 

Perhaps, although this is not a history, but merely a conversational ramble 
through Hellenic lands, something should be said about the great struggle 
between Syracuse and the Athenian fleet and army (415 B.C.), to which allusion 
has already been made. The other cities of Sicily had complained of the 
tyranny of Syracuse, and appealed to Athens to help them. The Corinthians 
and Spartans sided with Syracuse, while Athens was induced to send enormous 
fleets and armies to attack the place by land and sea. After sending their 
best generals and enduring great privations the Athenians were utterly routed 
near the river Asinarus, and many thousands were slain, while 7000 of them 
were shut up in the stone quarries. These formed natural prisons ; the walls 
were perpendicular, and when the only gate was shut and guarded, entrance 
or egr&ss was impossible. The prisoners were given very little food in the hope 
of making them surrender. Many were sold as slaves, but numbers died of 
hunger and thirst. When Greek met Greek in warfare, there was always good 
fighting, but great cruelty after ; but it was a sorry spectacle to see the two 
great divisions of the finest nation in the world engaged in such a struggle. 



History is unfortunately silent for long intervals of Syracusan rule, and for 
a century at a time we are left to grope our way in the dark, but the tale of 
this terrible time has come down to us. I append a map of Syracuse at the 
time of the Athenian siege, kindly lent by Mr. John Murray. 

The Latomiae or ancient quarries, the scene of this tragedy, are now 
among the loveliest sights of modern Syracuse. Several of them are laid 
out as public gardens, with groves of oleanders, cypresses, palms, trailing 
vines, orange trees, and every lovely flowering shrub. In the warmest 
day there is shade, and there are cool caverns hollowed out, and winding 
walks gradually lead to the summits of fantastic rocks, with towers left for 
lovely views in every direction. In one of them, the far-famed Ear of Diony- 

sius is shown, and silly 
stories are related of 
his being able to hear 
the moans, confessions 
and maledictions of the 
prisoners in the dun- 
geons — from his palace 

The Fountain of 
Arethusa still flows, 
not as of old, a spring 
of fresh water, for un- 
fortunately, since an 
earthquake in modern 
times, it has become 
brackish. But it is in 
a pretty grove of papyrus and water plants, and is still a resort of the young 
people of the town, in the evening or on holidays. About a mile from the 
harbour, on the mainland, the little rivers Cyane and Anapus join and flow 
into the bay. The excursion up these dimpling streams, teeming with fish, is 
very interesting. There are dense groves of papyrus reeds, about ten feet high, 
along the Cyane. The water is of deep blue colour, and this gave it its name 
(Cyane) in ancient times, which it still deserves. It is full of fine mullet of dark 
blue or purple hue, which rise to be fed when the boat is moored in a quiet creek.^ 

Syracuse, in the days of Hieron II., was a centre of literary refinement. 
The poets Theocritus, Bion and Moschus flourished, and many of their 
works remain.^ Theocritus was tempted to migrate to Alexandria to join 
the famous Museum, where some of his charming verses were written. 

• In Egypt the "Egyptian reed" is lost, but here enough remains to restock the Nile's banks, 
were there any need for papyrus in our times. ^ Note E — Literary Refinement in Sicily. 

Cyane — Papyrus by the River Cyane, Syracuse. 



Marble Head of Hera (Jpno). 

(From Akragas. British^Museum.) 


( 217 ) 


GiROENTi (Akragas) — The Temple of Concord. 

(From a Drawing by the Author.) 


" Oh Time ! .... adorner of the ruin." — Byron. 
Camarina, near the southern coast, was colonised by Syracuse in 599 B.C. 
and we have five early coins showing its ancient importance and wealth 
[Plate III. 167-171]. But it revolted against its parent, 405 B.C., and was 
conquered and absorbed by Syracuse, and so its own coinage soon came to an end. 
Two of the pieces [Nos. 169 and 170] are remarkable specimens ; the crane flying 
away most probably typifies the draining of an unhealthy marsh. The head of 
Herakles wearing the lion's skin is fine. The second piece [170], the quadriga 
driven by Athena and crowned by Nike (with two amphorae below), is a 
remarkably fine equestrian scene, the horses are like those of the Parthenon 
frieze, and of about the same date. The little coin No. 171, showing a swan 
flapping its wings over conventional waves, is very beautifully executed. 

Gela was not far off along the coast. In early times it was the rival 
of Syracuse and Akragas. It gave to Syracuse its ruler Gelon, from 
whose family sprang great kings, whose deeds extended far and wide beyond the 
realm of Sicily. The river Gela was perennial in those days. It is now, like 
all Sicilian streams, shrunken greatly, owing to the destruction of the moun- 
tain forests. But its impetuous flood of ancient times was typified on the coins 
by a man-headed rushing bull [148-157]. Many of the pieces show great 
skill, especially No. 157, which has an equestrian scene of the very highest 
art. No. 150 shows the Meta or winning post, as an Ionic column, and was 
probably struck to commemorate a victory in the public games. The necropolis 
of Gela exists, near the modem town of Terranova, and fine painted vases have 

( 219 ) 



been lately found. Nothing remains besides of the ancient city ; but, from its 
fine Greek coins, it must have been an opulent place, before its destruction by 
the Carthaginians in 405 B.C. Mr. Hill points out an interesting discovery 
of his regarding the coin No. 149. It is restruck over a coin of Selinus, 
similar to No. 235 (PI. V.). The coins of Gela are so good for their early date 
that Mr. Hill has illustrated quite a number of the specimens (PI. III.). 

GiRGENTi, although we reach it in imagination by the southern Sicilian 
coast, is easier to visit direct by railway from Syracuse, Catania, or Palermo. 


-Dekadrachm of Akbagas. 

(Munich Museum.) 

It is now a small place, with an hotel only open a few months of the year. 

But in ancient Greek times, as Akragas, or under the Romans, as 

Agrigentum, it was a 
powerful city, renowned 
for wealth, architecture, 
and literature. Founded 
by Greeks from Gela 
in 579 B.C., it must 
have advanced rapidly, for 
it was one of the most 
splendid cities in the an- 
cient world, when the Car- 
thaginians, always the 
bitter enemies of the Greeks, 
destroyed it, 405 B.C. It 
was only retaliation for the 
punishment the Greeks had 
given the Africans, when the 
men of Akragas con- 
junction with the Syracu- 
GiRGENTi.— Sarcophagus in the local Museum. sans under GeloN, crushed 


them at Himera 485 B.C. So all the fine coins [134-143, PI. III.] must have 
been struck before 405 B.C. 

It rose again, but never became as great. Under the Romans, with the 
great fertility of the district, it became again important. But the name the 

Restored Sectiox of the ureat Tempi.e of Zeus, at Akkagas. 
(Showing the position of the Caryatids in the upper storey.) 

Romans gave it, " The Field of the Giants" proves that in their time the great 
temple of Zeus was in ruins, with the colossal caryatid figures stretched on 
the grass, much as we now see them. 

This temple was a splendid building, perhaps the greatest of Greek 
fanes. Its columns must have been over 60 feet in height. Their bases are 

fifteen feet in dia- ^ 

meter, with flutes so j 
wide as to admit a 
man standing in each. 
Internally there were 
two tiers of columns, 
the upper one consist- 
ing of gigantic figures 
supporting the roof, 
which was partly open 
in the centre. Two of 
those stone giants lie 
prone on the ground 
where they had fallen 

when the temple was 

■ 11 ] Vv . i-V, GiEOENTl— The Fallen Giant. 

leveiiea Oy an eartJU - ^\^ t^e distance the ancient Acropjlis, where now the modern town is built.) 




quake. This enormous temple was bold and original in design. In order to- 
steady the great columns they were " engaged," i.e. partly built into the wall, an 

admirable device for strengthening such a lofty 
building. No doubt there were sculptured 
metopes between the enormous triglyj'jhs, as at 
Selinus, but no remains of them have come to- 
light. I have to thank Mr. John Murray and 
Messrs. Longman, for the use of the cuts ex- 
plaining the construction of the temple, and the 
position of the Caryatids in supporting the roof 
and the inner row of smaller columns. The photo- 
graph shows one of the fallen giants whose prone 
condition had given rise to the name of the place 
as in the days of the Romans and down to our 
own times. 

There are ruins of several other temples,, 
extending along a rocky ridge for more than a 
mile. One of these, the (so-called) Temple of Concord, is very beautiful,, 
and of perfect proportions. It is one of the most perfect Greek temples in 
the world. The Normans had the building consecrated as a Christian church, 
and so saved it from destruction. Several other Greek structures remain ; one 
of them, called The Temple of Hera (or Juno) having very extensive and 
perfect ruins, must have been even finer than the larger one described 
above. The Temple of Herakles must have been of much the same pro- 
portions as the Parthenon, but is terribly destroyed. That of Castor and- 
Pollux has several columns recently re-erected. The country around is richly 

Caryatids as originally 
placed in the upper storey. 

GiROENTi — Temple of Hera. 

(From a Sketch by the Author.) 

fertile, and the view looking towards the brilliantly blue Mediterranean, is sur- 
passingly beautiful. There are one or two villas constructed out of old materials,, 
with most picturesque gardens, from which extensive views of the terrace 


of temples are to be had. Much must remain underground awaiting discovery 
of this vast ancient city, which at its zenith is said to have had 600,000 
inhabitants. PiNDAR says it was " the most beautiful city of mortals." 

It was a seat of learning, and the philosopher Empedocles was born and 
lived here. The little port now replacing the fine 
ancient harbour beai-s his name to this day. In the 
middle ages the temples were ruined to build the pier, 
at which small vessels now discharge. Empedocles 
must have been a sanitary engineer much in advance 
of his time, 450 B.C. When the city was devastated 
by pestilence, he had the river purified and by scien- 
tific appliances restored health with such success that 
he was supposed to be a magician. In his extant poem, 
however, he recommends good moral conduct as a means 
of averting epidemics and other evils. 

The city was possessed of the finest statues and 
paintings as well as architecture. Devastated by 
Carthaginians, Romans and Saracens, scarcely anything 
remains of its famed works of art; the little museum, 
however, contains some interesting sarcophagi and frag- 
ments, showing that good art and fine taste were once 
dominant. A fine fragment is in the British Museum. 

The earlier coins [Plate III., 131-137] have not much variety — but at the 
period of highest art suddenly arrive at their best. For some unknown reason 
the artistic coins are very rare indeed. Of a magnificent dekadrachm, 
engraved in Dr. Head's " Historia Numorum," only two or three examples are 

GiROENTi — Temple op 
" Castor and Pollux." 

(Sketch by the Author.) 

OiBGESTi — Sarcophagus in the Looal Museum. 

Q 2 



known, the best being in Munich. [See page 220.] Of similar types I possess 
two [PI. III., 139-140] which I obtained through Mr. Evans's Sicilian 
journeys. In their perfect state these must have been magnificent coins. 

Gold coins of Akragas are rare indeed. I have but one [140], of the same 
type as the silver ones — a pretty piece of work, and bearing the magistrate's 
name SIAANoS, arranged in zigzag. The crest of the city, the fresh-water 
crab, is cleverly represented on all the coins. The little river Akragas still 

contains these cntstaceae. It has 

shrunk from its former dimensions 
owing to the country being denuded of 
its ancient forests in modern times. 

A visit to Girgenti in early spring, 
is a delightful excursion. The scenery 
around is beautiful and fertile, though 
the inhabitants seem poverty-stricken. 
The hotel is large, clean, and well- 
managed, but only open for part of the 
year and managed by its owners, pro- 
prietors of the best hotel at Palermo. 
The range of temple ruins, along a 
height, is most impressive, and the 
view over the blue Mediterranean 
lovely, particularly in the evening 
light. It seems as if a flourishing 
town and seaport should arise, were there only trade and energy to call 
them forth. The land is as fertile as ever. All the temples were reared by 
the wealth acquired by the agricultural richness of the place, which made it 
the granary of the Mediterranean in ancient days. 


HiMERA, this ancient town near the northern coast, may here be alluded to, 
as it was dependent for a time on Akragas, and near it the united forces of 
Syracuse and Akragas conquered the Carthaginians (480 B.C.), when Queen 
Damarete interceded for the vanquished. But the Carthaginians came back and 
wiped HiMERA out, 409 B.C., and it never was rebuilt. Judging from its few 
remaining coins, HiMERA must have been an important place at the time of its 
downfall. Its earlier coins [158-161] are simple, bearing the crest of the city, a 
cock, and other emblems. Warm medicinal baths were its speciality, and are 
still in the neighbourhood. (Termini, the modem town opposite, is a corruption 
of Thermae.) Hence Himera was sacred to Asklepios, whose emblem was 
the cock, No. 162 shows the cock allied with the crab, at a time when 

PeLOPS and HlPl'OD.^MIA. 

Found in the Sea near Girgenti. {Probaltli/ from a 
Chariot Group. British Museum.) 



both places were under the rule of Akragas. Of the " high art " period we 
have three examples [163-165]. These are interesting — the nymph Himera, 
sacrificing at an altar on steps ; a small Seilenos stands in a stream of water 
proceeding from a lion's-head fountain. This is to illustrate the healing 
qualities of the medicinal spring, particularly in cases of certain ills of elderly 
gentlemen like Seilenos. Perhaps gout submitted to healing powers in ancient 
days, and there was possibly an ancient sanatorium here, for such diseases. 

On the northern coast, near Termini and the site of Himera, we find the 
ite of Solus which lies to the east of Palermo (Panormos). It was a Cartha- 

SoLus OR Kafaba, near Palermo. 

ginian town, though our coin has a Greek inscription. [Plate VIII., 360.] 
Excavations have recently uncovered extensive classic ruins, but these mainly 
seem to be of Roman time. Plate V., No. 238 has also a Greek inscription, so 
the place must have been under Grecian influence at an early date as well as 
later, as there are 200 years between the coins. 

Selinus dates back to 628 B.C. It was founded from Megara Hybla (near 
Syracuse), itself being a colony from Megara in Old Greece. It must have 
become a great and wealthy city, for although conquered, and all its inhabitants 
killed or sold as slaves by the Carthaginians in 409 B.C., yet the ruins of its 
temples are the greatest and grandest in Europe. It never again was able to 
strike any coins of its own, so it is wonderful we possess any specimens of its 



Selin'us — The Temple on the Acropolis, the three greater ones in the distance. 

(From a Drawing by the Author.) 

ancient money. Its earliest pieces merely show the city's crest, a parsley leaf 
(Z E A I N o N ) [Plate V., 234]. Then we have remarkable coins representing a great 
blessing rendered to the inhabitants, after a pestilence, which had swept away 
great numbers. On these interesting coins [235-237], Apollo and Artemis, 
beneficent healing powers, are represented in a quadriga 
together, as acting in concert. Artemis holds the 
reins, while Apollo discharges arrows to dispel the pest. 
On the reverse, the river-god Selinus, as a healthy 
nude young man, sacrifices at an altar, holding an olive 
branch. The altar is decorated with a wreath of parsley. 
Before the altar a cock, behind a bull stands on a pedes- 
tal ; the bull typifies the sacrifice ready to be offered. 

Empedocles, the philosophic benefactor of Akragas, 
was borrowed by the Selinuntines to stay their plague, 
as he had done that of the Akragantines. This wise man 
by an engineering work joined the two rivers near the 
city into one, and by the united current purified the 
whole region and the city was restored to a sanitary state. 
Divine honours were accorded to him by the grateful 
people. Soon after this the hateful Africans swept them 
off the face of the earth. They were, however, powerless 
to remove the stupendous ruins of the city. I have seen 
many scenes of desolated ruin, but never one like this. 

Terracotta Figure from The fallen temples cover ten square miles. They are of 
In Palermo Muamm. the grandest and purest Doric architecture. The ruins 


Sehnus — Temfle of Herakles. 

■of seven temples have been located, but there were many more splendid public 
buildings. The columns of one of them were nearly 15 feet diameter at the 
base and must have 
been considerably over 
50 feet high. The pro- 
montory on which the 
acropolis stood is a 
■desolate scene of 
crowded overthrown 
■columns, which seems 
the work of an earth- 
quake, for all are 
thrown parallel in one 
direction. Among one 
of the heaps of ruin 
were found the most 
ancient metopes in the 
world, far older than 
those of the first Parthenon ; these are now at Palermo. Many of the tri- 
glyplis of the temples lie about the ruins, and measure upwards of 10 feet 
each way. All the columns were of the rough stone of the country, but 
•carefully coated with fine white hard cement, giving the appearance of 

marble. The delicate 
enrichments of the 
cornices and roof were 
executed in terra- 

The surrounding 
country is said to be 
unhealthy, but seems 
fertile, and the natives 
of the nearest town 
are handsome, robust- 
looking folk. Here I 
partook of the finest 
and cheapest red wine 
of the country. Signer 
Florio has established 
one of his great vineyards near this, with the best results for producing good 
wine and giving much well-paid employment. 


f 1 "^'^^irl 

^^Hl~.^ 1^^ ¥ ''^H^«<^^H|fl^^^^^^H 


Selisds — Temple of Apollo. 



The view of the vast scene of desolation, looking towards the sea, is 
one of the most extraordinary in the world. When I was there it was a 

great sacred holiday, 
and the usually de- 
serted ruins were 
peopled by little 
groups of brilliantly 
costumed peasants, 
and fisher-folk, seem- 
ingly well-to-do. They 
were tall, fair and 
handsome people, and 
enjoyed their out-of- 
door repasts in a quiet 
andsimplestyle. Some 
of them had brought 
their rural musical 
instruments, and to 
these they sang and the young folks danced. It was worthy of being 
perpetuated, but unfortunately I had not a Kodak. But the colour of 
the groups, the hoary ruins, and the azure sky needed the brush of a 
Leopold Robert, or of a Passini. It was something to remember for a life- 
time, and the courtesy and dignity of these humble folks was charming 

Selikus — Tf;MPLE OF Athena. 

Pkkseus and the Gorgon, Sei.inus. 


to witness, in a land which I was told was full of brigands and unsafe for 
travellers. I have, however, rambled much in Sicily, and all over Italy, 


nearly always alone and quite unprotected, and never experienced from the 
people anything but kindness, or at least politeness. The only thing to 

Hercules and Hippoltttts, Selinus. 


deplore is their poverty, as they are under the same heavy taxation as the rest 
of the Italian kingdom. But the development of railways is already bringing 
more money into the land, which 
would be visited by crowds of tourists 
were it better known. 

The Metopes from Selinus are all 
preserved, and well shown, in the 
spacious Museum of Palermo. Their 
effect in the setting of the gigantic 
triglyphs, about ten feet square, must 
be seen to be understood. The mas- 
sive sculpture is thus toned down, 
when seen mounted in its original 
setting. They are very wonderful 
works of early art, the very earliest 
of the kind known and have evidently 
been erected at various times as art, 
wealth, and taste advanced. The 
earliest specimens are of the sixth 
century and of rude forcible style. 

PER.SEU.S Cutting off the Gorgon's Head is one of these. The story is 
well told. None dare look on the fatal Gorgon — even Athena stands placidly 

Ski.inus—Athbna and the Giant. 


by, looking away out of the group impassively. Europa and the Bull, a 
Cretan story, is more dramatic, and seems to be a later work with fine promise. 
AcTAEON DEVOURED BY HIS DoGS is fine. Artemis (Diana) looks on, unsym- 
pathising. Herakles and Hippolyta is of the fifth century, and more elegant 
in style. But Athena and the Giant is a beautiful composition, of great 
refinement. These later Metopes have the heads, and even hands of the 
females introduced into the coarse stone of the country by piecing in white 
marble, while all the metopes bear still traces of their being elaborately coloured. 
Selinus, now called Selinunte, is reached from the station of Castel 
Vitrano by railway from Palermo, whence a drive through richly cultivated 
meadows leads to the scene of desolation of the great city of the Selinuntines, 
one of the most impressive relics of human labour in the world. 

p:T,«- ,s:;.»4.:.»S«^HPMK;.i ; 







•^^i*K^. -r-:. ._■ . - >_ — 



The Tiij:ati:i ; v the Rock, Se(;esta. 
(From a Painting by the Author.) 


Another locality of great architectural interest can be visited by railway 
on the way back to Palermo — Segesta and its fine temple and theatre, both, if 
not actually Greek, of purest classic style. In earliest times it seems to have 
been called Egesta, and the Greeks called its people Elymians. 

Segesta, according to traditions, was more ancient than other settlements 
in Sicily. There was a story that the people were descended from fugi- 
tives from the Trojan war. But they can hardly be called Hellenes. They 
seem to have fought against the Greek colonists, yet their coins show that they 
used their language. The only ruins are of purest Hellenic type, among 
lonely mountains and wild scenery. There is no town or village nearer 
than Catalafimi , a small railway station some hours from Palermo. A walk 
over marshy meadows and bleak hills leads to a teiTace of rock, above 



which we are suddenly confronted by a magnificently proportioned Greek 
temple. When I was there a rich crop of wheat, growing close up to the temple 
platform, gave contrast to the lonely scene around. A steep climb to a moor 

The Temple of Segesta. 

(From a Picture by Kdward Lear, in the possessiou of the Rev. E. C. Selwyn, D.D., Uppingham.) 

still higher showed where the city must have stood. No fragments of buildings 
are visible till we unexpectedly find the extensive theatre, the tiers of seats 
quite perfect, cut out of the solid rock. All around is a desolate, almost unin- 
habited country. Near at hand, however, we come on a green hill slope, dotted 
with little wooden crosses. These were the graves of the soldiers and volunteers 
who perished in a skirmish in 
Garibaldi's patriotic campaign to 
save Italy from its modem tyrants, 
in 1859. The sea, though invisible, 
is not far off: this was the line of 
march of the little army from the 
coast, and here they brushed away 
the first opposition from the Bour- 
bon soldiery. 

The people of this ancient place 
must have amassed considerable 
wealth to erect such fine buildings, 
and their coins of the fifth century 

testify also to their refinement. The Carthaginians, however, came upon them 
when their temple was building in 410. It never was completed, and their 

The Temple, Seobsta. 


fine architecture as well as their coinage came to an untimely end. Their coins 
are not plentiful. They seem to have been a people of sporting tendencies, as 
a hound is their crest, with the head of Segesta as a nymph. [PI. V., 227-232]. 
Mr. Hill points out some remarkable peculiarities in No. 231. But we have a 
coin of highest art in the larger one, with the youthful hunter resting on his 
knee, holding a sporting dog. Two spears are also held, while a conical cap is 
slung round his neck. When perfect this must have been a beautiful coin. 

The men of Segesta must have been a quarrelsome people and seem to 
have been always at war with the Selinuntines. Indeed they seem to have 
provoked the Carthaginians to the great attack on Sicily generally, which 
brought their own destruction on them. But the matter in which their memory 
was sent down to posterity as showing their duplicity was that which led to the 
unnatural war between two of the old Greek states, and the slaughter of the 
unfortunate Athenians at Syracuse. 

The Athenians had been appealed to by a combination of Sikelian towns 
who joined against Syracuse, to interfere in the affairs of Sicily (416 B.C.). 
The Segestans were the prime movers of this union and sent a deputation to the 
Athenians to induce them to supply fleets to subdue the haughtiness of the 

In order to arrive at an understanding on the matter and especially to 
learn what amount of men and money those who complained could bring into the 
affray which they were asked to provoke, the Athenians sent envoys to Sicily to 
report. The Segestans had then, apparently, a fine city, but no great wealth. 
They invited the envoys to a series of banquets at which each host passed off 
all the plate as his own, and they even went so far as to borrow plate for mere 
purposes of show, from other towns. So the envoys went back to Athens 
thinking that Segesta was a very rich city, and taking with them sixty talents 
as an earnest ! 

The Athenians decided to undertake the war, and fleets, the greatest that 
ever sailed from Greek shores, were sent to the help of Segesta, Leontinoi, and 
the rest. This was followed by disastrous consequences to all Hellenic states 
indirectly. For bitter blood remained between Spartans and Athenians and 
the allies of each, ever afterwards, while the horrors of the Siege of Syracuse 
left an unwholesome effect upon the civilised world (see page 215). 


The Panormus of the ancients is still, as Palermo, a great and prosperous 
city. The Greeks really never permanently owned it ; it was a Phoenician city, 
and though its earliest coins bore Greek inscriptions, the Carthaginians only 
struck money to pay mercenaries who were employed to fight the Greeks. For 



there were apparently no coins in use at Panormus until after Gelon's great 
victory at Himera, which is not far off. After that the Greek language perhaps 
became predominant in the west of Sicily. Many of the coins of Panormus are 
copied from those of Syracuse and seem the work of Greek artists, who may 
have been induced to engrave dies for the Semitic race that dominated in the 
western country. 

Later the Greek letters were dropped and Punic inscriptions substituted. 
Mr. Hill catalogues all these coins under the heading of SicuLO-PuNic, as it is 
difficult to say where they were struck. 

Capo Zaffabano — Near tue Site of Himera. 

The word Panormus signifies " All-Haven " — the port for every one, if 
it really be a Greek word after all. Even now Palermo has not in the least 
degree the aspect of a Greek city and there are no classic remains whatever. 
But it is still the same wide haven that gave it, possibly, its Greek title and is 
one of the loveliest places in the Mediterranean, whether viewed from sea or land. 

The promontory of MoNTE Pellegrino on the west, and the heights of 
Cape Zaffarano on the east, enclose a safe and spacious bay. The rich cultiva- 
tion of the " Concha d'Oro," the dark green masses of the trees, the luxuriant 
vineyards, with the warm tint of the rocks and soil, combine to form a brilliant 
picture, while the pellucid Mediterranean, with its white edges of ever-moving 
.surface, gives continuous life and variety. Numbers of white lateen-sail boats 
flit about ; the sky is nearly always of clear azure. 

It is a noble-looking city, and the yellow stone of which its superb public 



buildings are built gives an air of perpetual sunshine, while its palms, oleanders, 
orange and lemon groves give the scenery quite a tropical aspect. 

Although there is not anything Hellenic in the aspect of the place, and 
probably there never was, it now possesses the finest museum of Greek antiquities 

in Sicily, under a- 
most accomplished 
custodian, who has- 
done much to unveil 
for us the hidden Hel- 
lenic remains which 
show what the Greeks 
of Sicily were in their 
best days. It was 
Signor Salinas who- 
discovered the me- 
topes of Selinus, and 
his skill in the setting 
of them, surrounded 
by the original enor- 
mous triglyphs, de- 
The public gardens of Palermo arc magnificent, the 

The Public Gardens, Palermo. 

serves all praise, 

tropical growths of palms and exotic flowers are wonderful, and the whole, 

unlike Italian gardens generally, beautifully kept. The Capella Palatina 

and the Cathedral are memorials of the palmy 

days of the Norman kings of Sicily, while MoN- 

reale, which is only a few miles off, is the finest 

specimen of Christian architecture executed by 

Moslem hands, in the world. For it is on record that 

King Roger not only employed the skilled native 

Arab workmen when he had subdued the country, 

but allowed them to retain their own religion and 

paid them liberally for their superlative work. 

To Panormus the coins No. 361 to 370 
(Plates VIII. and IX.) have been hitherto attri- 
buted ; they are all copied from Greek coins, with 
Punic inscriptions. Some of them are fine speci- 
mens, apparently from Greek hands. It is very 
possible that not only they but many of the so-called Carthaginian coins were 
struck at the Mint of Palermo. The coin No. 364 A is equal to the best of 
Syracuse, and is perhaps the finest specimen of the " Siculo-Punic " class. I 

The Monastery of the Eremiti, 


acquired it subsequently to the preparing of the autotype plates, so it is 
illustrated separately. It must have been executed by a Greek artist. It^ 
has in the exergue a fine figure of Scylla, with the mysterious Punic 
inscription " Ziz." 

The earl iest 
SicuLO-PuNic coin in 
my collection is that 
of MoTYE [No. 356, 
Plate VIII.], and is of 
the fifth century B.C. 
This rare coin resem- 
bles those of Akragas, 
but there is no doubt 
that it is a very 
early coin of Motye. 
However, it is recorded 
that the citizens of Ak- 
ragas at one time con- 
quered Motye. An 
obol of Motye, No. 357, shows the Carthaginian date-palm, with a classic gor- 
goneion and a Punic inscription, Motye was a small island not far from the 
modern Marsala, and became the great naval station of the Carthaginians till 
Dionysius of Syracuse destroyed it, 397 B.C., and killed all its inhabitants. Motye 
signifies spinning factory, so it had been at one time a manufacturing place. 

The Cloisters, Monrealb, Palermo. 


.V. „ 

ij- ';.-•• 
















- ■' y^>.^«fli*i ■■*■ 

hMf- ."HiMbHi 





- . ' ...^•> ■ 



■ — ^•fc^*' '' 



Monte Pelleorino — Palermo. 

(From a Painting by the Author.) 

Heracleia Minoa became another Carthaginian naval station, but had' 
been colonised by Spartans, or perhaps earlier still by Minos of Crete. Its 
coins are copied from Greek types, but with Punic inscriptions. [358-359.], 



The town lay on the coast between Akragas and Selinus. The coin No. 359 
greatly resembles one of the Siculo-Punic series (No. 921) and might almost be 
by the same artist. Lilybaion was founded by the Carthaginians as their naval 
station after Dionysius had destroyed Motye. The coins of this place (which 
was on the north-west coast of Sicily) are rare. No. 200 (Plate IV.) shows a 
head of Apollo, and has a Greek inscription. But the Roman-Punic wars 
eventually destroyed the Carthaginian power in Sicily and everywhere else. So 
complete was the destruction that we have no history of this remarkable people. 
This is a loss, for the world would now like to know something of Carthage 
and the great maritime nation (who dominated the Mediterranean for five cen- 
turies) from their own side. 


All my Carthaginian coins were obtained from Sicily, and the good people 
of Carthage would apparently never have had any of their own but for their 
desire to have cash wherewith to pay mercenaiies to fight the Greeks. I shall, 
therefore, allude to these pieces before leaving Sicilian coinage. [Nos. 916 930.] 

Delenda est Carthago ! — The Anciekt Harbours of Carthage. 

Mr. Hill's arrangement, on pure numismatic principles, puts these coins at 
the end of his catalogue, so I must ask my readers to refer to Plate XXII., 
where he has been able to find room only for four specimens. The coin in 
electrum. No. 921, is a very beautiful one. The head is of pure Hellenic style, 
and the expression sweet and refined as a Greek statue. That on 922 is not by 
such a good artist, but is excellent work to be issued by a people whom some 
would tell us were an uncivilised and semi-barbarous race. The little gold 



piece, 930, is excel- 
lent work. On all 
the horse is well- 
modelled. No. 924 
resembles No. 921. 
In it the ears of 
com in the head of 
Persephone are well 
brought out, as if 
the artist had some 
faith in the story of 
the Sicilian god- 


When describing African coins I may mention those of Libya [916], 
NuMiDiA and Mauretania [932-934]. 

The daughter of Cleopatra VII. by Mark Antony was married to a prince 
of Mauretania, Juba II., whose portrait is found on No. 934, Plate XXII. 
Cleopatra had left this poor girl a legacy to the Romans, which was accepted. 


Stromboli — LiPARi Islands. 

(From a Painting by the Author.) 

with the condition that she should be married to a royal prince, 
carried out the bargain by wedding her to an African king ! 

The conquerors 
The fortress of 



CoN.STANTiNE, in Algeria, now a French possession, was possibly the capital of 
Juba's kingdom. Libya was on the coast between Cyrene and Carthage. 

The Greeks must have been much in want of colonies when they founded 
one on the volcanic islands of Lipara. But there was a reason for these 
being colonised as they produce excellent wine. On the coin No. 371 
Hephaistos is shown hard at work with hammer and tongs, and a dolphin on 
the reverse with Greek legend. 

There are a few coins of Melita (Malta) bearing Greek inscriptions, and 
others with Punic, showing that these two great maritime powers had di.scemed 
the desirability of Malta as a naval station or point of call. [935, 936.] 

These are of about the second century B.C. They are both of bronze and 
have all the appearance of Greek coins. But No. 935, with a veiled female 
head, well-engraved, bears a Punic inscription, while No. 936, with a similar 
head, has a Greek legend. The masters of the little mint at Melita evidently 
meant to supply the needs of the merchants of both East and West, so appealed 
to them in their respective languages. The Oriental maintained its sway, and 
still does so. Ninety per cent, of the present Maltese people speak Arabic and 
rather a curious early dialect of that widely -spread Semitic tongue. 

Malta — The Ancient Melita. 

We have now completed our imaginary tour round the western colonies of 
Greater Greece. In order to grasp the rather involved conditions of Old 
Greece and the Hellenic Isles, mixed up as they now are, some independent, 
some under Turkish dominion in Europe and Asia, we must take an entirely' 
different direction, beginning our new tour with a fresh chapter, starting in the 
north-east, at old Byzantium. 



The Island of Samothrace. 
(From the Troad, looking across the Hellespont.) 


( 239 ) 

R 2 


The Castle of Asia — Commanding the Dardanelles. 


" .... Helle's tide, rolls darkly heaving to the main." — Bybon. 


We will now transport ourselves to Constantinople, once the emporium 
of European trade with the wide East. After a glance at the ancient Hellenic 
sites in the vicinity, we shall rapidly pass to Old Greece, by way of Thrace, 
to Macedonia, Thessaly, Epirus, and beyond. 

The topography of the Greek coinage of Macedonia, Thrace, Paeonia, 
Thessaly, and Epirus is rather an intricate matter, and descriptions of the 
localities as they now exist would be difficult in our present state of know- 
ledge. At one time British influence at Constantinople was powerful ; not so 
now. Travelling in Turkey in Europe is almost as impossible or unusual as in 
Turkey in Asia. Little can be found about ancient cities, many of the sites of 
which are unknown. All that we can hope to do is to go through a criticism 
of the coins of these localities, taking the more ancient places first ; and 
beginning at the north, work downwards through Thessaly, Epirus, &c., and 
back towards Athens, Corinth, and the Peloponnesus, where we are on com- 
paratively accessible ground. In the scientific portion of the catalogue, Mr. 
Hill has followed the ordinary numismatic system, which is neither strictly 
geographical nor historical, being necessarily in alphabetical order. Let us 
look at the map, and mention anything interesting that may occur to the mind 
about each place as it comes. 

( 241 ) 



The Castle of Europe. 

Commanding the entrance to the Euxine, holding the passage from Europe 
to Asia, Constantinople is still an important place. Even under the blight of 
Turkish rule, it is a splendid city to-day. Possessing the most beautiful sur- 
roundings, and highly 
picturesque from 
every point of view, 
it is one of the most 
interesting cities in 
the world. Were it 
in the hands of an 
enlightened people,^ 
and under honest 
rule, nothing could 
compare with it. 
Even as it is, with 
its low morality and 
rotten government, it 
is a pleasant place 
wherein to spend a week. The Triple Walls of Constantinople are wonderfully 
perfect, and the towers commanding the Straits on either side (the Castles 
of Europe and Asia) most interesting relics of bygone greatness. The walled- 
up gate towards the 
north gives an in- 
structive lesson. No 
classic remains are 
visible though there 
may be plenty under 
the modern buildings. 
The Church of 
Heavenly Wisdom, 
founded by the saint- 
ly Helena, is con- 
verted into a mosque, 
but no doubt contains 
all its ancient mosaic 
decoration under the 
Moslem whitewash. 

Termination' of the Walls towards the Dardanelles. 

The great cisterns which held water for two years' supply may be of Grecian times. 

Byzantium, now the great city of Constantinople, had small beginnings, 

being founded from Megara in old Greece. This prolific parent of Hellenic 


cities is now a poor village, but was once a powerful factor in the founding of 
Greek colonies all over the Hellenic world. The primitive coins of Byzantium 

are not plentiful ; No. 
424 (Plate XV.) is one 
of the earliest known, 
of about 400 B.c.and is 
of Babylonian weight, 
showing that the 
trade of the place was 
with the East. No. 425 
is a tetradrachm, 200 
years later, and yet 
still of eastern weight 
— this time the coin 
is of Phoenician stan- 

Calchedon was 

The (Joldex Horn, Constantinoi-i.e. 

opposite Byzantium, on the other side of the Bosphorus, not far from where 
Scutari now stands. It was an important place in ancient times. The coin 
591, Plate XV., is about the same date as No. 424, which it resembles in 
style. Calchedon was also a colony of Megara, and the fortunes of the two 
settlements were the same. In fact, the object of founding two towns, on the 
opposite sides of the narrow channel, was to secure the power over the trade, 
or at least to levy toll on all merchandise passing through the Straits. 

When we are coming down the Propontis, the present Sea of Marmora, 
there are two sites of celebrated towns on the Asiatic side, worthy of a few 
words. First, Cyzicus, one of the most beautiful cities of the ancient world, 
was also one of the richest. The locality is marked by some ruins, lovely 
surroundings. The money of Cyziccs (we are told by Dr. Head), along with 
the Persian " Darics," constituted the staple of the gold currency of the ancient 
world. These beautiful little coins have been classified by Canon Greenwell, 
who thus called them from comparative ob.scurity. Many of my small collection 
were selected by him, and all submitted for his approval. They are nearly all 
of electrum (or pale gold), and in a perfect state must have been beautiful 
specimens of engraving. [PI. XV., 594-605.] The essays on these coins, by 
Canon Green well, in the Namimiutic Chronicle, are most interesting reading. 
Lately some silver staters of Cyzicus have turned up, of which I have several. 
[606-609.] But the electrum coins are the most curious, and the fact that the 
currency of a great part of the world was carried on by such diminutive 
pieces is extraordinary. They must have produced great wealth to the city. 



Lampsacus, on the Asiatic side of the Hellespont, was also an important 
place, and more ancient than the last. No. 610 [PI. XV.] is one of its early 
coins, and is of pale gold and rude fabric. However, they soon abandoned elec- 
trum and took to pure gold, of which they possessed rich mines. Its later gold 
pieces are among the most beautiful in the world. They are very scarce ; I 
have only two of them. The one with the head of Odysseus is fine [612], 
but perhaps that with Zeus [611] is even finer. The silver coins of the same 
period, with Janiform female head, show good work. [615.] Lampsacus was a 
great and powerful city. It had a high reputation for its wine, but under Turkish 
rule every trace of both town and vineyards has disappeared from existence. 

Sailing down the Hellespont, we pass the site of Troy (Ilium), but that 
was long before the time of coins, so it does not at' present interest us. 
Turning eastwards, we come to Aenus, at the mouth of the Hebrus, on the 
coast of Thrace. This was an important to^vn, and about 450 B.C. struck beautiful 
coins [PI. X., 415-417], with portraits of Hermes, facing and in profile, no 
doubt copied from a celebrated local statue. It was absorbed into the 
Macedonian Empire, 350 B.C., and issued no more coins of its own. 

A very rare coin of Aenus was recently found and added to my collection 
since the Plates were made. [416a, page 152.] 

Ruins at Philippi. 

Maroneia westwards along the Thracian coast, was another ancient Greek 
town. The coin 426a (400 B.C.) is of Persic weight, and is engraved on p. 64. 
The vine trained on trellis- work, with four bunches of grapes, shows the care 
paid in these early days to its culture. No. 427 is a fine coin of late date 
(150 B.C.), and is of the Attic standard of weight. [Plate X.]. 


Race Torch, from a Vase. 

(Showing the protecting rim, as in the coin.) 

Abdera has a griffin, denoting its origin from Teos (see page 348). The 
coin [413] is engraved on Plate X., a fine specimen of early date, about 450 B.C. 
Another coin, No. 414, is engraved on p. 64. 

The island of Thasos, off the coast of Thrace, was an important place for 
gold mines ; strange to say, its coins are nearly all of silver [PI. XI. 428, 429.] 

Neapolis, opposite this island, had fine early coins (500 B.C.), with a 
Gorgon's head in bold style. [PI. IX., 378.] 

But Amphipolis, not much later, produced some of the finest coins 
ever seen, of their type. This place was 
founded by Athens, but its coins eclipse 
those of its parent city. There must have 
been a superb statue of Apollo at Amphi- 
polis, which was the original of the head on 
the coins. About six varieties of these 
are known, varying from side views left 
and right, to almost facing. No. 376 is 
one of the finest, and this particular piece 
seems to be unique. The expression of the 
eyes, for such a small coin, is wonderful ; one 
could almost tell their colour. The race 
torch, with the lettering arranged around a square design, is symbolical of the 
games held there, which were part of a religious festival. 

The three promontories of Chalcidice are there as in ancient times, a 
remarkable feature as seen from the deck of a steamer. Not many facilities 
for exploring them are given to us nowadays. 

Mount Athos with its monasteries can be visited, however — and here some 
wonderful manuscripts have recently come to light. The poor monks are 
illiterate, and knew nothing of the treasures they had guarded. Their great 
care has been to keep females out of their lofty eyrie. Dr. Mahaffy tells us 
that so strict are they " that every cow, she-goat, hen, in fact everything female 
which could not take wings and fly on to the sacred mountain," is excluded 
from the sanctuary. The same rigour against " le beau sexe " was exercised in 
the monasteries of Meteora in Thessaly, until recently, when some scholarly 
ladies, I have been told, have been permitted to ascend their rocky fastnesses. 

Olynthus, on one of the celebrated Chalcidian promontories, issued 
coins with a good head of Apollo. Different types [379, 380] are in this 
collection, both very fine. The seven-stringed lyre is interesting, evidently the 
real musical instrument of the time. 

Acanthus, (on the same promontory as Mount Athos), was a more ancient 
place, as the almost archaic style of its coins shows. Herodotos tells of the 



Portrait of Philip II of Mackdon. 

(Louvre Museum.) 

fierceness of the lions and homed bulls of this district, which the device on the 
coin actually seems to portray. [375, Plate IX.] 

Lete [377], in this neighbourhood, had coins of rude early style. 

Orthagoreia, somewhere here- 
abouts, shows a coin of fine work 
[381], but Asiatic in character. 
Both of these coins are staters of 
Babylonic weight for eastern trade. 
I have hitherto only described 
the ancient Greek coins of the 
Thracian district which afterwards 
became Macedonian. When Philip 
began the ambitious schemes which 
his son, the Great Alexander, car- 
ried out and far surpassed, all the 
old things were swept away, and the 
original characteristic coinage of 
each locality was lost for ever. 

I propose to continue in my im- 
aginary tour a short sketch of those ancient cities and states of whose early coins 
I have specimens, returning afterwards to some slight mention of the pieces 
of Alexander himself, as they ap- 
peared in connection with the sub- 
version of the states conquered by 
him. To me, the coins of this 
conqueror of the Eastern world are 
the least interesting of all those 
bearing Greek types and legends. 
The originality of Greek character 
was crushed out by this ambitious 
conqueror. Hellenic native art and 
literature had come to an end, and 
the coins lost their historic interest 
and beauty, never to be regained. 

But we are now in Macedon, 
and the old rulers of the state, as 
long as they kept to their own king- 
dom, are interesting enough. My earliest coin is that of Archelaus I. [382], and 
my next of Amyntas III. [383.] Both coins bear the kings' names in Greek 
letters, but the heads are not human portraits but representations of deities. 

Portrait of Alkxaxukr the Great. 

(Lfjuvre Museum.) 



Then Philip II. appears upon the scene. He had acquired the gold and 
silver mines of Pangaeus near Philippi, and their treasures helped to provide 

Yesidjb, the Anciext Pella. 

(After Edward Lear.) 

the " sinews of war " for Macedonian armies to conquer the world. No. 381 
gives a very fine head of Are.s in bold relief. Certainly the warlike Philip did 
well " to assume the port of Mars." 

No. 381, Pi. IX. is one of the earliest Macedonian coins struck in gold. 
It is supposed to have been minted at Amphipolis. 
Two silver coins of Philip follow [385 and 386], of 
different types. No. 385 was struck at Pella, where 
Alexander the Great was born. 

Two remarkable portrait medallions of father and 
son are given by permission of Mr. Murray. They are 
known as the Tarsus Medallions, and, though made in 
early Roman times, were no doubt C(jpied from contem- 
porary statues now lost. 

Aristotle, the greatest of all Greek philosophers, 
was a native of Stagira in Maeedon. He was invited 
to Philip's Court, 342 B.C., as tutor to Alexander, in 
which capacity he acted for several years. 

There are various coins of Alexander and his suc- 
cessors [387 392]; but very few, if any, are known to have been struck by 
Alexander himself He was too busy during his short life to trouble with 

Alexandkk ■ihi: (lltK.\T. 
(British Museum.) 



minting money, and very probably paid his soldiers with the loot of the countries 
he conquered. No. 387 is a fine gold piece, possibly struck in Syria. It bears 
the head of Athene in Corinthian helmet, Nike, standing and extending a 
wreath in r., in 1. a trophy-stand, and Alexander's name and title in Greek. 
No coin bore his likeness till long after his death. No. 388 was struck at 
Pella, and bears the usual type — head of Herakles in lion's skin. It has 
Alexander's name only. No 382 was struck in Babylon, 391 in Aradus, 
390 in Caria. [Plate IV.] There were so many mints for coins bearing 
Alexander's name after his death that the subject is puzzling to a degree. 

After the death of Alexander the Great, coins were struck with the 
name of his half-brother Philip III. [393] and of Cassander (Nos. 394-397), 
who had married a half-sister of Alexander. There were also coins of the 
conqueror's posthumous son Alexander IV., but with their violent deaths the 
royal line of the Great Alexander came to an end.^ 

Ptolemy struck coins in Egypt, as regent for Alexander IV. [Plates 
XXI., XXII., 880-882.] One of these coins may be possibly intended for a por- 
trait of the young Alexander. [Plate XXII., 881.] It represents him under 
the guise of Zeus with an elephant's skin, and Pallas fighting, on the reverse. 

Various other generals of Alexander the Great called themselves regents 

VoDHENA — The Ancient Aeoae, the Original Capital of jMacedun. 

(After E. Lear.) 

for his son, and struck coins of similar types as long as the boy lived, substituting 

afterwards their own names as kings. The money struck by Lysimachus of 

' Note G — Alexander IV., Philip Arrhidaeus, Cassander, &c. 


Original State of the 

Design of the 

The Nike of Samothbace. > 

(Now in the Louvre, Paris.) 

Thrace gives us some beautiful engraving, and one of these coins [Plate XI., 
431] bears a fine portrait of Alexander the Great with the horn of Ammon, 
but bears the name of Lysimachus. 

Before passing onward, Paeonia, which had revolted from Macedon, gives 
us some interesting coins [Plate X., 410-412] of three of its kings. 

Lycceius, who reigned 359-340 B.C., has a coin with a fine head of Apollo 
[PL X., 410], Herakles strangling the lion, possibly the reproduction of a famous 

Patraus, another King of Paeonia (340-315 B.C.), presents another fine 
Apollo [411] and a spirited figure of a cavalry soldier galloping over a prostrate 
foe who bears a Macedonian shield. 

AuDOLEON (315-286 B.C.) supplies a facing head of Athena, a free horse 
on the reverse. [412.] Pyrrhus married King Audoleon's daughter. 

Another of Alexander's generals, Antigonus, called himself " King of 
Asia," and as his royal line gives us some very interesting coins, we must not 
pass them without notice. 

His son Demetrius strove for universal dominion, and made war upon 
Lysimachus, Cassander, Seleucus, and Ptolemy. He was often victorious, 
and called himself " Besieger of Cities " (Poliorcetes). 

Plate X., 399, commemorates a great naval victory of Demetrius. The 
marble NiKE recently discovered on the island of Samothrace is the one shown 
on the coin. This beautiful work is now in the Louvre. Victory stands on the 
prow of a ship, blowing a trumpet. It is a magnificent work of art, even in its 
ruinous state. The figure stands in bold relief, her drapery clinging to her 



beautiful form. It seems to rush forward through the air, and completely carries 
out the idea of being on the prow of a vessel in rapid motion. Its preservation 
to our times on an island now almost deserted is little short of marvellous. 
The coin led to its identification. The sculptor's name is unknown. 

Another fine coin commemorating the victories of Demetrius possibly 
reproduces a similar work of art. [No. 400.] A second coin, 401, represents 
another and larger die, with the same subject. These bear the head of 
Demetrius, one of the earliest tj^Des of numismatic portraiture, and verj- 
fine. They have been done at different mints, but both represent the same 
statue, and are fine specimens of engraving. [Plate X.] 

Vale of Tempe — Thessaly. 

Another Antigonus (Gonatas) gives us a fine coin, with head of Poseidon 
and a beautiful figure of Apollo seated on the prow of a ship, no doubt also 
taken from a statue. [402.] The name of the king is inscribed on the prow. 
Of the same king we have another coin [403], showing a Macedonian shield, 
with Athene Alkis in fighting attitude. 

Philip V., his successor, gives us coins with fine portraits of himself 
[405-407], and yet another with the Macedonian shield [404], and a well- 
engraved head of Pan, &c. 372 is another coin of the same king, which is 
shown on PI. IX. 

Perseus supplies a coin with a wonderful portrait of himself [409, PI. X.] 

He was the last king of Macedon, warred against the Romans, and was 
carried off a captive to Rome to grace the triumph of his conquerors. Mace- 


DOXIA was shortly afterwards declared a Roman province, and as such there are 
two coins. [PL IX., 373, 374.] Under the Romans, the coins lost all the artistic 
quality that had remained. Greek art was rapidly declining. (At the end of 
the chapter a coin of this time, relating to Philippi, is described.) 


Leaving Macedonian regions for a time, we go back to the ancient Greek 
towns of Thessalv. Larissa still exists, a populous place, but with no ancient 
remains, though these may be hidden for future exploration. This was in 
ancient days a great country for rearing horses, and that animal, in constantly 
varying forms, is used as the crest for the district on their coins. 

The coins [Plate XI., 440-446] are pretty little pieces. The head of the 
nymph Larissa is undoubtedly copied from the facing Arethusa [PI. VII., 296] 
of SjTacusan coins. Those with the youth restraining the bull are good work 
for the early date — 450 B.C. No. 442a has the facing head also, but on an 
unusually large coin for the place. 

Larissa — Bridge ox thr I'exeius. 

Phalanna [447] bears a fine beardless head. Pharkadon and Pharsalus 
[448, 449], coins of The.ssaly, are interesting little pieces — with equine devices. 
Of Lamia [437, 438] are two beautiful coins showing good art, 400 B.C. Lamia 
is still a handsome town, with a castle on a rock, said to be like that of Edin- 
burgh, but it is not a healthy locality, for visitors at least. 

The people of Ainanes must have lived near this. Their coins show a 
good figure of a slinger. A quaint head of Athena also. [435, 436.] 

Some day these districts may be opened up to us. When the railway vid 
Salonika to Athens is made, it may become a favourite way of visiting Greece 
{via, Vienna), and thence with good quick steamers from Greece to Egypt. 



But this undertaking of the Greeks seems as far off as their Kalends. If 
they would only bestir themselves to civilise and develop what they have, and 
not cast longing eyes on more territory, they might compete with Switzerland 
and Italy in being one of the playgrounds of Europe, and also draw many 
tourists from America. 

Travelling in Thessaly is far behind the times ; there are no good hotels, 
only " xenodochia " (strangers' rests), where a clean room may perchance be got. 

VuJju, iiiEssAiyY — Mount 1'lliu> i.n liii. uisTANcii. 

but bedding and covering has to be carried and food has to be obtained from a 

The scenery of Thessaly is magnificent. The slopes of Pelion and of OssA 
are splendidly wooded, and contrast gloriously with Mount Olympus. Landing 
at VoLO from the steamer, the train conveys us to Larissa, and, farther on, the 
wonderful gorge and Vale of Tempe finds many visitors. The sylvan beauty 
of this exquisite valley of the river Peneius (which flows between Mounts Pelion 
and Ossa), shows us what a rich land old Greece must have been when it 
possessed, as this district does, its ancient forests and streams. 

Here, on top of inaccessible cliffs, several colonies of poor Christian monks 
have sheltered for a thousand years. The place is called Meteora (the 
Churches in the Air) ; visitors are hauled up to them in baskets. 

Pharsalus still exists. Achilles came from this country ; but it is best 
known to us on account of the terrible battle between Caesar and Pompey, 



when the latter was routed, 48 B.C., though his army numbered two to one of 
Caesar's forces. 

In the immediate \'icinity of Volo are the ruins of three early Greek cities. 
VoLO itself is on or near the 
site of Demetrias, founded 
300 B.C. by Demetrius the 


Epirus, due west of Thes- 
saly, which is now mostly ap- 
proached by the few tourists 
who venture there from the 
Adriatic coast, has some ex- 
cellent coins. 

Inland, near the wide 
Gulf of Arta, was the rich 
city of Ambracia. This city 
gives us, as its earliest coin, 
one of the simple dignified 
type of Corinth, well cut. 
[459.] This city was for cen- 
turies under the protection of 
Corinth. The coin No. 459a 
is two hundred years later, but 
is a more beautiful specimen of 
engraving. The head of the 
veiled DiONE is very beau- 

A coin of Alexander, 
king of Epirus, displays a noble 
head of Zeus, one of the finest in 
the collection [460, Plate XI.] 

The coins of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, are mostly figured under Syracuse, 
where Mr. Hill thinks they were struck. [331-335, PI. VIIL] 

The coins of the Epirote Republic, 238 B.C., are of good style for their late 
date [455-457]— jugate heads of Zeus and Dione, with a spirited bull butting. 
[PI. XL] 

The deities of the great oracle of Dodona, or allusions to them, are 
frequently found on the Epirote coins. This oracle was consulted at some place 


Soli, Epirus. "Acheron's Abyss" below. 

(After Edward Lear.) 



EpiROTE Scenery — The Gulf of Arta. 

near the gorges surrounding the mountains and lakes of the modern SuLi, not 
far from Janina, where Ali Pasha's tyrannies and cruelties were enacted early in 
the last century, and where he himself was immolated. It is said the women 
threw themselves from the cliffs of Suli into the abyss below, rather than 
surrender, when their men were killed. 

Judging from Edward Lear's Journal of a Landscape Painter of fifty 
years ago, this country is wonderfully picturesque. But it is more difficult 



of access now than in his day, and the whole district seems on the point of 
revolutionary outbreak against the powers that be. 

Off the Epirote coast lies the interesting island of Corfu, the ancient 
CoRCYRA. This was a wealthy and enterprising maritime state in the sixth 
century B.C. About this time it shook off the dominance of Corinth, its 

mother city, and sent out colonies of 
its own along the Illyrian coast, and 
southwards also. Of its ancient claims 
to notice it retains nothing now but 
its natural beauty, its lovely climate, 
and its magnificent harbours. One 

Zante (Zakynthos). 

would suppose that these were enough to make it an " island of the blest." 
Not so — it is in a most unfortunate condition, thanks to Great Britain's vacil- 
lating policy, or that of a great statesman of Homeric proclivities. This fine 
island, and six others southward along the western coast, as far as Cerigo, near 
Cape Malea, were con.stituted a republic, as The Ionian Islands, under our 
protection, in 1817. (These islands, now known as Corfu, Paxo, Santa Maura, 
Ithaca, Cephalonia, Zante, and Cerigo, had in very ancient times been colonised 
from Ionia in Asia Minor, and so got their name of Ionian Islands.) As long 

as it was under British au.spices the little state flourished amazingly. 

s 2 



Our troops were quartered in Corfu, and when paid off sometimes settled 
there. Our vessels of war frequently visited the fine harbours. British 
Royal Engineers surveyed and constructed magnificent roads, bridges, piers, 
and public buildings. CoRFU became the most noted of health resorts, the 
inhabitants were happy and the place prosperous. 

But in 1863 agitators from Greece stirred up discontent, and the British 
were petitioned to " abate the grievances " of their rule. Mr. Gladstone 
went out as " Commissioner Extraordinary," and on his return recommended 
the cession of the little republic to Greece. This was immediately carried 
out. Since then the islands have had to bear their share of Greek taxation. 

Cbrigo, near Cape Malea. 

As a consequence of being left to themselves (together with the absence of 
the British soldiers and war vessels), they are now steeped in poverty, and 
sigh for a return to the good times of British "protection." The roads 
made by the Royal Engineers are going back to nature, fields and vineyards 
are only partially cultivated from lack of capital. Trade has deserted the 
beautiful harbour of Corfu, but the citizens do their best to brighten up 
their fine buildings, and King George spends much on the exterior of the palace 
and gardens. One advantage only remains, but only for the travelling stranger. 
He can live in an excellent and well-kept inn for ten shillings a day — and much 
less, if he makes a stay and arranges terms beforehand. Greek paper money, 
which is current here, is moderate in price and great in value. With the 
exchange received for British sovereigns one can actually live here for nothing ! 
It's an ill wind that blows nobody good. The scenery all round is surpassingly 
lovely. Nowhere else is the Adriatic as blue as its parent Mediterranean. 
Tropical plants and trees flourish among woods of every European tree ; olives, 


cypresses, magnolias, orange, peach, lemon, and fig trees, papyrus, bananas, 
eucalyptus, palms, and aloes healthily abound in the superb and extensive royal 
gardens. The whole is tangled with undergrowth of roses of every hue. They 
are double-flowering roses, which abound everywhere, and yield the finest 
perfume. Vines flourish, and the native wine is excellent. The place is healthy 
beyond any other island. The British do not possess one healthy Mediterranean 
island as a sanatorium for their troops (Cyprus has not yet been much utilised 
in this respect). And yet this is the jewel that we threw away at the demand 
of a few Greek politicians who flattered Mr. Gladstone. Because Ithaca, the 
supposed isle of Homer, is in the neighbourhood, he gave them what they asked. 


And now having got it, the gift has brought the unfortunate Ionian Islands to 
the brink of ruin. 

There are few Hellenic antiquities in Corfu. There is a very fine 
.sculptured lion at the Palace, and a tomb with an old Greek text. Many 
antiquities may be preserved underneath the modern town ; the castle is built 
over the ancient acropolis. Crusaders, Venetians, French, all regarded the place 
as a fortified naval station, and improved the temples and monuments off the 
summits of the promontories where they once stood. The coinage of Corcyra 
is not of much artistic merit. No. 461, Plate XI, shows the sacred animal of 
the place — a cow. On the reverse there is a curious design of oblong stellate 
patterns, which may represent the famous gardens of Alkinoos. Whatever they 
may signify, the coins of Dyrrhachion, away on the Illyrian coast, have the Siime 
mysterious rural and horticultural designs. Zakynthos (now Zante), lies off 
the coast of Elis. I have only one coin [548], but it is an interesting one. 


It was struck by Dion of Syracuse, and bears his name. Here he made 
preparations for his war with Dionysius the Younger (357 B.C.). The head of 
Apollo and tripod testify to the sacrifices Dion made here, to Apollo, before 
embarking. Zante is the great emporium of the currant trade, and its interest- 
ing capital has 20,000 inhabitants. This island and Cephalonia produce much 
of the fruit of the little vine, almost the only export of the Grecian Kingdom. 

The Corcyreans had colonies at Damastion (no one has yet found its 
locality), [No. 454, Plate XI], and at Apollonia [451], and many other 
places along the eastern shores of the Adriatic. Dyrrhachion was the name 
of the colony, its capital was Epidamnus, and it still exists as DuRAZZO, an 

important port. 


Before leaving the region of the Adriatic it may be convenient to notice 
the old province of AcARNANiA, which lay between Epirus and the Corinthian 
Gulf The scenery here is grand in the extreme. The Gulf of Arta (the 
AcTiUM where Mark Antony's fleet was defeated 31 B.C.) is the northern 
boundary of Acamania (p. 254). ^ At this place Augustus built a great city, 
NicopOLis, and peopled it with the Acarnanians. Leukas, on an island or 
peninsula, was a city of the Acarnanian league, and also Anaktorion. Both 
these cities were originally Corinthian dependencies. 

The coins of Acarnania are mainly of the simple Corinthian type [PI. XI. 
464, 465]. Leukas [No. 466] bears a ship's prow with ram, and curious figure 
of a draped Aphrodite with quaint inscription. 

Of Aetolia (Aitolia) [No. 467, 468] there are two remarkable coins, with 
warlike figures. The seated one, Mr. Head says, is certainly a copy of the cele- 
brated statue at Delphi erected to commemorate the victory of the Aetolians over 
the Gauls. The head on the other coin may be a portrait, and the young warrior, 
his foot resting on a rock, is excellent, and possibly copied from a statue. 

We have now arrived at the Gulf of Corinth, and look across its blue 
waters to the fertile coast and undulating hills of the PELOPONNESUS. 

MisoLONGHi, near us, is a miserable place even yet, where Lord Byron 
died, a victim to his zeal for Hellas, in 1824. Patras lies opposite. 

When we visited Macedon, we should have noted a curious little gold coin 
(PI. X. 426), which, however, is more of Roman than Greek time. KoZflN, 
which may be the name of the place, is in Greek letters. This piece was struck, 
42 B.C., by the tyrannicide Brutus, money being needed to pay his troops, 
before the battle of Philippi. Brutus is represented between two lictors. After 
the defeat of Brutus by Octavianus, Philippi was made a Roman colony. 
' Note H— Battle of Actium, Mark Antony, &c. 





i r g f n""""^''™"' • ^ ^^ -■ — — ^--^ 


■■^- ,'-. - > -K ' 

The Theatre, Eretria, 



( 259 ) 

6. Andros 
S Pttalia 

7. Tenos 8. Syros 

9. Cyaros 

la. 5 11 » i 34 ^ 

The Eastern Coast Scenery of Old Gkeece, from Marathon to Scnium. 

(Lent by Mr. Murray.) 

as my bark did skim 

The bright blue waters with a fanning wind, 

Came Megara before me, and behind 

Aegina lay, Piraeus on the right, 

And Corinth on the left ; I lay reclined 

Along the prow, and saw all these unite 

In ruin Byron. 

tfalker & Boutalt sc 


The Bay of Scnium — "The Temple of Athena." 


"Place me on Sunium's marbled steep." — Byron. 

Let us resume our tour on the eastern coast of old Greece. We quitted it 

at Volo to ramble into Thessaly, Epirus and elsewhere. 

The long island of Euboea flanks 
the mainland, all the way from Thes- 
saly to Attica. Much of its coast 
scenery is grandly picturesque. The 
Venetians called it Negropont, which 
name it still retains in the Levant, 
though the modern Greeks are every- 
where recurring to the classic names 
as much as possible, and on their 
maps they label it Euboia. It was 
full of mining industry in ancient 
times, and it is possible that it still 
contains valuable minerals. Once 
crowded with populous cities it is 
now, in many districts, quite de- 
serted. The island nearly approaches 
the mainland in the north, opposite 

Thermopylae, and again in the south, not far from Marathon. But it 

almost touches the shore opposite Chalcis. 

To cross the narrow strait, to the great island of EuBOEA, seems easy, and 

( 281 ) 

apii^t^./ ' 

^^B 4 

'" '^ 

f- - 



Venetian Castle, Chalcis. 



it actually was joined to the mainland by a bridge in mediaeval days. Here we 
find ourselves at Chalcis, the parent-city of half of the world's Hellenic colonies. 
Its coins [487-489] are not common ; its greatest days were too early for them. 

But of Eretria, I have one wonderful piece, 
the best of its type [492], which is really a remark- 
able coin. Sir Hermann Weber has one resembling 
it, perhaps from the same die, but the letters on his 
read EYP, while mine is clearly EYB. The date is 
very early, 480 B.C. The treatment of the lady's hair 
is most peculiar, while the cow on the reverse, 
with bunch of grapes above, is fine. A cow also 
appears on Nos. 490, 491, 493. On Nos. 490 and 
491 the sepia (cuttle-fish) appears as the crest of the 
town [PI. XII.]. 

EuBOEA had a teeming population in ancient 
times, when it expanded into colonies all over the 
shores of the Mediterranean. It is the largest island 
in the modern Kingdom of Greece, which cannot yet 
claim Crete as its own. But it is now thinly popu- 
lated, though Chalcis still has 10,000 inhabitants, 
and is a bustling little 
place. Its Venetian 
castle is an interesting 
object, and the whole 
town, when seen from the opposite side, presents 
a most picturesque appearance. We see every- 
where about the walls sculptured lions of St. 
Mark, recalling Venetian rule, which lasted well- 
nigh three hundred years. 

Of classic Chalcis scarcely anything is 
left. The Fountain of Arethusa (from which 
j)0ssibly the name of the one in Syracuse was 
copied) still affords the best water in the 

Eretria now exists only as a poor vil- 
lage. But the ruins of the ancient town 
are the most extensive in the island. The 
American School of Athens has lately unearthed the theatre. The Acropolis 
and whole site of the old city, which was the second in the populous 
island, can distinctly be traced. Many fine figurines and groups in terra- 

Tekkacotta Fku'ke from 


(British Museum.) 

Choragic Moxumext of 
Lysicrates, Athens. 

(Temp. AlexawXe)- the Great.) 


Athenian I^awgiver, (138-558 B.C. 
(Naples Museum.) 


Athenian Comic Poet, 444-880 n.i 
(Vatican Mnsenni, Uonie.) 


Athenian Statesman, 409-42!* B.r. 
(British Musenm.) 


The Friend of Pericles. 
(Vatican Museum, Rome.) 

( p. 263. 


The Straits of Salamis. 

cotta and sarcophagi have been found in the ruins adjoining the modern 
village of Eretria. 

HiSTiAiA at the north [PI. XI., 494-495], and Carystus at the south of the 
island of Euboea give us some notable pieces. On the coins of Histiaia the 
vines, which gave the good wine of which Homer sang, are represented. 

Of coins of Carystus, the cow suckling its calf [497] is one of the best 
specimens of such ancient coinage. The cock, the crest of the town, is 
excellent work for 369 B.C. 

Of Histiaia no remains exist. Carystus is a poor village now, but the 
ivy-covered ruins of the mediaeval town, situated among lemon groves, also the 
Acropolis, are picturesque. There is nothing left of the ancient Greek city of 
Carystus, which must have been an important place. 

Rounding the promontory of Sunium — after passing Laubion's smoky 
silver mines — we find ourselves off the west coast of Attica. 

" Sunium's marbled steep," as Byron happily terms it, still bears the ruins 
of Athena's famous temple, looking down on one of the loveliest scenes of land 
and water in a land of loveliness. 

We pass Aegina for the present, and make for the Piraeus, the port of 
Athens. To-day a busy port, it is vastly different from the Piraeus of the 
days of Pericles, when the " Long Walls " connected it with Athens. Traces 
of them still exist. The main road to the capital runs along the track, perhaps 



on one of them. The drive is a dusty one, but if taken in early morning is 
pleasant and most interesting. 

The first view of the " City of the Violet Crown " ^ can never be forgotten. 
Athens seems known to everybody nowadays. It is true that its coins possess 
little artistic interest, but we dare not pass it by without a word. It is of all 
cities of Europe the most interesting to lovers of Grecian art. 

The Athens of to-day is but a faint shadow of her former self. What a 
glorious city it must have been in the days of Pericles, when the Parthenon, 
with its decorations fresh from the sculptors' hands — and its scarcely less grand 
Propylaea — were intact ! Ictinus was the architect of both. 

It is impossible to understand what Athens was without visiting it and 
carefully studying its sadly ruined Acropolis. There is one thing, however, that 

Athens — The Acropolis, Temple of Zeus in the Foreground. 

is probably as lovely to-day as it was three thousand years ago, and that is 
the view from the Acropolis looking out to sea over the Bay of Salamis, towards 
Aegina. The unequalled colour of the sky and sea, the splendid outline of the 
mountains, the hundreds of islands sprinkled along the horizon — it is inex- 
pressively lovely. The hills in olden days were clad with forests, to-day they 
are bare — possibly that is the only alteration in the modern picture. 

The Parthenon was almost perfect till 1687, when the Venetians besieged 
Athens, and threw a bomb into the Temple, which the Turks had converted 
into a powder magazine, and the whole was blown up. Lord Elgin, finding the 
sculptures being used up for building material, purchased them in 1812, and 
they are now the richest ornaments of the British Museum. 

The glorious works of Pheidias and his school are fortunately preserved, 

and properly exhibited, where they are secure from war, violence, and the 

destroying Turk. So many volumes have been devoted to them, it is needless 

to illustrate them in a work like this. But the men of Athens, whose imperish- 

' Note I—" The City of the Violet Crown." 


Great Athenian PliiUisopher, 40i'-3n« B.r: 
(Musjuni of Naples.) 


Leader of the " Ten Thousand," Soldier, Author and 
Historian, the Friend of Socrates, c. 444-350 B.C. 


Athenian Philosopher, Pupil of Socrates, 

420-347 B.o. 

(Dust in the Ufflzi Oallci-j-, Florence. ) 


Athenian Philosopher, nephew of Plato. 

.Succeeded him in the " Academy," 34T-339 B.r, 

Bronze from Horculaneum (Naples Museum). 


Founder of the Cynic Philosophy, Athens, 

c. 440-310 B.C. 

Marble Bust (Vatican Museum, Rome). 


Athenian Tragic Poet, 

496-406 B.C. 

Marble Bust (Capitoline Museum, Rome). 


Aristocratic Democrat, Athenian and Spartan Leader, 450-404 B.C. 
(Uffizl Gallery, Florence.) 

Till 1 \ iiiiii..--. 

Athenian Historian and General, 471-403 B.C. 
(Capitoline Museum, Rome.) 

[ p. 205. 


able fame remains — the orators, warriors, statesmen, poets, philosophers, of the 
golden age of " the city of the violet crown " are not so present to our vision as 
the Elgin Marbles. In the museums of Naples and Rome hundreds of these 
wonderful portraits are preserved — we seem to know " what manner of men 
they were " in the olden days. I have given separate pages of likenesses of 
these great ones of the earth, more of Athenians than any others. But of 
many of the greatest no portraits have yet been found. ^ 

Attica, in ancient times the centre of the arts, seems to have feared to 
make the art on its coinage advance with the times. Athens was a great com- 
mercial centre, and its money known over all the civilised world. Therefore it 

The Piraeus, the Port of Athens. 

would have been impolitic to change the archaic designs upon its coins, just as 
if our Bank of England note was altered, its genuineness might be doubted in 
distant places. As my little numismatic collection was commenced from the 
artistic point of view, I only have a few coins [Plate XII., 499-501] of Athens, 
of about 500 B.C. No. 502 is curious, being an ancient Asiatic imitation. 

Later, when Athens had lost its supremacy at sea, the rulers began to 
" improve " their coins, but without much success [503-505]. No. 504 bears 
the name of Antiochus (who afterwards became King of Syria) about 180 B.C. 

No. 505 has the magistrate's name, Eurycleides, with the three Charites 
(the Graces), hand in hand, along with the usual Attic symbols. 

No. 506 was supposed to be " Charon's obol," but Mr. Hill thinks it is only 
a gold ornament with Attic symbols. 

' Note J — The Strangford Shield, with Portrait of Pheidias. 



Temple of Theseus, Athens. 

The Acropolis is such a desolation of destroyed temples that one's first 
impression is a sad one. But this wears off" as the exquisite beauty of the 
fragments is studied, and the idea of the original plans is understood. At the 
foot of the Acropolis, however, is one of the most perfect temples. This is 
the Temple of Theseus; it is of pure Doric style, and may be older 

than the Parthenon. 


It is now generally be- 
lieved to have been the 
Temple of Hephaistos 
(or Vulcan). This 
beautiful building 
would possibly have 
been perfect to-day, 
but in 1660 the Turks 
began to tear it down 
to build a mosque. 

The map showing 
the Island of Sala- 
Mis, the Bay of 
Eleusis, the Piraeus, 
^ the Sacred Way to 

Megara, &c., will help the reader to understand the geography of the 

districts described in these chapters. 


Athenian Orator, 

385-322 B.C. 

(Capitoline Museum, Rtmie.) 


Athenian Orator, 389-314 B.r. 

Tlie Cireat Antagonist of Demosthenes. 

(Vatican Museum, Rome.) 


I*hiUjHopher, Tutor of Alexander the Great. 

Bom at Stagira, in Macedonia, 384 b.('. 

Died 322 B.C., at Chalcis. (SjMida Palat-e, liomo.) 

M i:n \n dij:, 

Atbenmn Dramatist, qm»tcd by Cicero. 

342-201 B.C. 
(Htatue in the Vatican Museum, Rome.) 

[p. 266. 


The Bay of Eleusis. 


( 207 ) 


The Sacked Way. 


" You have the Pyrrhic dance as yet."— Byeon. 
One of the most charming excursions from Athens is by the ancient 

"Sacred Way" to Eleuhis and Megara. It is pleasanter to go by road 

than by railway. The coast winds so much 
and the country is so mountainous that it 
has been necessary to construct the railway 
away from this district where all the objects 
of interest are situated, thus avoiding most 
of the beautiful scenery. About an hour 
from Athens we pass Daphne, where once a 
celebrated Temple of Apollo stood, now a 
church or convent, with some interesting 
mosaics, much damaged by the recent earth- 
quakes. The map (p. 266) shows how the 
coast winds and " sea-born " Salamis seems 
almost to block the way, and fill up the Bay 
OF Eleusis. The scenery is lovely along 
the old pilgrims' road to the sacred city 
of the shrine of Demeter and her daughter 
Persephone. Though now a miserable vil- 
lage, Eleusis was once an important place. 

Aeschylu.s, the first tragic poet, was born here 525 B.C. The money of the 

( 260 ) rp 




famed Eleusis was only of bronze [507], but of such a sacred place I was 
glad to get any memorial whatever. Recent excavations at Eleusis have 
unearthed the ruins of several magnificent temples of the finest period of 
Greek architecture. 

The views of the Isles of Salamis and Aegina, and the glorious bays and 

promontories, are unsurpassed for loveliness. 
The position of the throne of Xerxes, over- 
looking the scene where the destruction of 
his fleet took place, is still pointed out — 

" He counted thein at break of day, 
And when the sun set where were they ? " 

The road past Eleusis leads (through a 
pine wood) to Megara. The landscape as the 
scene comes again into view is charming : 
NisAEA, formerly the port of Megara, with 
the fortified promontory beyond, guarding 
the site of the ancient " mother of cities." 

The district of Megaris came to be con- 
sidered a part of Attica, but was once able to 
hold its own. It sent out many colonies, and 
its navy was greater than that of Athens. 
When one reads the description of the public 

■^ ; 

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;■"-:<'■• ■■ 

■ 5 

If jfflS 













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y^r^K Tf 



itt vv. 

Bay of Salamis — Nisaea the Port ok Megara. 

buildings of Megara, as late as the time of Pausanias (a.d. 170), it is difficult 
to understand how it has fallen to its present condition. For it is now repre- 
sented by a couple of villages, with a small and poor population, and there 
are no classic ruins. One of these villages is on a hill, the site of the ancient 
Acropolis. There are narrow winding streets, and here and there, built into 
the walls, fragments of small marble reliefs are seen, and at corners of 
the narrow alleys, a broken marble column. Turkish rapacity and misgovern- 
ment have driven the population from the place, and the few inhabitants now 
remaining seem steeped in poverty. But there is an improvement in pro- 
gress, more cultivation and better appliances for it. The little place is 
brightening up, new houses are being built along the roads leading to the 
railway station. The people are better dressed and have a more contented 
aspect than ten years ago. The wonder is that, with well nigh 2,000 years of 
vici.ssitude, of inroads of barbarous invaders, greedy Venetians and Mussulman 
conquerors, every vestige of the old Greek language, manners and customs had 
not disappeared long ago. But the very name of Megara seems to have been 
enough t(j keep alive the Hellenic spirit, and so, for ages past, crowds of Greeks 
whose distant ancestry may have been born here, come yearly to congregate at 
the ancient site. Other places in Greece have similar celebrations but none so 
famous or so successful as those of Megara. The scenery from this point is 
surpassingly lovely. Megaha is a mile from the sea. The exquisite picture 
spread out for our enjoyment is worth describing, ere we join the gathering 

T 2 



throng of gaily dressed, happy folk of all ages, bent on a day's pleasure. The 
Isle of Salamis fills up much of the bay, and Aegina and the hundred 

isles of the Archipelago are sprinkled over 
the wide expanse of azure ; in the distance 
rise the high lands of Argolis. 

The great tragic poet, EuRiPiDES, was 
born at Salamis, 480 B.C., on the very day 
which was made memorable by the signal 
defeat of the Persian fleet by the Greeks. 
[The battle took place in the strait be- 
tween the east part of the island and the coast 
of Attica, and the Greek fleet was drawn up in 
the small bay in front of the town of Salamis. 
The battle was witnessed by Xerxes, seated 
on a throne, placed where marked on the map 
on p. 266.] 

Salamis early fell from its former import- 
ance. In the time of Pausanias the city was 
a heap of ruins. The island forms a pictur- 
esque object from every point, but is seldom 
visited by travellers. Some of the excavating societies of Athens may one 
day turn their attention to it, and when they do, there are the ruins of two 
cities, on different sides of the island, to be investigated. The older Salamis, on 
the east side, was built about 350 B.C. ; the original town of Salamis goes back to 
remote antiquity, and was situated on the south side of the island. 

Modern Greek Islander. 


Megara lies north of the Bay of Eleusis, which here is made to resemble 
a. lake, being almost shut in by the Isle of Salamis. 

This once proud city has fallen from its high estate. Were it not for its 
retention of its ancient Terpsichorean celebrations, the world would hear little 
of it in these days of globe-trotting tourists. And few even of them know 
anything about it, for its reputation has been a local one until the last decade. 
The time to visit Megara is at the Greek Easter. The little place has then 
a crowded population; the natives claiming kindred with Megara are spread 
over all Greece. From far and near they throng to the city of their fathers to 
celebrate the ancient festivals of the place, which have been kept religiously for 
3000 years. Survivals of the Pyrrhic dances are solemnly performed; they 
think it is a Christian celebration, but, if it be, it has been grafted on the 


Snai'*mhots( at tmk FIahtrb DANrEs, Bv K. n. W. 



pagan festivals of older ages. The weather is always fine, they say, at the time of 
the festival, and certainly I have found it so during several visits at this season. 


" And further on a group of Grecian girls, 

The first and tallest her white kerchief waving, 
Were strung together like a row of pearls, 

Link'd hand in hand, and dancing ; each, too, having 
Down her white neck long floating auburn curls — 

Their leader sang — and bounded to her song, 
With choral step and voice, the virgin throng. 

And here assembled cross-legged round their trays, 

Small social parties just begun to dine ; 
Pilaus and meats of all sorts met the gaze, 

And flasks of Samian and of Chian wine. " — Byron. 

The people come in families, frequently of three generations, from great 
distances. All are beautifully dressed, most of them tall, fair, comely folk. 
They dance together in little parties, evidently keeping with their kinsfolk, or 
at least their neighbours. They go through the figures with solemn faces ; it 
has an aspect of religious duty about it. There are dances of women, led by 
a tall handsome man, of dignified mien, generally dressed in Albanian costume. 
These go through a species of dance resembling our children's game of " thread 

the needle and sew." Then there are dances for 
boys and for men, and frequently a sort of com- 
posite arrangement of " contredanse," in which 
all ages and sexes join. All the dances are 
graceful and elegant, if at times somewhat 
monotonous. The music is supplied by pipes, 
guitar or mandoline, flageolet and fife, and occa- 
sionally a fiddle. Sometimes the dancers join 
in song. 

When tired, they sit down under impro- 
vised booths of branches (for all the trees and 
groves of old days near the town are gone) and 
enjoy their modest picnic. All have brought 
viands and plenty of resinous wine with them 
from their homes. There is no excitement, no 
inebriety, every one is merry, wise, and sober. 
After rest and refreshment, they start the 
dancing again, and keep it up till sundown, when the trains leave for 
Athens, and the whole line of the Sacred Way by Eleusis is crowded with 
pedestrians and every sort of modest vehicle. I forgot to say that often a 





Propvlaea, Eleusis. 

(Designed by Ictiuus, the Architect of the Parthenon.) 

celebrated dancer, a soldier or young villager, will perform very wonderful 
step dances, and make extraordinary gyrations while holding a tumbler of 

wine, of which he must not spill a drop. 
The delight of the audience and performers, 
at these exhibitions, is exhilarating to behold. 
And to see a young mother hand her baby to 
her companion and join in the dance with her 
other children, or an old grandmother led in 
to take her place in the " contredanse," is in- 
teresting. The whole must resemble a scene 
of the old Arcadian life (and we are not far 
from Arcadia). Numismatics and Terpsi- 
chorean festivities are not supposed to be 
associated, so I must return to my coins. 
There are not very many pieces of ancient 
Megara, but what we have savour of the 
god of music and dancing. Apollo was the 
favourite deity of the place. [508-510, Plate 

On our way back to Athens from a long day in the sunshine of Megara, 
we may not be in the vein for a stay at far-famed Eleusis. Indeed, as there 



Elecsis — The Temple of the Mysteries, the Grotto op Pluto on the right. 

is no place for those accustomed to modern comforts to lay their weary 
heads, it is best to return to Athens with the crowd, by the Sacred Way, to 
the old home of the anxious Mother and the beloved Maiden. For though all 
Hellas claimed the stately Demeter {the mother, par excellence) and Kore {the 
maiden of all fair maids) 
as their property, Eleu.sis 
was their chief abode, the 
earthly paradise erected to 
perpetuate their memory. 
Till recently few traces 
remained to prove the 
truth of the magnificence 
of the Temples at Eleusis 
described by Plato, Pau- 
sanias, and Cicero, but ex- 
cavations have proved all 
they told— and more. The 
Propylaea must have 
been almost equal to that of Athens. The foundations and floor of the Temple of 
the Eleusinian Mysterie.s has all been laid bare. The Grotto of Pluto is still to 
be seen ; the hill on which stood the acropolis, or citadel, rises above. The whole 
place deserves many visits and careful study from those of antiquarian tastes. 







\\j's \ 


> vs 

1_^ v-> 

Thk Eleusinian Deitiks— Athens. 

Frcjm Perry's Ovfck and Roman Sculpture (Longmans). 




(Vatican Museum.) 

We are onl}'' bent on numismatic rambles, 
and El'eusis, rich in faith and works, did little 
for her coins. But regarding it as the centre 
of the beautiful tale of two good women, whose 
cult extended all over Hellenic lands, we may 
be pardoned for this digression. Cicero tells us 
that he was initiated in the Mysteries, that 
they taught mortals " to live happily and to die 
with a fairer hope." This, from an old, un- 
believing lawyer, makes us wish we had lived in 
the days of such faith at a time when the world 
was ready for the newer revelations of Christianity. 

I have to thank SiR Rennell Rood, C.B., 
for the use of the pretty vignettes of modern 
Greek costumes, taken from his charming volume "Customs and Lore of 
Modern Greece." 

9. SalatHis 

7. jEsalt&s 5. Ciiharon 3. Helicon 

6. Corydallui ATE£NS *. Icarius 

^.AcrctpcHs I. l.ycabettus 


Bird's-Eye View of the Country from Aeoina to Athens. 

" And men will seek thy matchless skies. 
And love thy haunted streams, 
Until the soul of music dies 
And earth has done with dreams." 

Rennell Rood. 


Athenian Tragic Poet. 

Born at Eleusis, 525 B.C. 

Diefl at Oela, 450 b.c. 


Atlieniiin Tragic Poet. 

Bom at Salaniis, the day of the Persian Defeat, 4X0-40(5 B.C. 

(Naples Museum ) 


One of the Pearliest of Greek Poet«. 

Bom in Boeotia, c. "30 b.c. 

Htatue in the Vatican Museum, Home. 

Ill KM lSTl)i.:iJ-:s. 

Athenian (leneral. Bom in noe<jtia, 

514-440 B.C.. 

Marble Bu«t (Vatican Museum, Home). 

[ p. 270. 



Delphi — The Castalian Fountain. 


( 2-7 ) 


Fort oi Kleutherae. 


"When Thebes Epaminondaa rears again." — Bykon. 
Although, like Attiea, the adjoining Boeotian land does little for the 

numismatist in search of beautiful Greek 
coins, we must visit it for its great classical 
interest. We have returned to Athens and 
rested there awhile, and feasted our appetite 
for antiquities on the many palatial museums 
of that interesting centre of ancient and 
modern Greek life and art. The best way 
to cross the mountains which surround 
Athens on three sides, into Boeotia, is to visit 
Ei-EUSlS once more, and thence cross the 
rugged pass leading by Eleutherae into 
the ancient Theban land. The forts erected 
to protect Attica against Boeotia still exist, 
amid wild mountain scenery. They are said 
to have been built by Pericles, but look 
much older. Another ancient frontier fort 
was Phyle, which looks a strong place 
yet. Passing these mountain barriers, we 

( 279 ) 



Terracotta Figures — Tanagra. 

are in Boeotia. But 
though, like Attica 
and Corinth, art had 
little or no place on 
their coins, we collect 
a few merely as " proofs 
of history," and occa- 
sionally happen on an 
artistic specimen. This 
was the land of "the 
stupid Boeotians'' which 
gave to Greece many of 
her most brilliant sol- 
diers and literary men. 
This state, better known 
by the name of its capital, Thebes, had, as has been said, not much variety in 
its coins. Nearly all of them bore the characteristic Boeotian shield. But 
when they happen to have artistic accessories, thej' are always added with 
sound taste. 

Hesiod, one of the earliest Greek poets, was a native of Boeotia. He is 
believed to have been about a century later than Homer, about 735 B.C. Pindar, 
one of the greatest lyric poets, was born in Thebes, B.C. 52 2.^ The celebrated 
soldier and statesman, Epaminondas, was a native of Boeotia; he died, 
unconquered, in his 48th 
year, 363 B.C. 

To us, voyaging in 
imagination, mountains 
are no obstacle, and we 
take the places next us 
of which we have any- 
thing numismatic or 
artistic to relate. In 
this way we come to 
Tanagra, a quiet-look- 
ing locality, without any 
remains of antiquity on 
the surface, but interest- 
ing objects have recently 
come to light. 

Tanagra was an 

Terracotta Figure from Tanagra (British Museum). 
1 Note K — Pindar. 



ancient place, but issued very small coins [PI. XII., 479-481]. Its tombs 
have recently afforded a wonderful collection of little terracotta figures, in 
the costumes of their 
times. It is hard to fix 
their period. " House- 
hold gods" such as 
these were made for 
many centuries, and 
buried with their 
former owners, in many 
parts of Greece. These 
Tanagra figurines 
came upon the world 
about twenty years 
ago, and opened up a new picture of the Hellenic domestic life. The date 
may be 250 B.C. 

The British Museum collection of these beautiful little groups and those at 
Athens are very rich. They carry us into the inner life of the well-to-do people 
of the time. Many of them seem to be portraits, and the resemblances of 
some of them to the folk of good society of our own day, in costumes and 
manners, are most interesting. It is strange that the best of these little figures 
are from this district, the ancient " stupid Boeotia." Of about the same date, 
figures very much resembling them have been found at Capua, in Sicily, and 
in Asia Minor. One would fancy they had been executed by the artists of 
Tanagra, and perhaps they were made there and exported. 

Thebes affords coins of early date, beautifully engraved [482-486], one 

of which [485] bears 
EPAM, and is sup- 
posed to have been 
issued under the great 

El'AMINONDAS, 378 B.C., 

when it was the 
most powerful state in 

We are now near 
the site of the great 
battle of Plataea 

ClIAERONEIA-THE LlON MONUMENT. ^479 g g ) betWCen the 

Persians and the Greeks, so vividly described by Herodotos, who seems to 
have been partial to the Persian side, though he scarcely likes to own it. 



MonxT Parnassus. 

The coins of 
Plataea are 
very rare, and 
their head of 
Hera is sup- 
posed to be 
copied from a 
famous statue 
there ; its date 
is about 387 B.C. 
Of the 
Theban cities 
not many traces 
remain above 
ground — doubt- 
less excavations 

by the various scientific bodies having their abode in Athens may yet lay bare 
much which is still preserved for the scientific excavator. The draining of the 
great lake or marsh of Copals may change the aspect of the country back to 
its former condition. 

The view from the great plain, looking southwards towards Mount 
Helicon, is broad and grand in its way, 
for a little land like Greece. The best 
description of this region is found in 
Dr. Mahaflfy's " Rambles in Greece." I 
would like to quote every word of it, but 
my space is limited. 

I have a coin of Phocis [No. 474, 
PI. XII.] which is a pretty little piece, 
of date a short time before that of the 
famous battle of Chaeroneia (338 B.C.) 
which decided the fate of the Greeks. 
Philip of Macedon completely routed 
them. Years after, a monument, sur- 
mounted by a lion of marble, was erected 
to the memory of the Thebans who fell 
there, and its ruins still lie scattered 
about. It was only broken up some 
eighty years ago by ignorant soldiers in 
the War of Independence, and has been 

Consecration of a Tripod. 

Dresden — From Greek and Ronuin Sculpture 



The Bronze Pedestal of the 
Delphic Tripod, Constantinople, 

SHOWING the inscription.' 

{From Shucklmrgh's History of the Greeks. By 
permission of the University Press, Cambridge.) 


recently protected by the Archaeological 
Society of Athens. 

The ruins of the ancient acropolis of 
Chaeroneia still exist. Sulla's victory over 
the army of Mithradates, b.c. 86, took 
place on the same memorable battlefield of 

We have now almost reached the site of 
the greatest of all oracles, that of Delphi, and 
as we cross the mountain barriers, the lovely 
Gulf of Corinth comes into view. LocRis, 
Delphi, and Phocis were on the north side 
of the famous Gulf. 

The great masses of Parnassus and 
Helicon, and the adjoining summits fre- 
quently covered with snow, form a glorious 
panorama, seen from the railway line, on the 
south shore of the Gulf of Corinth, on the way 
to Patras. 


There are scant remains of the ancient cities of this district, and it is hard 
to imagine whence their wealth was derived, in such a mountainous land. 
Delphi was of course an exception, as it had pilgrimages and offerings 
from the entire Hellenic world. But even Delphi has little now to show, 
although recent excavators have discovered remains of the ancient shrine and 
temples, which had apparently been entombed by a landslip. After the battle 
of Plataea, part of the spoil of the Persians was made into a golden tripod, sup- 
ported on a pedestal of three bronze serpents entwined. On this was engraved 
the names of all the cities which had sent men to fight against Xerxes at 
Marathon and elsewhere. Herodotos tells the story. Pausanias saw the ser- 
pents and the golden tripod, and describes them and the duplicate inscription 
at Olympia. Both seem to have been perfect in his time (about 170 A.D.). 
The inscription now on the shaft corresponds with his description.^ After many 
vicissitudes, one of them still exists, at Constantinople, where it was carried 
by Constantine. I have seen it, and spelled out the Greek names upon it. 

It stands in the old Stadion or race-course of Byzantium. When an officer 
of British Engineers was quartered in Constantinople during the Crimean war, 
in order to keep his men out of mischief, he set them to dig out the lower portion 
of the bronze column. Subsequently Sir Charles Newton had it cleaned and the 
inscription read. It is enclosed by a railing. There were originallj' three serpents' 

' Note L — The Delphic Tripod. 



Amphissa, the Site of Locris in the distance. 

heads above, supporting the tripod, which was stolen long ago. One of the 
serpents' heads I have seen in the classical museum at Constantinople. In 
spite of all that has been said against " the malignant and the turbaned Turk," 
we doubt if in any other European capital a pillar of bronze could have been 
preserved from theft for a thousand years. The preservation of this wonderful 
historical relic to our days is a very interesting proof of history. And it gives 
us a great respect for the veracity of Herodotos and Pausanias. What feelings it 
calls up for the heroic Greeks whose names are recorded on the imperishable metal 
— those who nobly repelled the tide of Asiatic invasion of 2250 years ago ! 

The little coins of Delphi, 474, 475 [PI. XII.] are pretty. But I must 
mention a fine coin of Delphi which actually came into my possession while I 
was correcting these proofs. This is a piece recording the name of the famous 
Amphictyonic Council which seems to have met at Delphi when it was held 
by the Phocians. It bears the head of Demeter, veiled, and on the reverse 
a figure of Apollo with the legend AM(|)IKTIoNnN. Dr. Head dates this 
reassembling of the famous council here 346 B.C., and with this piece the 
Hellenic coinage of Delphi came to an end. [No. 475a]. 

Locris struck fine coins [469-473]. No. 471 has a beautiful figure of 
Ajax, with his name under, AIAZ, to prevent any doubt. The head of Pei-se- 
phone on these coins is copied from that by Euainetos on the medallions of Syra- 
cuse [293-295], showing the effect they had on the numismatic world. 

We have now reached Acarnania and Aetolia described in Chapter YII. 




Temple op Athena. 


( 285 ) 



The last of Old Corinth— {AcRO-CoRiNXHrs, tiik Am ih.M Cjiadli., un thk j.kktj. 

(From a Painting by the Author.) 


"Many a vanished year and age, liave swept o'er Corinth." — Byron. 

The journey from Athens, by Eleusis and Megara, over the Isthmus to 
Corinth, is one of the loveliest in Greece or anywhere else. A part of 
the way is through forests of native timber, winding in and out of bays 
and creeks, and past rocky promontories, jutting out into a sea, so blue in 
distance, so green beneath us. One wishes the slow train were slower, to give 
more time to see and smell the carpet of flowers, and the masses of flowering shrubs, 
and to grasp the beauty of the varying tints of foliage. 

Soon we too quickly steam along the historic Isthmus — past the scene 
of the Isthmian games, and over the modern ship-canal (planned long ago by 
the Romans, and only carried out the other day),^ and run into the station of 

Halfway across the Isthmus the seas on either side almost seem to meet. 
Whether we look to the left over the Aegean, sparkling with its isles and islets, 
or to the right into the land-locked, deep purple-tinted Gulf of Corinth, the view 
is surpa.ssingly beautiful. 

The air is so pure and clear, it seems like nourishment to inhale it. Every 

' Few vessels use it, after all the cost of its construction. But its dues are so high that it is 
found cheaper to steam round the Morea by Cape Malea, than to make use of this cleverly con- 
structed channel. 

( 287 ) U 2 



Aegina — Temple of Athena. 

time I have visited Greece I have come from Egypt, with its good healthy desert 
air ; but the blue of the water, the majesty of the brilliant coast scenery constantly 
changing, great snow-capped mountains piercing the clouds — all this contrast 
from the muddy Nile and the monotonous desert, undoubtedly helped the enjoy- 
ment of each visit to the Isles of Greece. 

Aegina, out in the blue sea before us, was in olden days a great seat of 
trade. It seems quite deserted now, but its standard of money, weights, and 
values was once the guide of far and near. It was the first state in European 

Greece to adopt the use of 
money (Head). The ancient 
coins were all of the Tor- 
toise type. I have almost a 
full set of these quaint pieces 
[Plate XII., 511-516] some 
of which go back to 700 B.C. 
Dr. B. V. Head, in his " His- 
toria Numorum," gives a most 
interesting account of the 
origin of these coins and of their relative values with those of other states. 

Aegina — Dyixo Warrior from the E. Pediment of 
the Temple. 

(Glyptothek, Munich.) 



Restoration" of the Temple of AEtaxA. 
(From Grttk and Roman Sculpture, Longmans.) 

How such a bare, rocky isle should be a great seat of trade and a populous 
place, passes belief. But islands were safe before highlands were colonised, 
perhaps. In any case, the good people of Aegina not only were evidently sharp 
men of business, but spent time and money to build a magnificent temple to 
Athena in the sixth century B.C. Herodotos visited and described it. This 
glorious structure must have been well-nigh perfect in comparatively modern 
times. A party of English and 
German savants, in 1811, discovered 
a number of fine marble sculptures, 
buried in the ground. They sold 
these to Prince Ludwig of Bavaria. I 
have seen them in the famous Glypto- 
thek of Munich. The quality of the 
sculpture is wonderful for such an early 
date, but the figures on the pediment 
of the temple may have been fitted in 
after the actual building was erected. 
The adjoining restoration will explain 
where these glorious relics of early art 
were probably placed. The scene evi- 
dently represents a struggle between 
the Argives and the Trojans. There was a celebrated school of sculpture at 
Aegina, preceding the Persian War. The chief artists were Gallon, Anaxagoras, 
Glaucias, Simon and Onatas. 

The moles of the ancient port of Aegina still remain, testifying to the 
former importance of its maritime trade. 

Figure from the E. Pediment of the 
Temple, Aegina. 
(Glyptothek, Munich.) 



Ruins of Ancient Sioyon, looking towards Helicon. 

" .... Sit with nie on Acro-Corinth's brow." — Byron. 


Of the once proudest of cities, the Corinth of ancient Greece, naught 

remains but seven columns of one of the oldest of Hellenic temples. Rising 

behind the orange-coloured, moss-stained ruins, is 
mighty Acro-Corinthus, on which stood the citadel 
of old. It is worth climbing to its summit, which is 
covered with mediaeval buildings, mostly of Venetian 
origin. Nothing of classic date remains, save the 
Pierian spring, the fountain of Pirene, which gushed 
forth where the hoof of Pegasus struck the rock when 
mounting heavenward. It is still a fine crystal source 
of delicious cool water. 

The views from the summit of Acro-Corinthus are 
magnificent. We look down on the Isthmus with its 
two seas, and the site of old Corinth at our feet with 
its two ports of Cenchreae and Lechaeum. Boeotia 
rises up, with its grand summits of Helicon, the Muses' 
home, in the background. The wide Gulf of Corinth 
is spread below — to the left Sicyon, and beyond 
A.OXVOMENOS (LvsiPPus.) Pellene, and further back, to the north-west, Mount 
(Vatican Museum.) Pamassos, with Delphi in its shade. 


J I Lirs Caesar. 
(From the British Museum.) 

Old Corinth was destroyed by the Romans 146 B.C. and its walls and 
buildings razed to the ground. Julius Caesar had it rebuilt, nearer the sea, in 
46 B.C. But his city has also disappeared, destroyed by earthquakes, and its site 
is covered by green fields. A modern town has 
been laid out near the railway station, but it is a 
poor substitute for the ancient proud city of 

Like its great rival Athens, Corinth paid 
little attention to the artistic element in its 
coins. The " pegasi " of Corinth were known 
from the Pillars of Hercules to India, where 
even yet they are frequently found. Therefore 
the winged horse became a " marque de fabrique " 
and could not be changed. But there is a certain 
beauty about the coins, nevertheless, and many 
of them are well-engraved. The attributes and 
signs indicating their mints — for, or at, distant 
colonies — are often ingenious and pretty. The 
coins [PI. XIII., 517-523] show a range of 300 
years with scarcely any change in their devices. 

All are marked with the ancient letter 9 as the initial in its old form 
spelling the city's name. 

SiCYON, about ten miles westwards of Corinth, was a place of importance 
and wealth, judging from its ancient reputation for a special school of painting 
and sculpture, and also from its coins [525- 527]. Lysippus the sculptor was a 
native of the place, and was patronised by Alexander the Great, who decreed 
that no other artist should do his portraits. The celebrated Famese Hercules 
is a copy of the statue by Lysippus, and the Apoxyomenos (an athlete with the 
strigil) is undoubtedly a specimen of or from his work. 

In fact, this little state, a narrow plain with mountains behind, was 
at one time the artistic centre of Greece. When Pausanias visited Sicyon in 
the second century A.D., it was in ruins, and in a short time was neglected and 
forgotten except in name, as the parent of the arts in Greece. It had its 
port on the Gulf of Corinth, near what is now the little station of Velio. 
Phlius is in a mountain valley behind. Here was an independent city, 
issuing good coins [524] in the fourth century. It came to an end after the 
Macedonian conquest. We come back to this place later on. 

Westward, along the coast of the Gulf of Corinth, we pass into AcHAiA, 
which was the centre of the famous Achaian league, formed originally by the 
twelve cities of this district to resist invasion. It lasted with some inteiTuptions 




till 146 B.C., when the Romans abolished it. The coinage of the towns and 
provinces is prolific, mostly small coins with simple devices, but elegant. 
Pellene (mentioned in Homer) [530] and Aigai give us very ancient 
coins [528]. 

Patrai [529] (now Patras, the busiest seaport on this coast, whence the 
mails start for Corfu, Brindisi, &c.) is the place to make head-quarters for the 
excursions to Elis and Olympia, as it has excellent hotels. The scenery opposite 
and around Patras, where the Gulf of Corinth widens to join the Adriatic, is 
very lovely. Misolonghi, where Byron died, is at the foot of the mountains 
on the Acamanian shore, opposite.^ Some fine works of art have been found at 
Patras. The bronze figure of Marsyas in the British Museum is a perfect 
specimen of an ancient Greek bronze statue. 

Maksyas — Bronze from Patras. 

(British Museum.) 

' Note M— Lord Byron's Death at Misolonghi. 



View of the Mountains op Aetolia seen 



( 293 ) 


Scene in a Wooded Gorge near Patras. 


" There is a pleasure in the pathless woods." — Byron. 

A PLEASANT run by railway, from Patras, along the coast, with beautiful 
view.s all the way, brings us to Pyrgos. We pass through glorious woods 
belonging to the Crown Prince. By the sea is Katakolon, a busy little port 
whence currants are shipped to all the world. The sole industry of the country 
from here to Corinth seems to be the growing of the little vines producing 
diminutive grapes, which, when dried, we call (from Corinth) currants. There are 
actually some 50 miles of such vineyards along the coast of the Gulf of Corinth. 
It is a precarious crop, and is looked after by the Government, as it forms the 
chief source of revenue of the little Grecian kingdom. The prices are regulated 
by the State, and one hears of the entire crop being assigned as guarantee for 
national obligations. A railway trip of an hour leads from Pyrgos to Olympia, 
the most interesting of all shrines of Hellas, where all Hellenes met in friendly 
rivalry to celebrate the Olympic Games. These dated back to the earliest 
times, their origin being lost in antiquity. The fixing of the games, as a 
chronological period of reckoning, was not, however, done till about 400 B.C. by 
Hippias of Elis ; and Aristotle was the first to use them as dates. Olympia 
was merely the name of a level plain, a small enclosure in the district of Elis, 
situated at the junction of two rivers. When the surrounding hills were 
covered with natural forests, the rivers were doubtless of much greater volume 
than at present. The scene must have been one of great beauty, in the palmy 

( 296 ) 



The Hermes of Praxiteles. 

(Museum, Olympia.) 

days of the Hellenic peoples. For the most distant colonies sent their athletes 

here to compete in friendly rivalry, at intervals of four years, with their brethren 

from all the civilised world. Greeks from 
Sicily and Magna Graecia met those of 
Cyrene and Cyprus. Crete and Byzantium 
mixed with Megara and Euboea. The simple 
folks of the islands met the great men of 
Attica and Corinthia. Greek colonies of 
Asia peaceably associated with those of 
Macedonia and Epirus. Croesus sent his 
tribute to Olympia, and Hieron of Syracuse 
his armour to record his victory over the 
pirates of the Tyrrhenian Sea. They, who 
were always fighting with one another, laid 
aside their feuds, once in five years, and 
voyaged to Olympia to join in worshipping 
the great deities they all adored — Olympian 
Zeus and his divine partner Hera. Hence 

on the coins of Elis, the nearest city [PI. XIII., 531-547], we find the attri- 
butes and portrayals of the celestial countenances. These are all of very noble 

aspect. They are of high antiquity, and undoubtedly are portraits of celebrated 

statues by the greatest sculptors of their time. The sacred grove of Zeus was 

surrounded with a wall. Within it were 

the temples, treasuries, and statues. 

Outside was the Stadion, or race -course. 

There was no town of Olympia. 

The rediscovery of the site is a 

romance of historical interest. Pau- 

SANIAS, the Murray of his day, wrote a 

guide-book to Hellenic shrines, in the 

second century of our era.^ In his time, 

when the rest of Greece was in decline, 

or had been ravaged to enrich Roman 

palaces, Olympia had been spared. 

This travelled dilettante devotes many 

pages to describing the wonders and 

beauties of the place, and its buildings 

and works of art. But later, for some 

unaccountable reason, the world had forgotten all about Olympia. Its games 

had gradually decayed under the Roman rule and came to an end in the fourth 

1 Note N — Pausanias. 

The Bronze Figure (of Hermes ?) recently _ 



century A.D. A great earthquake seems to have levelled the buildings about 
the seventh century, and altered the course of the rivers. Then the silt of the 
streams preserved them from further injury. Sir Wm. Gell discovered the site. 
Other stray tourists visited the place and found nothing; but in 1817 a 
British tourist brought home a bronze helmet with an old Greek inscription, 
now in the British Museum. This was picked up in the bed of the river, not 
far below the ancient enclosure. An engraving of this wonderful relic has been 
given on page 203. The inscription and its translation by Mr. Hill will be 
found on page 208. This proves it to be part of the votive offering of 


Olympia — THE Palakstka (the Museum behind). 

Hieron, king of Syracuse, recording his great naval victory over the Etruscans 
in 474 B.C., near Cumae, not far from modern Naples. It had been deposited 
in the Treasury of Syracuse, at Olympia, the walls of which are still 
to be seen. This remarkable discovery doubtless impressed the mind of 
the great German archaeologist, Curtius. Studying Pausanias carefully, 
he came to the conclusion that Olympia might still exist for the explorer's 
spade. The French had dug on the site in 1829, and their few finds are 
in the Louvre. But it was reserved for the expert of the Berlin Museum 
to draw the veil from the ancient shrine. The German Government voted 
£40,000 for the work, which went on for six years. Only one great statue — 
THE Hermes — was recovered, but it is worth the entire outlay. The Greek 
Government very properly stipulated that everything discovered should remain 
in Greece, and so the treasures are contained in a small museum built near the 
place. Crossing the little river, we soon come on the excavated site. We see 
at once how the catastrophe occurred which entombed the ancient sanctuary. 



There are two streams, one on the east and another on the west, meeting below 
Olympia. These are the Alpheios and the Kladeos. The place had been 
deserted, and the country almost depopulated in mediaeval times. A sudden 
burst of rain, or a waterspout, transformed the rivers into torrents. Their bed 
below the point of junction became choked, and all the level ground between the 
hills became a lake. The land was under water for ages, during which time a 
solid deposit of sand and gravel filled up its bed to about twelve feet or more. 

This in time caused the 
little lake to overflow, and 
cut a new channel for the 
river Kladeos, and it still 
flows in this new outlet, 
while the retaining walls 
of early date, which in an- 
cient daj's prevented such 
a catastrophe, can still be 
traced. What a blessing 
for us; we now have the 
whole plan of Olympia laid 
open at our feet, an assem- 
blage of the oldest and 
most interesting Hellenic 
buildings, going back 3000 
years. It recalls Pompeii 
to our minds. But Pom- 
peii was a shoddy Roman 
watering-place, and it is so 
full of horrors thatnve can- 
not but remember the ter- 
rified inhabitants vainly 
striving to flee from the 
showers of boiling water 
and red-hot ashes. Not so 
Olympia. Its work was 
done. The pure Hellenic 
race was well-nigh extinct, crushed out of existence by all-devouring, brutal 
Rome. Its inspiring religious festivals were no more ; it had played its 
part in the world's history. There was no longer need for the Olympic 
Games. The Roman unbelief in everything sacred had killed the virtues 
of Grecian cults, and given nothing in their place that honest men could 
respect. At the proper moment Christianity came, and all was changed. In 

The Hekmes of Praxiteles, Olympia. 
The lower part of the limbs restored. 



search for the unknown god, the Romans embraced Christianity in form, forced 
against their will to adopt the faith that was destined to change the whole aspect 
of the world. The Christian Emperor Theodosius prohibited the games by 
imperial decree 394 a.d., and silence fell upon the peaceful village. There was 
uo more need for Olympia, and it became deserted and forgotten. Then 
Nature, in her mercy, drew a veil 
over it, which remained unlifted for 
a thousand years, but not till the 
place had been deserted and pillaged 
of its treasures. 

Olympia recalls, to-day, the 
best and purest aspect of the great 
days of that wonderful people, the 
Hellenic race. Hekculaneum was 
destroyed by lava from Vesuvius. 
That city, which was a very different 
place from Pompeii, in being a 
seat of the refined and educated 
people of Neapolis, has afforded 
us almost the only specimens of 
Greek statues in bronze which we 
possess. There is no doubt that 
many of the best works of the 
Greek sculptors were produced in 
bronze. The finest marbles in the 
museums of Europe, notably those 
preserved in Rome and Naples, are 
copies of ancient Greek bronzes. 
Such a demand had arisen in 
wealthy Rome for Greek statues in 
bronze, that the country was ran- 
sacked. Every bronze statue was 
carried off. There are no bronzes in the Athenian Museums. There 
are none in the Museum of Olympia save one of a boxer, a fine head. 
All the bronze statues had been stolen by the Romans. In Herculaneum 
a dozen of magnificent Greek statues in bronze were found, which now 
adorn the Naples Museum. If you want to see Greek bronzes, you visit that superb collection. But this year (1901) divers have dredged, 
from the sea off Cape Malea, 60 fathoms deep, a number of antique 
Greek bronze statues, the cargo of a Roman vessel, laden with such spoil 

The Nike of " I'aeomus "—Olympia. 






The Temple op Zeus, Olympia — Restobation. 

From Greek and Roman Sculpture (Longmans & Co.) 

of ancient Hellas. One of the statues (p. 296) has the character of the best 
work of Praxiteles, whose masterpiece in marble, his incomparable Hermes, 
was discovered at Olympia, and fortunately is still there. And we know, 
what is a rare thing to know, that the Hermes was carved by the hand of 
this wonderful man. At last Athens will have her museums adorned with 
at least one Greek bronze of the best period, for we are assured that every 
fragment of this beautiful statue has been recovered from the bottom of 
the sea, and can be put together by experts. Poseidon coming to the relief 
of Hermes ! The newly-found bronze statue seems 
to have been from the same model as the marble 
statue of Olympia, possibly a renowned athlete of 

the time — about 
364 B.C. 

What pictur- 
esque assemblages 
must have been 
held in this extra- 
ordinary place. I 
tried to imagine the 
scene, but it was 

beyond my powers ^v v 

•' •' '^ Apollo, kuom tiik W est Pedi- 

to conjure it back ment. Temple of Zeus, Olympia. 
rn 1 (Museum.) 

agam. lo-dayeven 

Aged Man, from the Temple of 
Zeus, East Pediment. 


the poor survivals that remain to us, the periodical assemblages at Megara 
(and other Greek places that now exist in little more than name), are most 
interesting and wonderfully picturesque. But when the costumes of east 



and west were intermingled with the varied nationalities of Europe, Asia, and 

Africa, yet all speaking one language and claiming a common kindred, how 

much more wonderful the scene 1 

The greatest athletes of the wide Hellenic world, their loveliest and 

highest types of female beauty, the glorious women we see immortalized on 

Sicilian and 

Italian coins ; 

men with faces 

like the Apol- 
lo of Amphi- 

polis, young 

maidens like 

the Kore of 


matrons like 

the Hera of 

Elis, sweet 

older ladies 

like Philistis 

of Syracuse or 

Demeter of 

Cnidos, grey- 
beards such as 

served for 

models for the 


ias, forms such 

as the Dis- 

cobolos or the Hermes, the Aphrodites of Cos or of Melos, or the dignified sisters 

of the Parthenon. And then the chariot-races, with their owners, often kings 

and princes, driving their 
prancing steeds ! The flower 
of Hellenic chivalry, such as 
we see on the Elgin marbles, 
competing for the crown of 
olive ! How those hills which 
surround the level plain must 
have echoed with the plaudits 
of the thousands of spec- 
tators, as each chariot-race 
or foot-race was run ! 



Olympia — Temple of Hera. 
(Where the Statue of Hermes was found.) 

Knight Mounting hh Quadriga for the Race. 

(Elgin Marbles, British Museum.) 


These peaceful competitions were the soul of Hellenic life, literature, and 
art for nigh a thousand years. Here the poets competed, and recited their verses. 
The great poets and orators received ovations when they came to the games, the 
patriots too. It is recorded that Themistocles received here his greatest honour, 
for his victory of Salamis in the 77th Olympiad, about 472 B.C. The assembled 
multitude, it is said, rent the air with plaudits. At a later date Plato had the 
ovation here that he deser%'ed from the Greeks of the whole Hellenic world. 
We have nothing of this kind, and can never have it repeated. So a visit to 
Olympia, with the reflections it can call forth, is unique in the world of travel. 

Let us take a turn round the ancient sanctuary, we cannot call it a city. 
In fact there is no word in our language to express its character. The games, 
the arts, and the drama were all essential parts of the religion of the Greeks. 
The Olympic Games were a religious festival, of the deepest solemnity. They 
certainly did much to bind the distant colonies to the mother country, and no 
doubt they account for the similarity in style of art, of Greek buildings, sculp- 
tures, and coins, made by people settled at great distances apart. The cosmo- 
politan union of these people, so far separated in their homes, is shown at 
Olympia by the ruins of the Treasure-houses of the various cities. In these 
were kept the votive offerings of the states, under safe guardianship. Some of 
their " parent cities " have not been identified. But those of Sicyon [525], 
Syracuse, [239-350] Dyrrhachion 
[Nos. 452, 453], Byzantium [424], 
Sybaris [67], Gyrene [901-944], 
Selinus [234-237], Metapontum 
[48-61], and Megara [508-510], have 
been recognised. Reference to the list 
of the coins will give some idea of the 
early period of these survivals. (The 
numbers refer to their coins.) 

The Heraeon is perhaps the oldest 
of Greek temples. Some of its columns 
were of wood (the survivals of those of 
the original wooden structure, giving 
the origin of all Doric buildings of the 
kind). It is a long and unusually narrow 
temple of forty columns, with remains 
of all save six, and these vary consider- 
ably. Pausanias says that at the time of his visit one of the original wooden 
columns was still in its place. Being so very ancient, part of the walls were 
made of sun-dried bricks. These became pulped when the place was inundated 
at the time of its destruction, and the liquid clay had spread itself on the 

Apollo — Temple of Zeus, Olympia. 


temple floor, six inches or more. This was the salvation of the statue of Hermes. 
The handsome young deity, when washed from his pedestal by the torrent, fell 
on a soft bed of clay, where he lay till he was found by the German expedition 
in 1875. In consequence, his beautiful nose is quite uninjured, a rare 

circumstance with ancient statues. The base 

I^H^I^^^^^^^^^^^Hi of the statue still stands in its place. One 
^bK V^^K^^^^t^Ki o^^y of ^^^ f^^t ()f Hermes was found, and the 
HMjM^^^ J^^l' ^^S^ below the knees and the right arm are 

BjnH>^|hC "^H^I missing. The head of the infant was found 
^^■■■w'ij^J^^^^^Wj among the pebbles of the stream, some dis- 
^^^^■j^il^^H^^^^fl; tance down the river. The other fragments 
^^^|^^^^^^H^^^^H| may turn up some day, as the old river-beds 
I^^^^^^^^K^^^^^^**^^!' have not been opened up, and much excavation 
I^^^^^^^^B ^Bij^H remains to be done around the ancient city. 

iBUM^Bk— :^..^^^B '^he Temple of Zeus was a parallelogram 

Metope— Temple of Zeus, Olympia. 210 feet by 86. Much of its substructure re- 
(Museum.) mains — and the sculptures of the pediments 

are in the adjoining museum, wonderfully perfect, considering the ruin that had 
fallen on the place. The columns were of the coarse stone of the district, 
carefully coated with fine stucco, as the Sicilian temples are treated. The 
columns lie prostrate, as they were levelled by the river's flood or by earthquake. 
The cornice decorations were of terracotta, as in the Sicilian temples. The 
mosaic pavement remains on the temple-floor. The great ivory statue of Zeus 
by Pheidias, 40 feet high, stood within the inner chamber ; its pedestal of black 
marble can still be traced 20 x 30 feet. The statue wa.s carried off to Byzantium, 
where it was destroyed by a fire. Near the temple is the base of the grand 
statue of the NiKE of Paeonius. This magnificent work is in the Museum, and 
is one of the finest things of the kind for its early date, 420 B.C. It was erected 
to commemorate the Greek.s who fell at the battle of Sphakteria. The various 
remains of many of the buildings are very perfect, but would take too much space 
to describe. The Stadion has not yet been completely excavated, and possibly 
further researches would discover more ancient remains. Two or three days 
can be profitably spent here, and in the interesting Museum. When the recent 
explorers began work there was no road to the place, and the whole site was 
covered with trees and a thick undergrowth of brushwood. The Kronos hill has 
still fine trees on it, but the excavations have detracted much from the sylvan 
beauty that once surrounded the place. In the Museum the sculptures from 
the Temple of Zeus are arranged as they were placed originally, and clever 
restorations are shown beside them. The Hermes has an apartment to himself 
— but unfortunately this one is not lighted from above. Nevertheless the 
beauty of the glorious statue is most impressive. The original marble gives a 

X 2 



dignity such as no cast can possess. The resemblance of the figure to that of 
the bronze lately dredged from the sea is remarkable, as already observed. 

In this land of earthquakes, museums such as this should be built of wood ; 
modern stone buildings are a mistake. 

View in thk Peloponnesis. 

But we have spent too much space on Olympia, let us now turn to its coins, 
which were struck at Elis, some miles away. There are no remains whatever of 
the ancient city. Its coins are plentiful, but generally much worn. Originallj- 
they were very fine, and doubtless were copied from the celebrated statues of the 
district. My specimens range from 480 to 191 B.C., and the oldest are the best. The 
Eagle's head [PI. XIII. 536-7] is very fine, and the heads of Hera as a Bride 
[538, 539, 540, 541] are beautiful. Then there is another type of Hera [542, 
543]. The heads of Zeus [544, 545, 547] are good. Dr. B. V. Head considers 
the coins of Elis a series which for high artistic ability is excelled by no other 
Grecian coins. 

Ancient Alleoorical Relief — Scene in the Race Coubsb, 



View of the Temple of Apollo at Bassae (Phigalia). 

(From the picture by Edward Lear, in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge.) 


( 305 ) 


The Temple of Phigalia — Bassae. 


" When riseth Lacedaemon's hardihood." — Byrok. 

Dr. Mahaffy, in his " Rambles and Studies in Greece " gives charming 
descriptions of Arcadian and Spartan scenery, to which I would refer my 
readers. Everybody knows what the term " Arcadian " means— and here we 
find that the sylvan beauty which gave the name its origin still exists in many 
parts of the well-watered and fertile valleys of the Peloponnese. 

The reproduction of Mr. Lear's fine picture in the Fitzwilliam Museum, 
Cambridge, shows what Bassae was fifty years ago. Unfortunately, since then 
many of the trees have perished (page 305). 

The Peloponnesian States do not generally shine in numismatic relics, and 
yet there i.s much refinement in their coins and some of the choicest pieces of 
Hellenic engraving come from Elis, Arcadia, and Argos. 

The region of Elis and Olympia we have visited. We are not far, were it 
not for the bold mountain ranges which intervene, from Arcadia. [So we shall 
now say a few words about Bassae, as the ancient temple near Phigalia is mostly 
called. Here, among glorious sylvan scenery, was built, about 400 B.C., the finest 
temple in' the Peloponnese. It was dedicated to Apollo, in gratitude for 

( 307 ) 



[Temi'le or Zeus, Aemea ix Akcolis. 

deliverance from a plague which had afflicted much of Hellas but spared this 
neighbourhood. The same architect, Ictinus, planned the temple of Phigalia 
and those of Athens and Eleusis. The sculptures were found in 1816, and 
brought to the British Museum by Mr. Cockerell. It is stated that they were 

found near it, but 
the temple has the 
appearance of their 
having been torn 
from it, perhaps 
some centuries 
back. These slabs 
are of great artistic 
merit, second only 
to the treasures 
from the Parthenon. 
The presence of 

such splendid sculpture in such a remote region may account for the fine art on 
some coins produced in this part of Greece about the same period. Pheneus 
is a good way to the north of the district known as Arcadia and yet 
not very far off. The coin [No. 565, PI. XIV.] with the head of Demeter 

Frieze from the Temple, Phigalia. 

(British Museum.) 
From Prof. Gardner's Handbook to Greek Sculpture, Macmillan. 



is good, but the other one in the collection [No. 565a] is magnificent 
as regards its reverse side. Hermes carrying off the child Aekas, in rapid 
running action, is a remarkable figure, and is possibly a representation of a 
bronze statue of the place.^ The Demeter on these coins is copied from the 
celebrated decadrachms of Syracuse. Stymphalos, an ancient city near this 
place, has some remarkable coins showing Hera- 
KLES in violent attitude, evidently the work of 
the same engraver as this coin of Pheneus. 

Eastward from Pheneus among wild moun- 
tain scenery, was ancient Phlius, of which there 
are few traces. It was for long an independent 
state. No. 524, Plate XIII. is one of its coins. 
Not far from this are the ruins of Nemea — 
where was a splendid temple of Zeus, a sanctuary 
for all the Peloponnese. Only three columns are 
now standing, the rest of the temple having been 
overthrown by repeated earthquakes. This now 
sparsely populated region was the seat of the 
great Nemean Games, and the cave where dwelt 
the Nemean lion slain by Herakles, is pointed 
out diligently, as proof of the fact. 

We are still in Arcadian seclusion. [PI. XIV. 
559-565.] The coins of the Peloponnesus are 
generally small, but of pretty t)^es. These are of 
the fourth century B.C., and are coins of Lyco- 
SURA, not far from the temple of Phigalia. The 
finest and most delicate work known in marble 
was recently discovered at Lycosura and is now 
preserved in the Museum of Athens. Pausa- 
NIAS describes the statue of Demeter that was 
there in his time. A portion of her embroidered robe has actually been 
found, but the statue itself has disappeared. These exquisite sculptures are 
about the same date as the coins, and show that the Arcadians could appreciate 
high art, even if they did not execute it themselves. 

Artemis and Pan [561, 562] were favourite figures on Arcadian coins, 
typical of the chase and of its sylvan scenery. Mantineia has symbols of acorns 
and ivy on its pieces [563]. 

The city of Megalopolis, founded by Epaminondas, b.c. 371, never fulfilled 
his extensive hopes, and was a failure. On its coins [PL XIV. 564] we have 
Pan again, with a good head of Zeus Lykaios. Great excavations have been 

' Engraved on page 88. 

Sculptured Mantle of 

(Fi-om Lycosura.) 
Museum, Atheus. 



carried on re- 
cently at Me- 
galopolis by 
the British 
School at 
Athens, and 
its enormous 
theatre has 
been exposed 
to view. Dr. 
Mahafiy tells 
us this was 
really not only 
a theatre, but 
was connected 
with the Ther- 
silion, or 
House of 
Parliament, a 
huge colon- 
naded hall, 100 yards each way, to hold 10,000 persons. Had the ambitious 
plans of Epaminondas been carried out it would have been one of the greatest 
Hellenic cities. Its walls were nearly six miles round. An army of 30,000 
Thebans was brought to protect its builders while under construction, so it is 
evident they were in an enemy's country. The Spartans eventually conquered 


The Theatre, Megalopolis. 

Abgos — THE Theatre and Citadel. 




Argos — Ruins of the Temple of Hera. 

and destroyed 
the place in 
222 B.C. It 
had more than 
once success- 
fully resisted 
the Macedon- 
i a n s, and 
maintained it- 
self against 
frequent Spar- 
tan attacks of 
a hundred 

and Laconia 
had few coins 
of interest. 
The Spartans 

are said to have originally used iron money, but no specimens have ever 

reached us. No. 550 has Peisippos on it, which is a Spartan name, Mr. Hill 

tells us in his " Coin Catalogue." No. 551 has a head of Lycurgus, which is 

interesting as a portrait of the famous law-giver. 
Two magnificent gold cups were found 

recently in the Peloponnese, and are now in 

the Athens Museum ; they were found at 

Vaphio, near Sparta. The drawing of the wild 

cattle is excellent, and explains the skill the 

Greeks possessed when animals were intro- 
duced on their coins. For the date of these 

cups is far earlier than any of their coins, and 

proves that the Greeks were adepts in working 

and decorating the precious metals at a very 

early date. The design on these cups is 

repouHni, but delicately finished by the graver 

afterward.s. (Page xviii). 

We shall now pass into Akgolis, once 

one of the most important Grecian states. It 

is a mountainous land, with one great plain, The Dobypiiokos Bronze by Poly- 

. . CLElTns {from Hercnianeum). 

that of Argo.s, and an extended coast line, with (Naples Museum.) 



The Temple of Asklepios (Aesculapius) Epidaurus. 

many safe harbours. Once thickly inhabited, the wide plain of Argos is now 
deserted, and its river-beds mostly dry, owing to the hills being denuded of their 
ancient forests. Akgos was a very important city in early times, noted for its cul- 
ture in music and poetry. Polycleitus was one 
of its most celebrated sculptors (480-400 B.C.). 
His most celebrated statue was the Doryphorus, 
or spear-bearer; a fine bronze copy of it has been 
found at Herculaneum. His Diadumenus, or a 
replica of it, is in the British Museum. 

Some distance from the city, possibly in 
a wood, was the Heraeon, the great temple 
to the Queen of Heaven. It has lately been 
explored by Dr. Waldstein for the American 
School at Athens, and among other relics a 
beautiful female head found there, which is in the Museum of Athens. The 
city, of Argos lies at the foot of a steep hill, on the summit of which its 
acropolis, Larissa, still stands. The cyclopean walls of the town can be traced, 
and the foundations of several ancient buildings. The theatre, cut out in 
the rock, would accommodate 15,000 spectators, which shows what the population 
must have been. 

Aesculapius, found at Epidaurus. 



A few miles from Argos are the 
ruins of the prehistoric palace of 
TiRYNS, excavated by Schliemann, 
and well worthy of a visit. Five or 
six miles north of this, on the way 
to Corinth, are the wondrous remains 
of Mycexae, also uncovered by the 
talent and perseverance of Schlie- 
mann. But as these cities came to 
an end long before money was 
coined, they have no place in a work 
mainly concerned with numismatics. 
The modern town and port of 
Nauplia, close to this, possesses 
considerable trade, and is a pic- 
turesque fortified town (for some time 
the capital of the new Greek kingdom, known then as Napoli di Romania). 
The coins of Argo.s [552-555] are small, but well executed. The Argive 

The Heka ok ARCios. 

(Athens Museum.) 




hero Diomedes, who stole the Palladium 
from Troy, is represented, as in the very act, 
stealthily advancing [PL XIV. 553]. The 
head is that of the Argive goddess Hera, as 
lendered by Polycleitus on the famous 
statue in the Heraeon. This is a beautiful 
coin and very rare. 

Epidaurus is on the coast to the north, 
beyond Nauplia, but it and Hermione (to 
the south) are best visited from the sea. 
Epidaurus possessed the great sanctuary of 
Asklepios (iEsculapius), which has lately 
been excavated with great success. It seems 
to have been an extensive sanatorium, with 
every appliance for the healing art — a kind 
of ancient "hydropathic" establishment. 
Grateful inscriptions from convalescents 
have been found, and the remains of many 
ancient buildings, one 
of them a circular 
structure, erected by 
Polycleitus the sculp- 
tor of Argos. Many 
fine specimens of 

sculpture were discovered which are in the Athens 

Museum, including a magnificent Amazon on horseback 

and a noble figure of Asklepios himself The little coins 

of this place are interesting. Asklepios seated caressing 

a serpent which rises before him [PI. XIV. 556]. A dog 

lies under the seat. This is a copy of the statue by 

Thrasymedes of Pares. On 557 we have another portrait 

of the great physician. 

Hermione was a sanctuary of Demeter. It has the 

ruins of a temple to Poseidon, and must have once been 

a considerable town. It is most beautifully situated. 

Its pretty little coins have the head of Demeter, 

the goddess of the crops, and the initials of the town in a wreath of corn. 

Statue of Aesculapius. 

(From Epidaurus.) 


Polycleitus of Argos. 

(British Museum.) 








( 313 ) 


Cape Iekapetka (Hibkapytna). 


''.... It tries the thrilling frame to bear 
Long years of outrage, calumny, and wrong." 


Had our journey been all this time on the southern coast of Greece we 
could have often seen the grand mountainous mass of the fine island of Crete 
filling up the southern horizon. It has beautiful outlines, for which all Greek 
mountains are remarkable, and the wonderful colour, heightened with patches 
of snow on their topmost peaks with rich green slopes below, makes it an 
exceedingly picturesque feature of Mediterranean scenery. On the southern 
side of the great island, it is even more beautiful, as the mountains rise more 
perpendicularly out of the sea. Their tops are so serrated with ravines that 
masses of cloud cling to them, and thus Crete is rarely seen clearly outlined. 

On the voyage to Egypt, we sail past it for an entire day, and the steamers 
often approach very near, so that houses can be discerned, and the winding roads 
along the coast. 

It early became Christian, and had special attention from St. Paul, whose dis- 
ciple Titus was the first bishop of the island. On his way to Rome, the ship which 
conveyed the Apostle took refuge at the good anchorage of the " Fair Havens," 
still .so-called in Greek. The Apostle Paul, quoting their own poet Epimenides, 
did not give the Cretans a high character for truth or other qualities (Titus i. 12). 

It has been little known and seldom visited in recent times. Under 

( 317 ) Y 



Turkish rule, the inhabitants, both Christian and Mohammedan, got a bad name, 
and the recent international intervention, by which it has gained a certain 
amount of freedom, has not had time to influence the travelling public. Forty 
or fifty years ago wandering savants often went there, and several interesting 
volumes of travels in Crete were published, containing good illustrations of the 
island's beautiful scenery. But in recent times tourists have been shy of visiting 
Crete in its disturbed state, and since British influence at Constantinople waned, 
both it and Asia Minor are seldom visited. Now that the splendid island is 
once more, after 2000 years of neglect and ruin, under the control of an Hellenic 
people, we may expect it to be made accessible to visitors. Eoads will require 
to be made, bridges built, and hotels established — or at least " Xenodochia," 
literally, strangers' refuges — and clean restaurants where decent food can be 
obtained. But those things are slow to come. Meanwhile, adventurous folk — 
Mr. Arthur Evans, Mr. Hogarth, Mr. Bosanquet, and others — have made good 
use of the liberty to excavate which has been allowed by the Governor, 

Crete — Mount Ida. 

Prince George of Greece, and have already unearthed marvellous prehistoric 
antiquities. At Cnosos Mr. Evans has found the palace of Minos, and proved 
that the Greek legends about him had an historical basis.^ But it is difficult to 
find how the story of the Minotaur and his victims could have arisen. Minos 

' Note — The Palace of Minos. 


'r^'r- ;^'"; 

Crete — Kalous Limonias (the " Faie Havens" of the Apostle Paul). 

now Stands forth as a law-giver and a beneficent patron of letters. Mr. Hogarth 
has cleared out the Cave of Zeus, and finds that it was the shrine of a highly 
interesting cult of prehistoric times. No doubt all this will lead to the 
variou.s archaeological societies, established in Athens and elsewhere, making 
scientific excavations on ancient sites which have given us coins, and we shall 
soon know something of the historic cities as well as prehistoric settlements. 
Meanwhile Mr. Evans is working away, and hopeful that he has discovered the 
clue to the connexion between Cretan, Hittite, Semitic, and Grecian scripts. 

I well recollect the day he imexpectedly turned up in Athens, full of his 
new Cretan discoveries. He had been " lost " for seven weeks in Crete, having 
told his anxious landlord at the Hotel Minerva in Athens that he would only be 
away a few days. He brought an old hat-box ^ full of bits of painted pottery, 
inscribed stone, and impressions of seals with inscriptions on them in an 
unknown tongue. This is several years ago. He said, " When that island is at 
peace again, I shall go back and complete my discovery " — and he has done so. 
He also spoke of the wonderful Palace of Minos of his hopes. It was then 
impossible to excavate, through the jealousy and suspicions of the Turks. Now 

' The adventures of the hat-box with its precious contents were remarkable. When Mr. 
Evans and I were travelling, it was lost, left behind at Athens. But on my way back I was 
fortunate in finding it, and forwarded it to England. When the contents were examined they 
were found to be more wonderful, even, than expected and led to Mr. Evans returning to Crete 
to search for more. 

Y 2 



TuE White Mountains, Tkii-iti, neae Tarrha. 

their power is gone, and Mr. Evans has returned to his investigations, and 
discovered all that he told me he expected and more. 

He is not working at the Cnosos of our coins — but at a prehistoric city 
in its neighbourhood [PI. XIV. 573-575]. His discoveries of the palace of 
Minos unveil a civilised race of about 1000 years, perhaps 1500 years, earlier 
than coins. But even at this primitive period the builders who worked for 
Minos could decorate the walls of his palace with excellent drawings in fresco. 

Strange to say, with all their early skill, no archaic coins have ever been 
found in Crete. They seem to begin their coinage about 480 B.C., in the period 
of artistic development general at that date in Hellenic states. The early 
civilisation had been violently crushed — the palace of Minos shows every possible 
sign of attack and spoliation, destruction by fire, and superficial effacement 
afterwards. This palace had no walls or defences. Minos dominated the sea, 
and so was secure from attack so long as his fleet existed. Who were the 
destroying powers, Mr. Evans may yet discover. Possibly the Phoenicians or 
the Etruscans, who were eventually driven off the seas by Hieron of Syracuse. 

About the same time that Gelon defeated the Carthaginians, some strong 
hand established Hellenic culture and introduced money, and that of good 
Hellenic style, into Crete. Cnosos is in the centre of the island. It was always 
said in ancient times to have been the capital of Minos, and such Mr. Evans has 


proved it. It was situated in a fertile country, and doubtless the hills around, 
now bare and bleak, were well wooded when the palace was built. 

GoRTYNA and Cydonia seem early to have eclipsed its prominence as the 
chief city. Nearly all the Cretan coins show great signs of wear. They have 
evidently not come from hoards, buried when the coins were fresh from the 
mint, like the finds of a few years ago, in Sicily. The earliest coin of Cnosos 
[No. 573] has a " labyrinth " of cruciform shape, with a head of Demeter — fair 
work for such an early date. It is evident that the engravers of this and the 
other two following had no idea of giving a picture of the Labyrinth. They are 
merely meant to express an involved ground plan of some sort. That on the others 
[574-575] gives an angular plan of a labyrinth, not unlike the maze at Hampton 
Court, near London, which may have been copied from one of these coins. 

Crete — Poeo, the ancient Olontion (Olus). 

It is evident that the Labyrinth, whatever it was, had disappeared. It was 
only a tradition of some mysterious structure with many passages, known to have 
been at Cnosos in days gone by. For in later times the coins bear the design 
as a circular labyrinth. The whole idea of the thing was copied from the 
famous Labyrinth in Egypt, which perhaps was perfect in the time of Herodotos, 
just when these coins were struck, and was swept off the earth some centuries 
after, the stone being used to build Alexandria. This was proved by 
Mr. Petrie. Nothing was left of it but about a square mile of stone-cutter's 
ch ippings with which the ground is covered. I have visited the site myself, in 




Crete — Chersonesus, the Port of Lyttos. 

the Fayum. The original Egyptian temple, which the Greeks called a labyrinth, 
was built in the Twelfth Dynasty, about 2650 B.C. Whatever the one in Crete 
was, it must have been a copy in name alone. No Cretan had ever seen what 
it was like. Herodotos saw the Egyptian Labyrinth 2200 years after its 

The coin No. 574 is well cut and in good state, with a good head of Hera. 
It must be that this and No. 575 represent an ancient statue of the place. 
[PI. XIV.] Lyttos [576, 577] gives us two magnificent coins. A boar's head in a 
dotted incuse square, with an eagle flying, seen from below. Hierapytna [571], 
a much later coin, with the African palm-tree and an eagle, shows the name of 
the magistrate. On the obverse a female head. Both these cities were from 
the east central part of the island. Itanos [572] was an important port at the 
eastern end of Crete, founded by the Phoenicians, whose religious symbols are 
seen upon its coins, here associated, however, with the head of Athena. 
Rhaukos [580], although an inland town without any seaport, glorifies the 
trident of Poseidon on its coins. 

GoRTYNA, near the foot of Mount Ida, rivalled Cnosos in importance and 
wealth, and repeats the tale of Europa, who was its object of worship. The Bull 
also figures on its coins, some of which [569, 569a] in their perfect state must 
have been very beautiful, the figure of disconsolate Europa, seated in a tree, 
being very pathetic. 

Phaistos, twenty miles from Gortyna towards the southern coast, is 


mentioned by Homer. It was the birthplace of the philosopher Epimenides, 
and its people were celebrated for wit and humour ; perhaps this brought uppn 
them the enmity of their neighbours, for Gortyna wiped them out at an early 
period. So the few coins that remain are very early. On their coins Herakles 
is shown, and the famous Cretan bull [578, 579] tethered after his capture. 
The ruins of a prehistoric palace have been found here, 1901. 

Eleuthernai [568] was on the northern slope of Mount Ida. Its coins 
glorify Apollo, who was the great god of the place. 

Aptera [566, 567], the " wingless " town, so called from the myth of the 
contest between the Muses and the Sirens, in which the latter lost their wings, 
and cast themselves into the sea, where they remained ever after. 

Cydoxia was an important place, and is so still under the name of Canea, 
and like all the ports of Crete, is very picturesque. 

Chersoxesus, on the northern coast, was the port of Lyttoh, but struck 
coins of its own [No. 567a.] Polyrhenium had good coins, with a facing bull's 
head [579a]. {See page 152.) 


,. ."T^^s^^,^ 


Crete— Khanea (or Canea), the ancient Cydonia. 

When Lord D.ufFerin was visiting Asia Minor some years ago he acquired 
at a village near the site of the ancient city of Teos, a number of marble slabs 
bearing inscriptions recording treaties made between the Teians and certain 
cities in Crete.^ These had been used for many years, in a Turkish bath, as seats 

' Note P— The Treaties of Teos. 


for the bathers. The chief men of the village were glad to exchange the old 
slabs for new ones, though the ladies of the place created a disturbance, for 
they had long valued the cool stones for certain virtues they were supposed to 
possess. Fortunately the inscriptions were in good preservation, and seem to 
show the importance of the places and their alliances with the Teians, who 
were possibly shrewd commercial people, anxious to secure the good will of 
the Cretans and vice versa. Dr. MahafiFy however thinks the Teians were 
merely a corporation of play-actors, whom every Greek desired to leave free to 
travel and not liable to capture or plunder ! The treaties are all much to the 
same import and are interesting to readers of the present volume, as I have 
coins of many of the towns concerned. Lord Dufferin, with his usual kindness, 
lent me his elegant manuscript volume containing an account and translations 
of these historical " documents." {See pages 348, 349.) 






AAAAPiarAN nA:=:iAN 

A AT I HN TniN npo^ KAMAPAl 

Facsimiles of the Names of Cities on the Panels. 

These inscriptions are engraved on stones which formed part of the wall of 
a temple of Dionysos at Teos in Asia Minor. They record treaties made between 
the people of Teos and those of various cities in the island of Crete, — viz., 
Aptera, Eranna, Bianna, Palla, Areas ?, Allaria, ^Latos near Kamara, Istron, 
Eleutherna, Polyrrhenia, Rhaukus, Kydonia, Axus. The first four treaties bear 
the names of Herodotus and Menekles as the Ambassadors by whom they were 
negotiated, the rest those of ApoUodotus and Kolotos. The substance of all the 
treaties is nearly the same, viz., the consecration of the city and territory of 
Teos, to the God Dionysos. In one treaty the names of Kings Philip 
and Antiochos are mentioned as contemporary. These must be Philip V. of 
Macedon who reigned from B.C. 220 to B.C. 178, and Antiochos III. of Syria, 
called the Great, from B.C. 223 to 187.^ This will fix the date of the inscriptions 
between 220 and 187 B.C., about 130 years after the death of Alexander the 
Great. The government of Teos seems at this time to have been a democracy 

1 PHiLir V. [404-408, PI. X.] ; Antiochos III. [783, PI. XIX.] ; Teos [677, PI. XVI.]. 


those of the Cretan cities oligarchical. The forms of the dialect vary con- 
siderably, and proper names are sometimes spelt 
differently in the same treaty. The characters are 
uncial, copies of the names of the places in the stylo 
of lettering used, are given above.^ Teos was noted 
for its religious dramatic performers, who seem to have 
posed as sacrosanct personages. 


Of the coinage of these islands sprinkled over the 
southern Aegean, I have few specimens. Their coins 
are mostly of bronze, and not remarkable for fine art, Aesculapius, krom Melos. 
although many of them are curious. But there is ^°""* *'™'="'"-^ 

one little silver coin with a bunch of grapes [PI. XIV. 581], which was 
struck in one of these islands (Tenos) in the sixth century B.C. 

Ceos, another little island, had its own coinage too. This was the birth- 
place of SiMONiDES, one of the greatest lyric poets of Greece. When in his 
eightieth year he was invited to Syracuse by Hieron I., at whose court he died 
in 467 B.C. Fragments of his works exist.^ 

Amorgo.s [No. 580a] gives us a curious little coin of the third or fourth 
century B.C., with a cupping vessel as its symbol {a-iKva). As other coins of the 
island show the head of Asklepios, it had been a sanitary resort. Melos 
[No. 581a] was an important island, which is known all over the modern world 
by its incomparable statue of Aphrodite, now in the Louvre. It has been 
the fashion of late years to call this the work of a late period. It is absurd ; 
the fact of its being in two blocks points to its antiquity, and the purity of its 
design, and the exquisite quality of its execution, testify to the highest period 
of Hellenic art, far anterior to and infinitely grander in style than the Hermes 
of Praxiteles. That such a superb statue should have been found in a little 
island, only shows how great works of art were diffused among the people of 
refinement who once lived here. It was discovered, by a mere accident, in 
1821. The poor farmer, on whose land it was found, was glad to part with 
this priceless treasure for a suit of new clothes ! The French Consul of the 
place secured it for his country, and no doubt was handsomely paid. The 
dignity, repose, divine beauty, and the sweet expression of the lovely mouth, 
as if about to speak, are remarkable. It stands in a large apartment, quite 
alone, and the effect of the original on the mind, when seen for the first time, 
can never be forgotten. 

Delos, one of the smallest of the Cyclades, was perhaps the most famous. 
' See Note P for Text of the Inscriptions. "^ Note E. — Literary Refinement in Sicily. 



" Where Delos rose and Phoebus sprang," as our great poet sings, alluding 
to the rise of Delos from the sea, gives the poetical tradition of the volcanic origin 
of the little isle. It was sacred to Apollo, and was at one time the common 

treasury of the Confederate Ionic 
States, but sank so low as to be 
afterwards the principal depot for the 
traffic in slaves taken in war. It was 
a great school for working in bronze, 
and some have supposed the Apollo 
Belvedere in Kome to be a copy of 
one of the ancient statues of its patron 
god. Its coins bear the head of Apollo, 
with his lyre on the reverse. 

In the year 631 B.C. the Cyclades 
sent colonies to Africa, founding Cyrene 
on the coast opposite Crete. This 
African colony remained always Gre- 
cian in art, coinage, and language, and 
therefore we will regard it as a portion 
of the great Hellenic " Sphere of 
Influence," and treat of it at this place. 
In fancy, we can see the mountains of 
Africa across the waters. We shall, therefore, extend our Imaginary Voyage 
to Greece beyond the seas, and visit the ancient Hellenic colony, Cyrenaica, 
to which a separate chapter must be devoted. 

The Aphrodite ok Melos. 

(Louvre Museum.) 

Masks of Tragedy .\.vd Comedy. 



Wady Sebaiath, leading from Cyrene to Apolloxia. 


( 327 ) 

Head with Inlaid Eyes, fkom Cykene. 

(Lent by the Trustees, British Museum.) 

( 328 ) 



"Land of lost gods, and godlike men, art thou !" — Bybon. 

The very existence of several ancient Greek colonies would have been 
forgotten had not their fine coinage remained to save them from oblivion. 
Such would have been the case with Cyrene, the only Hellenic colony in 

Africa. This district, about 150 miles 
along the coast, and extending only a short 
way inland, became a rich, flourishing state, 
the prosperity of which lasted down to 
Roman times, but has long since vanished. 
It is now a poor and miserable land, nomi- 
nally under Turkish rule. The interior is 
much more inaccessible to travellers than 
it was forty years ago. At that time we 
had influence with the " unspeakable Turk," 
and Lord Stratford de Redcliffe had no diffi- 
culty in getting permission for Smith and 
Porcher's memorable survey — 1860-61. So 
different are matters now, that when, in 
1895, Mr. H. W. Blundell visited the place, 
although provided with a firman from Con- 
stantinople, obtained by Lord Rosebery, his 
attempt was quite a failure. He was " al- 
lowed to touch nothing," and only obtained 
a few photographs. He was watched in, and 
guarded out of, the country, as if he were a 
spy, and the whole effort to explore the 
ancient sites ignominiously failed. 

I wanted to say something about this 
deserted and forgotten land. No successful 
explorer had been there for forty years. From 

( 329 ) 

(Britlnh Museum.) 



Cekteal Wady, leading to Cykene— Kastekn Hills. 

this state of affairs, I could get no help from any recent travellers or any 
modern works or illustrations. So I bethought myself of Smith and Porcher's 
volume, and Dr. A. S. Murray and Mr. Arthur Smith kindly hunted up 

the beautiful original 
drawings preserved in 
the British Museum, 
and they were placed 
at my disposal. Of 
some of these I have 
giver small reproduc- 
tions and (as the work 
is not commonly known 
or accessible to most 
people) subjoin some 
notes taken from their 
interesting volume, 
which bears date 1864. 
First, however, let 

us glance back at the legendary and historical account of Gyrene's origin and 
of its early days. A leader named Battus sailed with a colony of Greeks 

The Fountain of Apollo, Cyrene. 



Derna — On the Coast, near Cyrene. 

from the island of Thera, the modem Santorin, one of the Cyclades, and 
founded Cyrene, 631 B.C. He established a dynasty which lasted for eight reigns, 
and the city became prosperous and an important centre of Hellenic influence. 
About 560 B.C. it colonised another settlement to the west, Barce, which 
had been originally a 
Libyan town. Each of 
these cities was situ- 
ated at some distance 
from the sea, and each 
had its port, connected 
with the interior by 
roads which can still 
be traced. Other Greek 
cities sprang up, one of 
which was Hesperis, 
in the extreme west 
of Cyrenaica. This 
was so fertile and rich 
in fruits that it was known as the Garden of the Hespeuides. Smith and 
Porcher tell us that it is still well watered and fertile, though neglected. 
Other Greek towns were Apolloma and Teuchria. (In Ptolemaic times, when 

Ruins of Ptolemais, formerly port of Barce. 



conquered by Egypt, the country was known as the Pentapolis, from its five 
cities.) The land was the most fertile and the climate excellent in olden days. 
The cities were situated on a high plateau sheltered by mountains from the 
Sahara, with abundance of pasture-land and never-failing springs of water. 

We are told that its great product was a plant called " silphium," which 
grew nowhere else, and which supplied food and drugs, while its dried fibres were 
capable of being woven. This plant was a government monopoly, and was used 
on the coins as the crest of the city or state. 

There were several crops of grain at the different elevations, so that the 

Cyrene — Entrance to the Fountain of Apollo. 

harvest went on for eight months of the year. The colony was rich in oil, 
vines, and every known fruit. 

No wonder that the place flourished, and eventually the people grew 
rich and luxurious. They had no enemies but locusts for many years, till 
the Persians invaded the country, 510 B.C. The people of Barce especially 
incurred the Persians' anger, for they destroyed the town, and carried off the 
inhabitants to Bactria. Hence coins of Barce are not plentiful, for it never 
recovered from this blow. Cyrene rallied, and its best coins are subsequent to 
the Persian invasion. 

After the Macedonian conquest, it fell to Egypt. The Romans encouraged 
the place after the Ptolemies gave it over to them, and joined it to Crete in 
one province. When the Roman power declined, the barbarous tribes from the 



Tomb for 105 Sarcophagi, Cyrene. 

interior overran it, and it disappears from history. At the time of Christ, 
however, it was a place of importance, and a citizen of Cyrene, Simon by name, 
was made to bear our 
Lord's Cross. He was 
possibly a man of gi- 
gantic stature. Many 
Jews had settled in the 
place. Simon was 
doubtless a merchant 
on a visit to Jerusalem. 
Let us return to 
what Smith and Por- 
cher saw of the coun- 
try forty years ago. 
Although they had a 
liberal sum voted them 
by the British Museum 
trustees, and were given naval aid in H.M. vessels and sailors from Malta, it 
is evident that they had not proper appliances for excavation at or near the 
cities. No doubt much remains undergi-ound till the time when the Moham- 
medan rule is abolished, or controlled by a government such as now exists in 
Egypt. With many a fertile valley, abundant water from springs, and possible 
reservoirs, and just and impartial laws for rich and poor, this country might 
be made again the Garden of the Hesperides. Now, with 2000 years of neglect, 
it has become desert and deserted, save in a few towns on the coast or near 

it. All the rest is a 

There seems no 
hope for any change in 
our time. Considering 
the richness and im- 
portance of the place 
in ancient days, more 
discoveries might have 
been expected. Nearly 
all the sculptures were 
found broken. There 
had been much wanton 
de.struction at some early period, and doubtless the finest works of art were 
then carried away. But from the illustrations one can see that the remains, 





'■' 1 ' . V ^^^^^^H 


Cyreke — Paintkd Rock Tomb. 


AIarble Statue of Afollo— Cyrexe. 
(British Museun.) 

though not of highest art, yet show 
that this was far advanced beyond any- 
thing else in Africa. 

Undoubtedly much lies hidden still. 
Messrs. Smith and Porcher were most 
struck with the vast cemetery, and 
spent much of their work there. The 
temples were excavated, but we hear 
nothing of the theatre or other public 
buildings being found or explored by 
them. Cyrene was the birth-place of 
Eratosthenes the founder of astronomy, 
Callimachus the poet, and of the philo- 
sopher CARNEADE.S, the founder of the 
New Academy at Athens, 213 B.C. No 
trace of their writings was found. With 
the recent discoveries of papyri in the 
Fayum by Grenfell and Hunt, and 
Petrie's finds of manuscripts in other 
parts of Egypt, we might have 

expected, in a country of similar climate to Egypt, that documents of 

this sort should have come to light from the tombs. 

coverers of 1860 did 

not know of the 

possibility of such 


It is very probable 

that a rich harvest of 

such relics may be 

found yet in the vast 

cemetery of Cyrene, 

which covers more than 

a square mile of the 

site. The illustrations 

in the volume speak 

for themselves, but 

they give no views of the three temples — only plans, which do not show us 

the style or quality of the architecture. No traces of Egyptian art or archi- 
tecture have been found, although the country is known to have been held by 

Egypt. Messrs. Smith and Porcher seem never to have found any coins, which 

But the dis- 

Cybene — Interior of Rock Tomb in Cemetery. 



Ruin of Built Tomb, Cyrene. 

is extraordinary. But there are some fine coins of Cyrene in the present 


Barce is represented by No. 904, Plate XXII. The ever-present crest of 

Cyrenaica.the silphium 

plant, is on one side 

and the head of Zeus 

Ammon on the other. 

The celebrated oracle of 

" Jupiter" Ammon was 

the great African place 

of pilgrimage for Hel- 
lenes. He seems to 

have been a popular 

deity here. This coin 

and 905 and 906 are 

the oldest in the collec- 
tion from this district. 

Nos. 907-910 are gold coins of great beauty ; No. 909, with the horseman on 

a high-stepping steed and the silphium plant, on the reverse, is especially so. 
[Nos. 911-913.] — The Cyrenians were great lovers of horses, and famous 

breeders. This accounts for the fine 
equestrian subjects on many of the 
coins. No. 914 is one of the latest 
Greek coins of Cyrene. They revert to 
the Zeus Ammon of earlier days, but 
still preserve their loved silphium 

Appended is a reduction of Smith 
and Porcher's drawing of the plant 
somewhat resembling the silphium of 
the coins, that abounds near the 
ruins of Cyrene. But this is not the 
true silphium, which was possibly a 
refined product of careful cultivation. 
This ancient vegetable seems lost, 
and the natives know of no such plant. 
But just as our cultivated celery, if 
allowed to grow wild, soon degenerates into a poisonous herb, and changes its 
habit of growth, so this wild plant of a species of silphium may in the course 

z 2 

Head of a Marble Statue from Cyrene. 

(British Museum.) 



of 2000 years have become degenerated from the beneficent silphium of 
Cyrene. Pliny says it was virtually extinct in his time. It had become so 
Scarce that enormous sums were offered for it, and one plant was sent to Nero 
as a valuable treasure. Then the Komans laid a heavy tax upon it, and the 
Cyrenians everywhere destroyed the plant rather than pay the impost. Later 
the whole district was overrun by barbarous tribes, who cultivated nothing. 
Mohammedan rule followed and no one knows now even what silphium really 

We shall now quit the Great Sea for a time, and visit the early colonies 
of Hellenes b}^ the Euxine (the Black Sea) the scenes of Jason's famous 
legendary expedition in search of the wonderful " Golden Fleece." Ancient 
Cholchoi was somewhere in this quarter; no one seems to have known its 
true locality, but it was probably by the Black Sea, in the district afterwards 
known as PoNTUS, which we visit in the next chapter. 

Wild Plant resembling Silphiu.m. 


Philosopher. Bom at Hamos. 

Died at MetaiKjntum, 4it7 B.C., in his ninetieth year. 

(Capitoline Museum, Rome.) 


Philosopher, Kounder of the Epicurciins, 34'2-270 b.(;. 

IJoni at Samus. Died at Athens. 

Bronze from Heroulaneum (Naples Museum). 


PhilojKtpher. Bom at Cyrene, 213-125 B.C. 

Fotmdcr of the New Academy at Athens. 

(Uffizl Gallery, Florence.) 


Physician. Bom at l*crgamon, 130-200 a.d. 

Htudlcd at Corinth and Alexandria. 

Practised at Rome. 

[p. S36. 




ScENEEY IN PoNTUS— Castle of Tekiyeh, near Amasia. 



( 337 ) 





"Their shores obey the stranger, slave, or savage." — Bvrok. 

Asia Minor, once the richest and best known part of the Orient, is now the 
least visited, and its unfortunate inhabitants are much worse off than were 
their predecessors of 2000 years ago. Nor does there seem much chance of 
any change for the better. The mutual jealousy of the powers of Europe 
prevents any one of them leading the way towards amendment of government, 
and so the tyrannical rule of the " Unspeakable Turk " is maintained. 

Time was when English influence at Constantinople was paramount, and a 
Minister such as Lord Stratford de Redcliffe was able to use his position 
for archaeological investigators like Layard, Fellows and Newton. Since 
their time little has been done save at Ephesus and Pergamum (Gr. Pergamon). 

During Lord Dufferin's ministry he was unable to use his great abilities 
for aiding any scientific investigations, owing to the Egyptian troubles, which 
demanded the exertion of all his powers to prevent our country from being 
plunged in an European war. 

The magnificent rivers and mountains are still clothed with natural forests. 
The fertile plains are not a quarter cultivated. The minerals lie unsought and 
unworked. Railways, for so far, make but slow progress. The grand Roman 
roads are barely traceable and the bridges, or their ruins, are their only 
evidence left. Professor Ramsay's researches show us what a magnificent 
system of communication they were. Dr. Munro's paper and map of the "Roads 
in Pontus" in the Hellenic Society's Journal, 1901, is most instructive. 

( 339 ) 




But the few fine archaeological discoveries such as those of the Temple at 
Ephesus, and the great altar of Pergamon show us that, when the time comes 
for the ancient land to be opened up, these are but mere indications of how 
much store for the antiquarian is still buried there. 

The descriptions of the localities which produced our coins can only be 
taken at second hand, and the most of it has to be obtained from travellers of 
the pasb century. 

We will now in imagination visit some of the Greek cities in Asia Minor, 
on the far-away coast of the Black Sea. 

SiNOPE, the greatest Hellenic port on the Euxine, was founded from 
Miletus, 632 b.c. It had two harbours and was a splendid place, and still 
contains many ancient ruins. Even yet it is a good port and does a large 

coasting trade. The castle is an- 
cient or built of Greek materials. 
Sinope was the birthplace of Dio- 
GEXES the Cynic, 412 B.C. Later, 
that remarkable man, Mithra- 
DATES the Great, was educated 
here. The coins of SiNOPE itself 
[588, 589, PI. XIV.], although of 
barbarous work, have interesting 
marine emblems of the mistress 
of the Euxine. 

Amisos, east of this, was the 
second Greek port on the Euxine, 
and its coins are very ancient 
and interesting [582-584]. This 
place must not be confounded with Amasia, where Strabo, and also Mithra- 
DATES the Great, were born, which is an inland place about sixty miles away, 

Diogenes— Capitoline Museum, Rome. 


Abydos, on the Dakdanelles. 

with many Greek remains and picturesque mountain scenery around. It was a 
strongly fortified place in Greek days, and in Roman times was restored after 
the kingdom of Mithradates was dismembered. 

MiTHRADATES the Great (120-63 B.C.) reigned in so many different places 
in Asia Minor that we will describe him here in his own native PoNTUS. There 
is one very fine coin of his in this collection [PI. XIV. 586]. It is a remarkable 
portrait of the man of whom Cicero said, " he was the greatest of all kings after 
Alexander," and in another place that " he was the most formidable opponent 
the Romans had ever encountered." The handsome face of Mithradate.s indeed 
recalls that of the Great Macedonian. He was interred at Sinope, in the sepulchre 
of his ancestors, 
with great pomp, 
his conquerors pay- 
ing him, after his 
tragic end, this 
mark of their deep 
respect. He died at 
sixty-nine (by his 
own hand, rather 
than be taken 
alive by his con- 
querors). He had 
spent fifty - seven Alexandreia Troas— Ruins op the Gymnasium. 

years of his life in fighting the Romans for the independence of Asia Minor. 
Another city in this region, of somewhat similar name, Amastris, gives 


us a beautiful and rare coin [587] of the third century B.C. It has the head 
of a youth, with a Phrygian cap, and a seated female, the personification of the 
city, on the other side. Amastris was a large and handsome city, with two 
harbours, built by Amastris, wife of Lysimachos, about 300 B.C., from whom 
it was named. 

Heracleia to the east, on the coast, was another fine harbour ; this was a 
colony of Megara and Tanagra, 550 B.C. The great painter Zeuxis was bom 
here. The Herakles on this coin [590, PL XV.] shows fine action, erecting a 
trophy with his spear. A number of interesting spoils are also shown on the 
coin. I have recently acquired an interesting small coin of this place, very 
perfect and of rare type (page 152). 

Calchedon we have visited from Byzantium (Constantinople). We also 
described Cyzicus and Lampsacus and their interesting coins. We shall pass 
on into the region of the old Troy once more and visit Abydos, immortalised 
in our days by Byron's famous poem. This was a very ancient place with 
an electrum standard of coins, COO B.C. I have none of these, nor of the later 
gold ones of which Xenophon speaks. I have, however, a remarkable series of 
pretty little silver coins, bearing the head of Apollo, each with a difierent 
magistrate's name. They seem to have been a consecutive series, secreted 
when freshly struck, by some intelligent citizen of Abydos, 300 years B.C. This 
place was also a colony of little Miletus, and near this city was the bridge of 
boats that Xerxes threw across the Hellespont, 480 B.C. 

Alexandreia Troas was near Abydos, and has fine remains of the city 
built by Lysimachus in memory of Alexander the Great [631, 632]. 

BiRYTis [No. 633] was an ancient place not far off, but its precise site is 

Neandreia gives us a pretty little silver piece, one of the smallest of 
coins [634] of 400 B.C. 

The Island op Tenedos is off the coast of Troas, and possessed a mint of 
considerable importance. The Janiform head and double battle-axe on its coinage 
are fine types [No. 635]. Engraved on page 103. 


Prusias founded the city (still called " Broussa " after him) which was the 
capital of his kingdom and is still a flourishing town (for Turkey). Large 
quantities of excellent carpets are manufactured here. 

Let us now go back a little to introduce the portrait coins of the kings of 
BiTHYNiA, who ruled at Broussa and Nicomedia and in the north-west of Asia 
Minor. The earliest one I have is that of Prusias I. (228-180 B.C.) ; this is a 
fine portrait [592, PI. XV.], struck on the flat, thin flan which came into fashion 
at this time ; with a good figure of Zeus (on the reverse), crowning the king's 


name with a wreath. When Hannibal fled from the Romans, he took refuge at 
this monarch's court, where he died 183 B.C. 

Prusias II. with his (beardless) portrait is very fine also. [592 a]. We 
give an engraving of it separately, on page 97. 

NiCOMEDES II., also a very characteristic portrait [593], in the same style as 
the two last coins. This king's son bequeathed his kingdom to the Romans, 74 B.c. 

HiPPARCHUS, the true father of astronomy and geography, who first made a 
catalogue of the stars, was born in Nicea, Bithynia (160 B.C.). 

Cyme, in Mysia, was an ancient seaport, which in its later days issued the 
thin large coins of the second century [PI. XV. 636] and Myrina, which was 
near it, had a very similar coinage, but rather better work [637]. 

Mo0>JT Ida and Gulf of Adramyti, from Lesbos. 
"And Ida in the distance, still the same." — Byron. 

We will now touch upon Lesbos, a large island off the coast of Asia 
Minor, opposite the famed Mount Ida. This was a very beautiful and fertile 
island, rich and important in the fifth century B.C., when its famous electrum 
coinage shared, with that of Cyzicus, the monopoly in trade of this part of the 
Hellenic world. There were several cities on the island. But Mytilene and 
Methymna were the most important, and Mr. Head thinks most of the small 
electrum coins were struck at the former place. In very early times, possibly 
the sixth century B.C., rude coins of base metal (Billon) must have been in use in 



the island, being frequently found there; these are bean-shaped, with two calves' 
heads facing, and an incuse square, very curious ; the same symbols appear on 
some of the electrum pieces of the fifth century. [No. 638, Plate XV.] 

I have fourteen [639-652] of these interesting little electrum pieces of 
Lesbos ; they are well engraved, and their weight has originally been very care- 
fully gauged ; the beautiful work on them resembles that on the similar coins 
of Cyzicus, and I illustrate them all, on Plate XVI. ; the variety of the 
devices, and their minute beauty is remarkable. 

Of Methymna I have a very beautiful silver coin [653] of great antiquity, 
rarely found in such good state. Athena's head, in the close-fitting helmet, has 
archaic force about it, and the boar with lowered head is excellent art for 
500 B.C. No. 654 is quite different and is a nice little coin of same date. 

Of Mytilene I have also a fine silver coin [655], Apollo, with long hair and 

laurel-wreath and a lyre with fillet in incuse 
square, and 656, smaller, has similar devices. 
Fourth century work. 

Lesbos is now known as Mytilene; it is 
a beautiful island still, and were it only 
properly cultivated would recover its ancient 
name for fertility. It produced many poets 
and philosophers. S.iPPHO was born in Lesbos 
about 600 B.C. A fragment of a poem of hers, 
unknown for 2000 years, was recently found 
in Egypt and published by the Egypt Ex- 
ploration Fund. (See page 436.) 



(Museo Nazionale, Rome.) 

This was a very old 'place, said to have 
been colonised from Epidauros, and was 
described by Xenophon as ancient in his time. It however did not become 
very famous till after the death of Alexander. 

We have no coins of Pergamon till 263 B.C., when Eumenes I. issued pieces 
with the portrait of his uncle Philetairos [620, PI. XV]. This and others of 
the same family are very fine portrait-coins. Philetairos had been treasurer of 
Lysimachus, whose hoards amounted to 9,000 talents, or £2,700,000. He chose 
Pergamon for the keeping of this vast sum, as being a place of great strength. 
Lysimachus was killed in battle, 281 B.C., and left no heir to his wealth, which 
fell into its keeper's hands. 

Philetairos, finding himself with this immense wealth at command, seized 
the place, and made himself king — expending vast sums on beautifying the 


Restoration of the Gkeat Altae. 

(From Oreek and Roman Sculpture, Longmans and Co.) 

city. He was rightly regarded as the founder of the new capital, and his 
portrait appears on the coins of his successors. Pergamon became the seat 
of a special school of sculpture. A great library was founded, which for a time 
rivalled that of Alexandria. Parchment takes its name from Pergamon. The 
great physician Galex was a native of the place, and many of his works 
exist. The rhetorician Apollodoros, also a native of Pergamon, was a great 
teacher. Pergamon became a literary centre to which Hellenic attention was 
called for more than a century. 

The Kxcavations at J'kkcjamon. 
(From Oreei- and Roman Sculpture, Longmans and Co.) 



The succeeding kings were Attalus I. [621], Eumenes II. [622] (also 

fine coins), Attalus II. and Attalus III. (Plate XV.); the last, in 133 b.c., 

bequeathed his country to 
the Romans. They made 
it the capital of the province 
of Asia, and it flourished 
exceedingly. Under Byzan- 
tine rule the capital of Asia 
was transferred to Ephesus, 
and Pergamon languished 
afterwards. It was one of 
the " Seven Churches " of 
Asia Minor. 

The coins are fine 
specimens of their class. 
The shield of Athena is 
placed before her in the 
case of some, behind her 
in others, showing whether 
the king had to fight for it 
or regarded his monarchy 
as safe. 
The Great Altar to Zeus has recently been excavated by German 

savants. It must have been the finest thing of the kind ever erected. It was 

one of the wonders of the 

world. It is that which 

is referred to in Revelation 

as the " Throne of Satan." 
Its base was upwards of 

100 feet square and nearly 50 

feet high, all of fine marble. 

Many of the statues which 

adorned it are scattered 

through the museums of 

Europe. The Gauls of the 

adjoining province of Galatia 

had given the Pergamenes 

great trouble, and when they were finally conquered this vast altar seems to 

have been erected (as a memorial of the event) by Eumenes II. 

The fine sculptures recently removed from this site are in the Museum 

The Great Peboamon Altar (Berlin). 
(From the great Frieze, " The Battle of the Gods and Giants.") 

From the Great Peroamox Altar. 

(Berlin Museum.) 



Frieze of the Great Pergamon Altar. 

(Berlin Museum.) 

at Berlin, but it is believed 
that about a dozen statues 
of Gauls (and other " bar- 
barians" as they were called) 
in Rome, Venice, Naples, 
Paris, and perhaps else- 
where, are all parts of one 
great groupor warlike scene 
of this victory, and that all 
were originally in Perga- 
mon. The sculptures re- 
cently found are mostly 
illustrative of a combat be- 
tween gods and giants. It was probably built, Mr. Ernest Gardner says, between 
180 and 170 B.C. in the quiet time of the life of Eumenes II. But troubles 
had come again, for the smaller frieze had been only blocked out, never finished. 
It represented the life of a local hero, Telephos. 

The Turks and Greeks had been breaking up the sculptures, using them 
for road making and burning them for lime. A German engineer employed 
at these works reported the matter at Berlin, and Cuetius, the great antiquarian, 
visited the place, with the result that the German Government got a con- 
cession for excavating and removing whatever they found. These splendid 
sculptures were saved for the intellectual world, and now are the chief treasures 
of Berlin. Pergamon, now called Bergamo, is most picturesquely situated. 
Its amphitheatre has fine remains and architectural interest. 

It was strange how this monument was forgotten for more than a thousand 
years, and it is wonderful that so much of its structure has been found, that it 
was possible to reconstruct the elevation shown on page 345. 


We are now on the coast of Ionia ; its chief city, Smyrna, was destroyed 
by the Lydians 627 B.C. and had no mint till its restoration by Antigonus, it is 
therefore a comparatively modem place, as these coins [PI. XVI. 675-676] 
indicate. The head of Cybele is good work for 190 B.C., when art on coins was 
falling off. The little bronze coin with the figure of old Homer is very interest- 
ing, as it shows he had honour in the neighbourhood which gave him birth. 

Smyrna is still a busy place, with perhaps 200,000 inhabitants, and most 
picturesquely situated. But its beauty is from the outside ; its dirty and narrow 
streets dispel the good effect produced on sailing into its beautiful harbour. 
The costumes of the crowds which throng its quays are more varied than in any 



The Castle and Port of Smyrna. 
other Levantine town. But it is full of foul smells, which in the numerous 
bazaars, stocked with rich oriental carpets and silks, are modified to some extent 
by otto of roses, musk, and tobacco smoke. Smyrna has been for centuries, 

and still is, the emporium of the Levant, and 
it imports and exports enormous quantities 
of all sorts of merchandise. Earthquakes have 
almost obliterated the ancient buildings, of 
which there are few traces. But if it is not 
remarkable in this respect, there are numbers 
of more celebrated old sites in the vicinity. 


Teos was the principal seat of Dionysiac 
worship in Ionia. 

It was an ancient port; the coin we 
engrave [677] is of the sixth century. The 
Persians oppressed its inhabitants, so they 
moved bodily to Abdera in Thrace, taking 
with them their Griffin, the crest of their 
people [413.] (Compare Plates X. and XVI.) 

The great lyric poet, Anacreon, was born 
at Teos, moved with his fellow citizens to 
Abdera, but afterwards lived at Samos. 

Lord Dufferin possesses a remarkable set 
of inscribed marble panels,^ which record a 
treaty between Teos and a number of cities of Crete, in the third century 

Teos — Plan of the Temple of 

1 Note P— The Treaties of Teos and Crete. 




"The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle." — Byron. 

B.C. This shows what an important city Teos was, when the Cretans were 
glad to get their alliance and to offer protection. Further particulars of these 
remarkable panels are given in the chapter on Crete. The Temple of Dionysus 
where they were erected, has disappeared, but its foundations were excavated 
by Mr. Pullan at the cost of the Society of 
Dilettanti. Lord Dufferin gave new stones 
to replace these panels, which had been used 
for centuries for seats in the Turkish Bath 
of a village near the site of the old city (see 
pages 323, 324). 

Another ancient city, of wide fame, was 
on a promontory near Teos. This was Colo- 
phon [666-8], with Apollo and his lyre on the 
coins and the magistrates' names. Here they 
had also a coin [669] with a figure of Homer, 
a bronze one, the people's currency, and on the 
other side a standing figure of Apollo. Both 
were possibly copied from statues in the city. 

Erythrae was opposite the Isle of Chios. 

It must have been an important place, as 
quantities of its bronze coins exist, but silver 
pieces are scarce. No. 662a is a fine silver (Krom ti.e Naples .Muscim.. 

A A 



coin, however, which was added to the collection after the plates were made and 
therefore is illustrated separately (page 153). No. 663 [PI. XVI.] is a pretty coin. 

Herakles was the deity here, as shown on the coins. 
Chios, Homer's isle, lies before us. It is a 
large island and still beautiful, with fine mountains 
covered with rich vegetation, and was once very 
populous. It is almost depopulated since the Greek 
war of 1822, when the Turks slew 40,000 of the 
inhabitants. It is now called Scio. Few antiqui- 
ties exist, save the cave, cut in the rock, where 
" the blind old man of Scio's rocky isle " taught 
his pupils. The coins [678, 683] are possibly of 
the sixth century, and bear a sphinx similar to 
those of Teos and Abdera. It was once a great 
place and sent 100 ships to fight the Persians. It 
gave many great literary men to the world besides 
Homer. The historian Theopompos and the poet 
Theocritus were bom here. We have [683] another 
coin with Homer opening a roll with both hands ; 
we see therefore that the poet was not without 
Ion, the tragic poet. 

The Asiatic Diana. 

honour in his own country. 
was also a native of Chios. 

Clazomenae was not far west of Smyrna, 
and was a great place, judging from its good 
coinage [684, 685]. The facing head of Apollo 
is very fine, possibly copied from a celebrated 
statue, and the Swan, with open wings, is a pretty 
symbol. The coins bear the magistrates' names. 
There are fine terracotta tombs from Clazomenae 
in the British Museum. 

Ephesus, the city of the worship of Artemis 
(Diana) claims attention. Its coins, like those of 
other great Hellenic cities — Athens and Corinth 
— are not remarkable for beauty or variety ; the 
smaller places, as a rule, paid more attention to 
the art of their coins. 

The goddess " Diana of the Ephesians," was 
a very different type from the interesting sprightly maiden, the Artemis of the 
Greeks. The Asiatic deity was the personification of Nature, and was repre- 
sented with many breasts to indicate fecundity. 

The Artemis of Hellas. 



The symbol of Ephesus was the stag and the bee, sacred to the goddess, 
and we find them on its coins [657-660]. Artemis herself appears on 659 
[PI. XVI.] About 200 B.C. there arose a mone- 
tary union among various states in this neigh- 
bourhood, and many coins were issued bearing 
the device of the Cistophorus, or Bacchic chest 
or box, from which a serpent or serpents issued. 
Their adjuncts are frequently curious, and they 
bear the names of magistrates and rulers. But 
to me, as pieces of artistic taste, they afford no 
satisfaction whatever, and I have collected very 

No. 661 has a bust of Autkmls with bow 
and quiver. 662 gives Mark Antony's portrait 
and that of Octavia. Considering the magnifi- 
cent sculptures (recently found near Ephesus) of 
their temple to Diana, it is strange that art 
found such poor examples on their coins. This 
temple have been exceedingly rich in sculp- 
ture, and was the old historians' seventh wonder 
of the world. 

The drum of every one of the enormous 
marble pillars was enriched by bands of figures, nearly life size, in the original 
temple of the sixth century. Most of this was due to Croesus (whom it 

is now the fashion to call Kroisos), and one of 
these drums is actually preserved in the British 
Museum, with the great millionaire's own in- 
scription upon it! BAZIAEYE KPolZoZ, etc. 
(This is engraved on page 370.) 

This original temple was burnt down the 
day of the birth of Alexander the Great, and 
afterwards many Greek princes and cities 
joined to erect a splendid successor to it. 
Pliny tells us that " each prince gave a 
column." Much of this wcw temple was found 
recently by Mr. Wood and is jDreserved in the 
British Museum. 

The idea of the figures round the drums was repeated in the new 
building, but in the richest style of later Greek art; the one illustrated is 
possibly by SCOPAS, who executed some of the columns, and is very fine. 

A A 2 

Part of the B.\se, Dkum and 

Column, of the New Temple, 


(British Museum.) 


(Britiwh Museum.) 



The Theatre, Ephesus. 

When these magnificent remains were brought to the British Museum in 
1877, great curiosity was excited as to how columns bearing elaborate sculp- 
tures at their bases, could have been used in a temple of Ionic style. But 
Dr. A. S. Murray produced a restoration which completely solved the 
difficulty — vide the B.M. Handbook of Greek Sculpture. Extensive ruins of 

other buildings cover the plain of ancient 
Ephesus, which is now a miserable, deserted 

The winding river Maeander runs through 
Ionia. On its banks was Magnesia, founded 
by colonists from the district of the same 
name in Thessaly. Themistocles lived in exile 
here. The coin No. 670 depicts a Thessalian 
horseman, the reverse a butting bull, surrounded 
by the " Maeander " pattern, with the name 
of the magistrate who issued it [PI. XVI.]. 


Now we will touch upon Miletus, which 

was a great emporium of the ancient world. 

Its coinage actually reaches back to 700 A.D. 

Of this early time is the electrum (pale gold) 

Restoration^ofJThe Temple of ^^j^ ^^^ ^.^j^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^^ effective, head of a 

(By Dr. A. 8. Murray, British Museum.) Hon and iucuse squares on the back. No. 672 


is of the time of Maussollus, a magnate of Caria, who then owned Miletus. 
Nos. 673, 674 [PI. XVI.] Apollo with symbol of Miletus, a lion looking back 
upon a star (probably the sun), and magistrate's name below. Miletus is 
mentioned by Homer. It was a great city, sending its vessels beyond the 
Pillars of Hercules, and had four harbours for its fleets. Its remains are 
possibly buried by changes in the coast at the mouth of the river Maeander. 
There was a noted statue of Apollo here, which Darius carried off to Persia 
494 B.C. It was brought back to the Milesians by Seleucus nearly two 
centuries afterwards. 


The isle of Samos, off the Ionian coast, was an important centre of trade in 
the sixth century. My earliest coin [684] is later, about 440 B.C., but looks of 
earlier work. It was struck when Samos was a member of the Athenian con- 
federacy. The treaty-stone of this union has been found at Athens, and I give 
an engraving of it. 

No. 685 is a century later and has a facing lion's head boldly executed. 
The Samians were a noted naval power, had much dealings with Egypt 

Miletus — General View of the Theatre and Ruins. 

and founded the colony of Naucratis in the Delta, where Petrie and Hogarth 
have made wonderful discoveries. The isle of Samos was, and still is, 
beautiful and fertile. There are extensive ruins of the city of Samos, but scanty 
remains of the great temple of Hera, which Herodotos described as the largest 
he had ever seen. In his time it was the finest Greek city in the world. 
Pythagoras, the famous philosopher of Southern Italy, was born in Samos. 

Samos founded colonies in Italy, Thrace, and Crete, and from it 
Samothrace took its name. Antony and Cleopatra resided here, and the 
Romans made it a free state. The pottery of Samos was celebrated, and in 



Treaty between Athens and Samos. 
(From the Athens Museum.) 

ancient times " Samian ware " spread all 
over the world, being even found at the 
Roman wall in Britain. 

The philosopher Epicurus was born in 
Samo.s. This truly great man was in his 
own day violently attacked as an advocate 
of sensual pleasures. But justice has been 
done him in later times, and his philosophy 
has been shown to be of an ennobling 
character, advocating pure and noble mental 
enjoyments as a means to the greatest hap- 

Samian glories have departed, but Samos 
even yet enjoys a noted position in the East. 
Its inhabitants have for fifty years en- 
joyed more liberty than other places under, 

Turkish yoke, being allowed a species of autonomy under a Greek governor, 

selected or approved by themselves, who is termed 

Prince of Samos. This they well deserved, for 

in the War of Independence they had earned 

their freedom, but the European powers ruled 


There are other islands south of this. Of 

Calymna, No. 700 is a pretty coin, with a head 

of Ares (Mars) in close-fitting helmet, with cheek- 
pieces, and a lyre on the reverse. (PI. XVII.) 
Cos was a colony from Epidaurus. [701, 702.] 

The nude athlete throwing the diskos is no doubt 

from a noted statue of the place. These coins 

are good fifth-century work. The later coins, 

703-705, have Herakles for their subject. 

This little island was the birthplace of the 

physician Hippocrates, of Apelles the painter and 

of Ptolemy Philadelphos. Cos was sacred to 

Asklepios, who had a great temple here, where 

the wonderful picture of Aphrodite Anadyomene, 

by Apelles, was preserved. The gauzy material 

(shown on the statue of the Aphrodite of Cos) was, and still is, the production 

of the place. 

The Venus of Akles, 
Louvre, Paris. 

(Supposed to be the Aphrodite of Cos.) 


The Mausoleum and other Monuments of Caria 



Mr. Cockerell's Restoration of the Mausoleum. 

(By permission of the Trustees of the British Museiun.) 



( 866 ) 

Head op a Girl, from the Mausoleum. 
(Lent by the Trustees, British Museum.) 

( sr,6 ) 


(From Greek and Roman Sculpture, Longmans & Co.) 


"Apollo still thy long, long summer gilds." — Byron. 

Halicarnassus next claims our attention. It was the capital of Caria, 
which boasted of another of the " seven wonders of the world " — the Mauso- 
leum. Caria had been a satrapy 
under the " Great King " — but in 
the days of Maussollus seems to 
have been virtually under inde- 
pendent rule. This great monu- 
ment, the wonderful testimony of 
a wife's love and devotion to the 
memory of a good husband, has 
become a household word among 
civilised peoples for more than 
two thousand years. 

Judging from his portrait 
King Maussollus died in his prime. 
His countenance is noble and the 
expression benevolent. The like- 
ness of his faithful widow is so 
mutilated that unfortunately we 
cannot tell what she was like, 
but that she was a cultivated woman of high mental character we may feel 

The vast monument she raised to perpetuate her husband's memory has 
been described by Pliny and other ancient writers. It was supposed to have 
completely perished by an earthquake, and it was only in recent years that 

( 3.'.T ) 

(British Museum.) 



the genius and perseverance of Sir Charles Newton discovered and proved the 
truth of the old records concerning its artistic excellence. Scopas, the 
great sculptor (395-350 B.C.), a native of Paros, was its designer, and Praxi- 
teles and many other renowned artists 
are said to have worked with him. Cer- 
tainly the remains now in the British 
Museum testify to the splendour of the 

The Mausoleum had been overthrown 
by an earthquake in the twelfth century 
A.D., and the Knights of Rhodes used its 
ruins as a quarry for building their Castle 
of Budrum, from whose walls Sir C. New- 
ton wrenched many of his sculptured 

There have been many schemes 
offered to explain the original design. 
Dr. A. S. Murray thinks that Mr. Cock- 
erell's is the most correct, and this was 
done before the discovery of the actual 
ruins. There seems no doubt but Maus- 
soUus and Artemisia were represented as 
standing on a chariot, side by side, on the summit of the structure. As Mr. 
Cockerell made this design entirely from Pliny's description, it shows what a 
skilful architect he was. In the British Museti,in Handbook, eight other sug- 
gested explanations are de- 
picted, but none of them 
seem to satisfy us after a 
study of the remains of the 
work itself It stood for 
1500 years, and must have 
been a magnificent erec- 
tion. So much was the 
good queen loved, that, 
although she died long be- 
fore the completion of the 
work, the sculptors la- 
boured on till the work was done, it is recorded, without either fee or reward for 
their devotion. 

In our own times we have a similar monument. Queen Victoria 

Artemisia. Maussoii,us. 

(From the British Museum.) 

Frieze from the Mausoleum. 

(British Museum.) 




5^ V l^K^j^ v. 

—^—M^ — v_y 

^ Ml/x^~a1 


Slab fbom the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus. 

(British Museum.) 

in raising her Albert Memorial carried out the same noble idea. The 
design of the Prince Consort's monument is totally different from this ancient 
erection of a similar kind. The modem one is very beautiful, though its 
ornate style seems hardly fitted for the rigours of our variable climate. One 
has the idea that it requires the protection 
of a glass dome in winter time. But it 
is to be feared that any modem structure 
will not be so-perfect as the prototype when 
two thousand years have passed, although 
our land is not so liable to earthquakes. 

The Trustees of the British Museum 
have wisely devoted a spacious and lofty 
apartment to display these treasures of 
Greek art, and Mr. Arthur H. Smith has, 
in the British Museum Handbook, devoted 
some eighty pages to describing the vast 
collection brought to England by Sir C. 
Newton's great skill and devoted efforts. 
It is evident from these remains that there 
were several other buildings beside the 
Mausoleum itself, but all erected as part of 
one great design. 

The coins of Mau.ssollus and his 
successors [693-699] are all of the same 
type — the head of Apollo, facing, with Zeus Labraundeus, and his double 
axe, on the reverse, with the king's name. His successors were Hidrieus and 
Pixodarus [696, 699, PI. XVII.]. 

The Knights of Rhodes had no veneration for heathen antiquity, and 

Portkait Head from the Maisuleum. 
(British Museum.) 



found the overthrown monument an easy quarry. The wonder is that so much 
was found, and that any of the sculpture existed entire. Sir C. Newton 
believed that the monument, being very lofty, was hurled to some distance by 

Slab from the Mausoleum. 
(British Museum.) 

an earthquake, or perhaps by several shocks of great violence. Still, he 
found large remains of the chariot, its wheels, and horses, as well as the statues of 
Maussollus and his queen. All accounts agree that the chariot and its occu- 
pants were on the summit of the structure. There is strong evidence that the 
Mausoleum was brilliantly decorated with colour. Surrounded with magnificent 
scenery, groves of trees, and avenues of temples and terraces adorned with fine 

statues, with the blue Medi- 
ci: ^ terranean as a base for all 
- - the glorious pile, it must 

indeed have been a sight for 
gods and men. 


Cnidus, on a promon- 
tory opposite Halicarnassus, 
was originally a settlement 
of Phoenicians, who brought 
their sun - worship with 
them, which remained the 
cult of the district. To this 
was added, in later days, the 
worship of Aphrodite, and accordingly we find the head of the beautiful 
goddess on all our coins. [686-691.] Some of them are very old — of 650 B.C., 
when the ideals of female beauty were not, to our ideas, successful. [PI. XVI.] 
The Aphrodite of Cnidus by Praxiteles was valued so highly that 

The Port and Castle of Budrum. 

(Near the site of HaUcamassus.) 


NicOMEDES, King of Bithynia, offered to buy it (Pimy relates) by paying the 
entire national debt of Cnidus, which was very large; but the Cnidians 
preferred " to suffer anything " rather than lose their treasure. 

When Sir Charles Newton was searching for the ruins of the Mausoleum, 
he discovered The Colossal Lion — remains of a grand 
monument — recording a naval victory. This had been 
erected on the top of a pyramidal marble structure on a 
promontory overlooking the sea. 

But of all the treasures from this district of ancient 
refinement and modern neglect, there is none like the in- 
comparable Statue of Demeter in the British Museum. 
Nothing among the beautiful romances of Hellenic lore 
touches us more than the story of Demeter and her beloved 
daughter Persephone. (We don't call them by their 
Latin names of Ceres and Proserpine, which really convey 
different ideas to the mind.) And of all representations 
of soft, sweet, motherly dignity, what can compare with 
this superb statue of The Mother ? 

The statue is of Parian marble. It had been seen in 
1812, by the expedition sent by the Dilettanti Society, 
but it remained for Newton to rediscover it, buried under a 
mass of earth. Although much mutilated, it remains to-day 
the sweetest representation of a good and loving mother. 

People who could thus render the highest ideal of maternity, must have 

been possessed of the loftiest 
attributes of civilised humanity. 
It is a work of the fourth cen- 
tury, B.C. 

North-west of Cnidus we arrive 
at Myndus, a Dorian colony from 
Argolis. [PI. XVII.] 

Myndus affords a curious va- 
riety of Greek coin — one with 
Egyptian types, those of the worship 
of Isis. This is explained by its 
being a possession of the Ptolemies, 
and it seems to have been an ap- 
panage of the queens of Egypt. The coin No. 692 bears the crown of Isis 
(horns, disk, plumes, and ears of corn), almost the same as we see given to the 
portrait of CLEOPATRA on the Temple of Denderah, on the Nile. This was 

Copy of the Aphrodite 

OF Cnidus, by 


(Vatican Museum.) 

The Lion of Cnidus. 

(British Museum.) 



the famous and unfortunate Queen of Eg3'pt, the last Greek princess of that 

ancient land (p. 363). 

It is unlikely that the Egj^tian sculptor who made this portrait of the 

beautiful and unhappy princess, had ever seen his royal mistress. But her like- 
ness, on the coins, (though 
very unsatisfactory), and her 
marble bust in the British 
Museum prove that there is 
a strong resemblance among 
all the portraits, though ex- 
ecuted at a period when all 
art was on the decline, not 
only in Hellenic lands, but 
everywhere else. 


Having spent some time 
in Caria we find ourselves 
opposite this large and pic- 
turesque island. Delos and 
other islets beyond lead 
like stepping stones to dis- 
tant Crete. 

The famous Island of 
Rhodes, so beautiful and 
fertile, with so many fine 
harbours, seemed destined 
for occupancy by a great 
naval power. 

Even now, when in- 
habited by fanatical Mo- 
hammedan people, lazy, 
indolent, and ground down 
with misgovernment, it is 

Statue of Demeter from Cnidus. 

(British Museum.) 

green as emerald, and has a look of wealth and richness, which is dispelled 
when one lands. 

Its roses are perennial yet, and its wild flowers in spring time are lovely as 
of old. It was formerly the stronghold of tlie Cross, the last refuge of the 
Christians. Nobly the Knights of Rhodes fought for their standard and held 
it long after every other point had been conquered. The Crescent flag flew at 



last on the towers of the Christian Knights. 
Since then there has not been a Christian 
resident on the island. 

It is difficult to remain any time in 
Rhodes, there is no accommodation for 
tourists. The only way is to have a steam - 
yacht and anchor opposite where one pleases 
to land. 

To go back to olden glories. Rhodes 
was a very ancient place and so populous 
that its adventurous sons peopled Gela, 
Sybaris, and perhaps Naples (Parthenope), 
and many other places round the Great Sea. 
Originally there were three cities, LiXDUS, 
Ialysu.s and Camirus. These joined to- 
gether and founded Rhodus (408 B.C.), 
which soon became mistress of the eastern 
seas. The Rhodians were sun-worshippers 
and put the head of Apollo on their coins, 
and the opening Rose on the reverse, to 
typify — the name Rodon = the rose — the 

rich flora of their plains. These types 
they retained for five hundred years. 

Cleopatra as Isis. 

(Sculpture at Denderah, Egypt.) 


Head of a Girl from Cnidus. 
(British Museum.) 

[707-722.] I have coins of Lindus and 
Camirus [706, 706a] ; those of lalysus 
are rarely to be found. [PI. XVII.] 

Rhodes succumbed to superior forces 
after the Macedonian conquest, but De- 
metrius, Besieger of Cities, so admired 
the Rhodians' heroic defence that he gave 
them all his engines of war and retired 
from the siege. These were so valuable 
that they supplied the funds for the 
famous Colossus of Rhodes, a huge 
bronze figure of Apollo, 105 feet high, 
erected at the entrance to the harbour. 
As long as it stood, it was one of the 
world's " seven wonders." 

This gigantic figure, the largest 
ever made in bronze, up to that time, 
was thrown down by an earthquake. 



and lay, a ruin of broken metal, for 1000 years, when, we are told by historians, 
a Jew bought what was left of it. So we are not likel}' to have it dredged up 
from the bottom of the sea, as happened this year off Cape Malea to the 
cargo of a wi-eckod Roman vessel, laden with loot from old Greece, which 
went to the bottom 2000 years ago (see page 299). 

The coins of later date, showing the head of Apollo radiate, are very 
probably portraits of the Colossus (page 114). I can quite well understand the 

" travellers' tale " that there was 
a staircase inside the statue and 
that six persons could sit in the 
head and it was possible to look 
out of the eye sockets. For the 
bronze statue of Bavaria, set up 
in our own time by the eccentric 
King Ludwig I. at Munich, has all 
these qualifications for wonder- 
ment. It is 100 feet inheight, and 
I have ascended into the lady's 
head and looked out of her eyes, 
so do not doubt the truth of the 
description of the old Colossus. 

Although now apparently 
possessing no classic remains 
(there may be possibly much 
entombed beneath the modern 
town, or built into the forti- 
fications of the knights, which 
still abound in a ruined state) 
yet Rhodes was once the seat of 
a famous school of sculpture. 
These figures or groups, like the 
famed Colossus, were mostly of a grandiose style. The " IjAOCOON," now one of the 
glories of the Vatican Museum, Rome, and the " DiRKE," known as the ToRO 
Farnese, now at Naples — both are of the Rhodian School of Sculpture. And 
doubtless many masterpieces of the Rhodian style are preserved in the museums 
of Europe, having been carried off to Italy by the Romans. 

The coins of Rhodes [707-722, PI. XVIL] are all of similar type. The 
later ones show the head of Apollo in profile, and sometimes the rose in full 
expansion, like our heraldic treatment of the flower. One of the coins [718] 
is a well-preserved gold piece, of great rarity and beauty ; while the silver one 
is interesting as being one of the alliance coins, 394 B.C., struck after Conon's 

Rhodes— Street of the Knights. 




(Froux a drawing by the late Lord Leighton, P.R.A.) 

victory at Cnidus. These all show the infant Hercules strangling the serpent 
of tyranny. My piece is much worn, but the coins are so rare that even in this 
state it is a valuable addition to any cabinet. There were similar coins of 
Ephesus, Byzantium, Samos, Cnidus, 
and lasus — struck to commemorate 
the anti-Spartan alliance, but they 
are very rarely met with. 

It seems strange that Rhodes, a 
place of the highest Hellenic civilisa- 
tion, should have no traces left of its 
splendid capital, which is described as 
having been laid out with wide streets, 
lined with statuary and possessing 
famous public buildings and temples. 
It had also a great art school, down 
to the prolific days of the Hel- 
lenistic age, when Rome patronised 
the Greek sculptors, giving them em- 
ployment for all their work. But 
when the Laocoox and DiRKE were 
carried off" to Rome and Naples, things 
must have come to a bad state in 

The Laocoon. 
From Greek and Roman Sculptvre (Longinann and Co.) 

H H 



(From a drawing by the late Lord Leighton, P.R.A.) 

Rhodes, and once despoiling began, everything seems to have been plundered. 
Of Camirus and Ialysus of classic times few remains have been found. 

Ltndus still exists, with its two fine 
harbours, now both choked with 

Rhodes might, however, yet be 
made a flourishing place, were it 
under sound honest management, 
such as the British have given to 
Egypt, and at length are giving to 
Cyprus. The population are now 
very bigoted Moslems and by no 
means pleasant in their manners to 
any Christian visitors. Once a 
stronghold of the Cross, it seems 
strange that this fine island should 
have been utterly neglected by 
the Christian nations. Now that 
Crete is " protected " from the 
malignant Turk, Cyprus receives 
justice under English control, and Samos elects its own governor, it is strange 
that Germany or France do not bid for the " protection " of Rhodes. Turkey 
will sell it cheap, and it would be a good thing for the Isle of Roses, if 
some European power -would take charge of it. England cannot possibly 
undertake all the waifs and strays of Turkish rapacity and neglect. 

DiKKB, Rhodian Sculpture. 
(Naples Museum.) 


The Kingdom of Croesus— Lydia, &c. 

The Village or Sart, on- the site of Sardes. 



( 307 ) 

B B 2 



The Falls of the Cydnus, near Tarsus. 


' ' The river nobly foams and flows. " — Byron. 

It is now time to return to the mainland and penetrate through the moun- 
tains, towards the old kingdom of Lydia. 

Shut in from the sea, its ancient capital, Sardes must have arrived at its 
position of wealth and power through controlling the great caravan routes to 
and from Syria, Persia and India. In this way only, can Lydia have become 
so prosperous and its king a millionaire. The life of this remarkable man, 
the richest of monarchs of his time — Croesus — is peculiarly interesting to 
numismatists as he gets the credit of issuing the first carefully coined money. 
These were pieces of accredited weight, ingeniously suited to meet the wants 
of the trade between east and west. [Nos. 723, 724.] The coins are gold 
staters, but of different standards (a difference of 42 grains), both of pure gold 
and in all probability struck at the mints of Croesus himself, 568-554 B.C. 
One is Euboic standard, 126 grains, the other the Babylonian, 168 grains. 
There were also silver pieces issued by this monetary reformer ; I have one of 
these, struck for the oriental trade [No. 725, PI. XVII]. 

There were possibly money-pieces before the time of this merchant-prince, 
but the great Lydian, with his vast wealth, was able to control the trade 
between Asia and Europe, and being a shrewd man of business, issued good coins 

( 38(1 ) 



of pure metal, and stamped with his trade-mark. Herodotos relates this, and 
we have the coins of Croesus still existing to prove it. Dr. Head in his 
" Historia Numorum " tells us that this monetary reform was introduced by 
Croesus to propitiate the Hellenes, and promote trade by the introduction of a 
double currency of gold and silver; it proves the commercial genius of the 
great trader. No, 725 is one of the silver coins of the same issue. This is a 

niglos or half-shekel of the 
Babylonic standard. 

The whole life of Croe- 
sus was most picturesque 
and his chequered career 
was full of romance. The 
richest monarch of his 
time, he had become ruler 
of all Asia Minor from the 
Aegean to the River Halys. 
Being a wise and good 
ruler, he was not regarded 
as a tyrant, but his intel- 
lect attracted to his court 
all the great men of his 
time, and he was ambitious 
of being considered the 
greatest ruler of Hellenes, 
at least in Asia. 

Alarmed at the pro- 
gress of Cyrus and his 
Persian hordes, Croesus 
sent to the oracle of Delphi 
for advice. The oracular 
reply was that an empire 
should be lost, if he 
marched against the Per- 
sians. He collected an 
enormous army — but was 
beaten. Lydia was conquered, and never rose again to the position of an 
independent kingdom. 

Cyrus condemned him to be burnt to death, but struck with his dignified 
behaviour, relented at the last moment, and made him his friend and adviser, 
but deprived him of all his vast wealth. Croesus survived Cyrus, and in later 

Column with the n.4me of Croesus. 

(British Museum.) 


years accompanied Cambyses when he invaded Egypt. The Lydian king seems 
to have been of a genial temperament, and happier in later years than when 
he controlled millions. Many stories are told of him and his wisdom. He still 
preserved his dignified attitude, though maintained in poverty as the dependent 
on a tyrant. In his palmy days all the wise men of Greece visited him at 
Sardes. Solon was one of these, and Herodotos tells us many tales of his con- 
versations with his visitors, which are well worth reading. Solon fearlessly gave 
him advice, by which he profited. Croesus gave great gifts to Delphi, to 
Olympia and other Hellenic shrines. In every way his was a remarkable 
and an interesting life. 

S.^RDE.S was one of the most ancient cities of Asia Minor. Gold was found 
in abundance in its little river Pactolus and in the vicinit}'. It was strongly 
fortified with triple walls and an acropolis, ruins of which remain. One of the 
"seven churches" of 
early Christianity, 
it sank into ruin in 
the middle ages. 
Two Ionic columns 
alone mark the site 
of its famed temple 
of Cybele in a scene 
of striking desola- 
tion. These are re- 
mains of Roman 
times, when it had 
been rebuilt after 
an earthquake. A 
miserable village on 
the spot, named 

Sart, is all that now is left to recall the mighty Sardes, mistress of Asia 
Minor, and the residence of the first of millionaires of the ancient world. 

When writing above of the archaic temple of Ephesus, allusion has been 
made to the wonderful discovery, under the ruins of the second temple there, of 
the of a column bearing the name of Croesus as its donor. Herodotos 
had told of this in his time when the great temple was perfect. How wonderful 
that this very inscription should be found to prove an event of the romance of 
Croesus and the truth of ancient story. With a little assistance, the inscription 
reads " King Kroisos dedicated (this Column)." Croesus ruled a great part 
of Ionia and adjacent states during the time of his splendour. But Lycia, on 
the southern coast, was never a portion of the kingdom of Croesus. 

Temple of Cybele, Acropolis of Sardes. 



Restoration of a Lycian Tomb. 

(From the Britinh Museum Catalogue of Sculpture.) 


This was long a free state, the Lycian league maintaining independence 
from early days till the time of Alexander. Consequently its coins are mainly 
of archaic types. [726-729.] They bear inscriptions, moreover, in the 
Lycian alphabet. Many of its coins have the triskelis, or tetraskelis, supposed 

to denote the motion of the sun. No. 729 
has the name Pericles, one of its kings 
about 380 B.C. [PI. XVII.] 

Lycia, after the time of Alexander, 
'^^•i.^' jmD< \, ~ ^^'^^ alternately imder the Ptolemaic or 

r^yW'^'^^' ^=p ^*^< \ ^^® Seleucid sway. The Romans, how- 

ever, gave it autonomy. 

Although but a narrow coast be- 
tween rhe mountains and the sea, Lycia 
was an important state, with many 
flourishing towns. Xanthus must have 
been a splendid place, judging from the 
magnificent sculptures brought by Sir 
Charles Fellows to the British Museum. Yet it affords us no coins — the Federal 
issues having evidently applied to the whole country. 

Nereid Monu.ment, Xanthus. 
(British Museum.) 



Tomb of Payava, Xanthus. 

(British Museum.) 

There are considerable remains of the Cyclopean walls of old Xanthus, a 
theatre, and inscriptions in their peculiar language, which can now be read, but 
were long a puzzle to philologists. This is another naturally rich district of 
Turkey, which under good government would recover its ancient prosperity. 

The Xanthian tombs are very curious, 
and evidently copied from wooden structures, 
the morticing and timber framework being imi- 
tated in stone. But the sculpture is of a high 
order of merit for its early date, and the horses 
and animated chariot scenes are full of vigour 
and talent, with good Hellenic taste predomi- 
nant. The tomb of Pavava is the best of 
several in the British Museum — but the name 
does not seem of Greek origin. Mr. Arthur 
Smith gives an interesting description of them 
and their art in the British Museum Catalogue 
of Grecian Scvlpture. 

Although the coinage of Xanthus and 
Lycia generally is quite devoid of artistic taste, 
we cannot pass by the region which produced 
such a structure a.s the Xereid Monument, the remains of which are now in the 
British Museum. It is most strange that a people who produced such beautiful 

The Nereid Monument. 

(Restoration from BritUh Museum 




figures as the " Nereid," which is engraved in the margin, and is as early as the 
fifth century B.C., did not give their coins some element of beauty. All the 

figures now preserved are headless, but enough re- 
mains to show how lovely they must have been in 
their perfect state. The monument is supposed to 
have commemorated some naval engagement and 
the figures to personate the powers of air and water 
employed by the celestial beings to aid the victorious 
result. The fragments in the British Museum are 
among its richest treasures of early art 


Pamphylia, further east along the coast, pos- 
sessed many flourishing cities in the good old times 
of Hellenic importance. Its coins are more Grecian 
in type than those of Lycia. 

AsPENDUS gives us good coins as early as the 
fifth century B.C. [730], where the triskelis of human 
legs, afterwards taken for the Trinakria, or sign of Sicily, first appears. Strange 
to say, this Triskelis is also the crest of our own Isle of Man. The connection 


(British Museum.) 


The Theatre, Aspesdus. 


must be remote and interesting. Doubtless some of the Crusaders were 
attracted by the queer badge and adopted it for their crest, so giving it to 
Sicily and thence it was brought to the British Isles. Two wrestlers appear on 
the next coin, No. 731, possibly a representation of a bronze statue of the city 


of Aspendus. On the reverse, a good figure of a slinger (the inhabitants 
possibly were partial to using the sling), with the triquetra again. [PI. XVII.] 

The city must have been a great place, as its abundant silver coinage 
testifies. It is said to have been an Argive colony. The vast theatre is nearly 
perfect, and the most wonderful of its kind — it can hardly be called a ruin. 
It is a Greek theatre Romanized, and the work of both nations remains. The 
district is now in a miserable state, paralysed by Turkish misrule. 

Perga was an important place, celebrated for the worship of Diana 
(Artemis), and here Paul and Barnabas preached the Gospel. 

Perga gives us a coin [732] of the second century B.C. with a good head 
of Artemis, possibly copied from a statue, for this goddess was the protectress 
of the town. On the reverse a fair figure of the huntress clad in short chiton, 
at her feet a stag, her quiver at her shoulder. As its name seems to imply, this 
city was under the rule of the king of Pekgamon. 

Side, in the same neighbourhood, offers a coin of late date but with a good 
head of AtheN'A [733], and a winged Victory on the reverse, with a pome- 
granate, which is a play on the name of the town SI AH. 


We are n(jw along the coast as far as CiLiciA (which we must try to call 
by the new pronunciation KiLlKlA). Nagidos [737] offers an interesting coin 
of early date, a rare variety, unpublished, Mr. Hill tells us. Aphrodite, 
fully draped, seated on her throne. Eros flies towards his mother with a 



wreath in both hands. Under the throne, a mouse 1 A bearded Dionysos 
on the reverse, with bunch of grapes. 

Celendekis offers us very old coins of good types, prancing horse, nude 
rider sitting sideways, with whip, and a goat kneeling [734] and similar type 

Coast of Cilicia. 

but finer art, though not much later date [735]. Mallus was the chief town 
of the country. The crest of this great place was a swan, well engraved on No. 
736, with a curious running winged male figure, holding a disk before his body. 

The coins of the following satraps all hail most probably from the Tarsus 
mint. A king on horseback. On the reverse a nude hoplite wearing the 
Corinthian helmet [739] ; the latter figure is good. [PI. XVIII.] 

The satrap Datames gives us a fine coin [740] with a facing head of a 
goddess, evidently copied from Kimon's famous piece of Syracuse [No. 296]. 
The reverse has a fine head of Ares, evidently a portrait of some hero. The 
Phoenician inscription shows the Semitic tendencies of the place. Datames 
was a Cappadocian satrap, a Persian, who had established his own rule over the 
northern provinces of Asia Minor. 

Mazaios was a Persian satrap who surrendered his province to Alexander, 
and ruled thirty years as governor of Babylon. All the coins of Mazaios were 
possibly struck in Tarsus [Nos. 740-743]. They are all good types (some of 
them resembling those of Velia in Calabria ; possibly its colonists came from 
this district). All show the worship of Baal, which was viewed with such 
horror by pious Jews. No. 743 gives a curious representation of a fortified 
castle or city. No. 744 has a good fixcing bust of Athena with triple-crested 

SoLOi was an ancient Greek port about twenty miles west of Tarsus. 
No. 738 gives a good bunch of grapes, and a running archer with his bow case 


strapped behind him ; there is fine action in the figure. The coin is of the fifth 
century B.C. The battlefield of Issus where Alexander defeated Darius — 
333 B.C. — was in this district. The site has not been determined, but " the 
narrow valley near the pass known as the Syrian Gates " should not be difficult 
to identify. (See page 413.) 

TAR.SU.S, the birthplace of St. Paul, was a celebrated place, and he was 
proud to call himself " a citizen of no mean city." Its foundation is lost in 
obscurity. It has always been a noted place, was built by Sardanapalus, and 
in the time of the Seleucid princes was their foremost frontier town. It is still 
an important place with 6000 good houses, and has a striking appearance. 
There are great ruins in its neighbourhood which have never been properly 
e.xplored. It is on a fine river, the ancient Cydnus, is surrounded with beautiful 
gardens, and has a look of its old importance when viewed from some way off. 

The splendid perennial flood of this river, with falls which remind one of 
Tivoli, is a delightful sight to those who come to this rich region from the sandy 
deserts of Syria. Alexander the Great nearly caught his death by bathing in 
the Cydnus, and its waters are so cold that it is carefully avoided in their 


ablutions, by the natives, to this day. The river is a turbulent one and has 
covered over the ruins of the ancient city with twenty feet of silt. 

It was on this river that Cleopatra, disguised as Aphrodite, sailed in a 
barge with silken sails, to meet Mark Antony. 


There is now a railway, and the old place is wakening in a wonderful 
manner for a Turkish town. 

Cappadocia, the birthplace of our good Saint George, has now been reached. 
It lies beyond the mountains of Cilicia and is well watered by the river Halys 
(of which we hear so much from Xenophon, Herodotos, and Strabo), and also by 
the Euphrates. It is a mountainous land but with fine pastures, and was a 
great country for breeding horses, mules and sheep, and also renowned for 
producing grain. It had its own rulers from the time of Datames, who freed 
it from Persian satrapy. Not much is known about its kings till a late period. 
All my coins of Cappadocia are from 250 B.C. till -52 B.C. They are all Attic 
drachms, and very pretty coins, each bearing a different king's or magistrate's 
name, and in this respect the little set is unique [745-755, PI. XVIII.]. 

The splendid head of Aphrodite, in bronze, above life-size, is said to have 
been brought from this region. If of native work, their Hellenic skill must 
have been of the highest. But it may have been imported. The eyes have 
originally been inserted in glass or enamel. 

This noble work is one of the treasures of the British Museum, and is 
perhaps the finest Greek bronze preserved to our time. 

Head of Aphrodite"; (Bronze.) 

(From Satala, in Cappadocia. British Museum.) 


Great Physician. 

Bom at Cos, 4tM) B.C. Died at Larissa, 357 b c. 

(Capitoline Museum, Rome.) 


Lyric Poet, Born at Teos, 592-478 B.C. 

Lived mostly at Samoa, and afterwards at Athens. 

Marble Bust (Capitoline Museum, Rome). 


Born at S*)Ii in Cilicia. Astronomer-Poet. 

Lived at Court of Antigonue Gonataa, c, 270 B.C. 

(NapIeH Musetim.) 


Founder of the Stoic Pliilosophy, Athens. 

Born in Citinin, Cyprus, about 350 b.c. 

Bronze Bnat from Ilerculaneum (Naples Miiseum). 


[p. 378. 



The Cathedbal, Famahusta, Cvprus. 


< 370 ) 


Pkolo. by Bontlh. 

LiMASSOL, Cyprus. 


"Here is Freedom's chosen station." — Byron. 

The beautiful island of Cyprus lies off the coast of Cilicia and was an im- 
portant place in ancient times. It is the third largest island in the Mediter- 
ranean, its greatest length being 140 miles, its greatest breadth about 60 miles. 

There are two great mountain chains and a wide plain between them. 
Mount Troodos, in the centre of the southern chain, rises to 6406 feet above 
the sea, and is covered with snow in winter. On its south-eastern slopes are the 
summer quarters of the British troops and the High Commissioner of the island. 
The rivers are nearly all mountain torrents, dry in summer. In ancient times, 
when the island sustained a large population, doubtless the rains were stored 
in reservoirs and the lands irrigated extensively. 

The Isle of Love and Beauty, fortunately for itself, has, after two 
thousand years of sad vicissitudes, got a new master : it is now British, and 
under the administration of one of our best Government Departments — the 
Colonial Office. Since Mr. Chamberlain took the reins in hand this depart- 
ment is no longer the " sleepy hollow " it was once supposed to be. 

But South Africa has engrossed so much of that statesman's energies, 

( 381 ) 

c c 



that when I stepped into the Colonial Department one day asking for some 
information about Cyprus, I did not expect that in a busy government office 

much would be given, or that there 
was much to give. But I was re- 
ceived with courtesy, shown every 
attention, and supplied, a few days 
afterwards, with so much interesting 
information, that I have embodied the 
whole of it in the following accountv 
As Cyprus is our only possession 
in the Levant, and very little is 
known about it, I may be pardoned 
for devoting so much space to it, in 
a book which only professes to treat 
of the Parent Cities of Greek Coins.. 


Cyprus is at once an old and a 
young country. She has a splendid 
past, reaching from the dawn of 
Greek civilisation to the times of 
the Lusignan dynasty and the rule 
of the Venetian Republic, a past of 
which many noble memories and 
relics still remain. And there is the matter-of-fact but hopeful present,, 
dating from no earlier than the days of the Berlin Congress and the 
closing years of Lord Beaconsfield's last administration. Between the old 
Cyprus and the new there is nothing but the monotonous regime of the Turk — 
it is a blank of three hundred years, marked only by the gradual decrease of 
prosperity and population. Of that blank there is little to say, it has left deep 
eifects but no records. 

When in 1878 England received Cyprus from the Sultan for as long as- 
Russia should occupy Kars, in order that " she might make necessary provision 
for executing her engagement to defend the Asiatic possessions of the Sultan 
against Russia " — it was not the first time that England had intervened in the 
island. In 1191 Richard Coeur de Lion occupied it in order to chastise its 
ruler Isaac Comnenus for his ill-treatment of the English fleet. In the 
following year Richard sold the island to the Templars, but as they could not- 
govern it, the King made it over to Guy de Lusignan, titular King of Jerusalem, 
by whom and by whose family it was ruled between 1192 and 1489, when it. 

From Salamis. 

(Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge.) 



passed to Venice. This time England has come to stay — until Russia 
evacuates Kars. 

Cyprus is an island of great fertility and was once wealthy, supporting a 
population far in excess of her present total of 230,000 souls. Since the occu- 
pation the population has increased by over 40,000, and in prosperity too there 
has been a great increase. The revenue under the Turk was some £120,000, 
of which only £30,000 was expended in the government of the island, the rest 
going to Constantinople. The revenue for the year 1899—1900 was £215,000 
and the local expenditure £135,000. The increase of revenue is not due to in- 
creased taxation, for there is a Council with a majority of elected members 
who jealously guard the pockets of their constituents. It is an increase of yield. 

In one respect the Cypriots have been disappointed by the occupation, 
since the policy of making Cyprus a " place d'armes " was soon abandoned. 
But though their hopes in that direction have been unfulfilled, they have gained 
immensely from British rule, which has brought them even-handed justice, free- 
dom from oppression, the power of legislating for themselves, and great increase 
of material prosperity. There have 
been difficulties in development, for 
centuries of Turkish rule cannot be 
obliterated in a generation. Oriental 
methods of taxation and government 
can be changed but slowly. The 
Turkish law is still the law of the 
island, except in so far as it has been 
changed by local statutes — but Turk- 
ish law is excellent, though vague, if 
it be but applied, and in Cyprus 
British magistrates have applied it. 
The system of taxation is being 
gradually modernised, and with every 
change, money is raised with less 
hardship to the taxpayer. In the last 
few years tithes on minor products 
have been abandoned, some other 
tithes are taken on export only, cus- 
tonis duties have been made more 
simple and less burdensome, heavy 
shipping dues which kept trade from 
the island have been reduced and made foirer in incidence by a law which 
came into operation this year, and the excessive excise on wine manufactured 

c c 2 

Torso in White Marble. 

Found at Salamis, Cyprus. 
(Fitzwilllam Museum, Cambridge.) 



locally is now under the consideration of the Council with a view to a 
fairer adjustment. 

Cyprus has been handicapped by the tribute payable to Turkey under the 
Convention. It was agreed that England should pay to the Porte the excess 
of revenue over expenditure previous to the occupation, to be calculated on the 
average of the previous five years. Under this arrangement £92,800 goes out 
of the island annually, and is employed in paying off the debt of Turkey under 

Nicosia, the capital of Cyprus— The Church of the Knights. 

(Now the Mosque of Santa Sophia.) 

the Guaranteed Loan of 1855. Now in the old days the total revenue was only 
some £120,000, and so, as stated above, only £30,000 or thereabouts was 
expended locally. At present £135,000 is so spent, and this in addition to the 
tribute is in excess of the revenue, greatly though that has increased. The 
British Parliament therefore has had to assist Cyprus every year except two 
since the occupation with grants in aid of varying amounts. But Cyprus has 
suffered, since she has never had surplus revenues to devote to development, and 
care has had to be exercised to keep down the amounts for which the British 
taxpayer is asked to provide. 

Since 1895, however, though Cyprus had no claim to further aid, a more 



Larnaca, Cyprus. 

generous policy has been pursued, in the belief that more generous treatment 
will in the end be more beneficial both to Cyprus and England. Increases of 
expenditure have been allowed in many branches. The annual public works 
vote has been increased from £10,000 to £19,000, and from it a system of main 

Nicosia — The Cai-ital of Cyprus. 


roads has been constructed over the island. A weekly mail service with Egypt 
has been instituted, and a subsidised steamer runs round the island. Measures 
have been taken to instruct the peasantry in improved methods of cultivation 



under the supervision of an expert Director of Agriculture, and in many 
directions progress has been encouraged. 

Parliament has sanctioned a loan of £314,000 for irrigation, for the con- 
struction of a harbour at Famagusta, and for a railway between that port and 
the capital, Nicosia. The irrigation works have been completed and are 
confidently expected to prove highly remunerative, besides conferring great 
benefit on the islanders, whose chief obstacle is the absence of water. In his 

The modern Port of Baffa — the ancient Paphos. 

latest report on the island presented to Parliament the High Commissioner 
says : — 

" Every one who has seen the magic effect of water on the cultivation in 
Cyprus must watch this experiment in irrigation with keen interest and with 
hope for its complete success. However often one may see the wonder of the 
barren and arid soil transformed into vivid green and luxuriant vegetation 
the marvel seems as great as when the poet of old saw the water-paths drop 

And the general satisfaction of the inhabitants is well expressed in the reply of 
the Council to the address of the High Commissioner (Sir. W. F. Haynes 
Smith) at the opening of the last Session : — 

" Every Cypriot speaks with enthusiasm of the irrigation works, and there is 
but one opinion with regard to them, namely, that the benefits derived there- 
from should be extended to the whole island. The important works that have 


already been executed show that the evils arising from the want of rain which 
is noticeable in Cyprus in the months of March and April almost every year, 
and is attended by such grievous consequences for the country, could be remedied. 
To seek such remedy by all means is a duty mutually incumbent on the 
Government and the people, and such remedy will be one of the most important 
means of promoting the prosperity of the country. 


Ruins of the Temple op the Paphian Aphrodite. 
(The recent excavations.) 

" In thanking His Majesty's Government for their foresight in inaugurating 
such really beneficial works in the island, the Council considers itself in duty 
bound to call upon them to propose other measures, securing to the whole 
island the invaluable boons of irrigation, and, in doing so, the Government will 
find the Council ever ready to assist them in the attainment of this end. 

" The gratitude of the country towards the Right Honourable Mr. 
Chamberlain, His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Colonies for his 
initiative in the question of irrigation, is deeply inscribed in the heart of every 
Cypriot, and this Council has no doubt that he will continue a work the first 
experiments of which have been attended by complete success, and the extension 
of which to the whole island will prove to be the greatest boon." 

Another great disadvantage of the island has been that it has no harbour. 
The reconstruction of the old ruined harbour at Famagusta, which is to be 



commenced shortly, will be an enormous boon, and the proposed railway thence 
to the capital, which has already been surveyed, will further add to the general 
prosperity anticipated for the future. When these facilities are provided it may 
be hoped that the extraordinary attractions of Cyprus for lovers of antiquities, 

for travellers in search of natural 
beauty, and for those more unfortu- 
nate travellers who are in search of 
health, will bring many visitors, to 
the profit of themselves and of the 
Cypriots. Cyprus would be a de- 
lightful winter resort for Europeans, 
and the ranges of Mount Troodos 
offer a summer sanatorium for 
dwellers in the Levant and Egypt. 

In summing up this note on 
modern Cyprus as it is, another quo- 
tation may be borrowed from a recent 
report of the High Commissioner laid 
before Parliament, which is described 
as an opinion published in America of 
an independent observer well known' 
throughout the Levant, who made 
a tour through Cyprus three years 

Marble Statue found at Salamis. 

(Fitzwilliara Museum, Cambridge.) 

" The island of Cyprus is just 
now an object lesson of the kind of 
government England can give. It has been for twenty years an English possession. 
An American observer, Dr. George E. Post, of the College at Beirut, who knew 
Cyprus well under Turkish rule, has recently been writing in enthusiastic terms 
of the astounding transformation wrought by English occupation. The Govern- 
ment has but a small personnel — only about 100 officials all told — but it has 
simply revolutionised the island for the better. Taxation has been lightened 
and made a fixed and rational system, instead of a means of rapacious extortion, 
agriculture has been improved, and trading put on a securer basis, while a 
complete system of public schools is in operation. Dr. Post saw on all sides, in 
a recent visit, contentment and prosperity where thirty years ago only terror 
and wretchedness were visible. No wonder that every oppressed people in the 
world, dimly awakening to the possibility of better government, prays for 
English intervention and English rule." 


One thing should have been mentioned. Much of the copper of the ancients 
was obtained from this island; The word " copper " is in fact derived from it. 
Doubtless the mountains are still full of copper ore, and modern science might 
again develop the mines. My 
modest informants at the 
Colonial Office did not set forth 
all the merits of " The Island," 
as it is called there. The}- 
might have told us that the 
breed of horses and mules is 
celebrated, that every kind of 
game known in those latitudes 
abounds. The celebrated 
" Moufflon " wild sheep is 
still found in the mountain.s. 
The honey of Cyprus is cele- 
brated as it was in ancient times. When our Government establish rest-houses 
(as they have done in remote parts of India) little more will be required to 

attract tourists. 


Cyprus has never been systematically explored. There is great need for a 

Marisle (,'ai'Itai. i'rom .Salamis. 
(British Museum.) 

FAMAdusTA, CvpRrs. 

complete survey of the many ancient classic sites. Some archaeological explora- 
tion.* have been made at different times during the British administration, but 
nothing very extensive has been carried out regarding classic remains excepting 


the excavation of the ruins of the Temple of Aphrodite at Paphos, by the 
Cyprus Exploration Fund. There have been also extensive researches on the 
site of Salamis. General de Cesnola and his brother opened many tombs of 
prehistoric date. The greater part of their collection is now in New York. 
There is now a local collection of antiquities, and any future discoveries of the 
kind will, it is to be hoped, be retained in the island. 

In the time of the Assyrian kings, in the fifth century B.C., there were 
ten small states in Cyprus and as many rulers, whose names occur in inscrip- 
tions. In the days of Diodoros, shortly before the Christian era, we hear of 
nine independent cities, Salamis, Citium, Marium, Amathus, Curium, Paphus, 
Soli, Lapethus, Cerynia. Several of these sites still exist, the names only 
slightly altered. Exploration would be rewarded by identification of them all. 

Paul and Barnabas converted the island to Christianity, of which it 
remained a stronghold till conquered by the Moslems. Cyprus sent twelve 
bishops to the Council of Nice, 825 A.D. Even now there are a majority of 
Christians, of the Greek Church, in the island. 

The chief towns found in the island to-day are Nicosia (the capital), 
Larnaca, LiMAssoL, Famagusta, Papho, Kyrenia. The ruins of Salamis are 
near Famagusta. When the projected harbour of Famagusta is completed, the 
buildings of the mediaeval city, now a heap of ruins, will come back to life. 
There will then be abundant use for the beautiful Gothic church of the Lusignans, 
of v/hich an engraving is given at the beginning of the chapter. In a short 
time a railway will connect the re-created port of the island with> Nicosia, 
possessing as it does another gem of European Gothic architecture — now the 
Mosque of Santa Sophia. If we build the Moslems a new religious edifice, or 
pay them fairly for this, the Crescent might peacefully retire before the votaries 
of the Cross. Kyrenia, were its harbour dredged, would soon rise to import- 
ance ; its scenery is magnificent and its climate salubrious. 

Restored to its ancient healthy fertility, the beautiful island may once again 
become a sanatorium, for it enjoys one of the most delightful of climates and 
only needs drainage for its marshes, storage of the copious rains and the 
melted snow from the hills, and irrigation to make it perfect. The famous 
wines of the Knights of old — still called " Commanderie " — ma}- become fashion- 
able, when its manufacture is improved. Cyprus grows magnificent silk, and 
produces the best oranges in the Levant. 

Kyrenia, on the north coast, were its harbour deepened, would be a very 
important port. Its climate is lovely, and it is situated among most picturesque 
scenery, as the Hon. A. Y. Bingham's beautiful drawing illustrates. 



Most of the sculptures found at Salamis and Paphos have been sadly muti- 
lated. In the British Museum there is one remarkable capital of a marble 
column, very beautiful and most original. In the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 
there are a number of fragments from Salamis, several of which we engrave. 

It is strange to find excellent Gothic architecture, fortifications of Venetian 
times, and good classic relics in an island which teems with prehistoric remains. 

Greek coins of Cyprus are not plentiful. After the plates were printed, I 
obtained a few, which are separately illustrated. Of CiTiON (no doubt the 

Kybenia, CvpRrs. — The Venetian Fortifications. 

(From a drawing by the Hon. A. Y. Bingham. By Permi8aion.) 

Chittim of the Bible) I have coins of its Kings Azbaal, Baalmelek, and 
a gold coin of King Pumiaton. [Plate XVIII. 757, 758, 759.] 

Of Salamis, coins of its Kings Evagoras, Nicocles, and Nicocreon 
[760, 761, 762], both gold and silver pieces. All these range in date from 
B.C. 449 to .312. (Evagoras freed the island from the Persians, 385 B.C., and left 
the kingdom to his son Nicocles.) Although the inscriptions on these coins are 
mainly in the Semitic characters, all the features and figures shown on them are 
of the Greek deities, Apollo, Heuakles, and of course. Aphrodite. For this 
ancient isle was, we are told by classic writers, the original abode of the 
most lovely of womankind, the personification of female beauty. At Paphos 
the myth of Venus being evolved from the foam of the ocean was localised. 



Two coins of Pnytagoras, a king of Salamis [761a and b], have good 
heads of Aphrodite and Artemis, with Greek letters (see page 154). 

There is also a coin of Vespasian [No. 762a] with a curious representation 

■s^^^^ of the Temple 

of thePaphian 
and two long 

my recently- 
coins of Cy- 
prus is a very 
ancient one 
[No. 759b] 
of Salamis, 
its earliest 
known. It 
which Mr. Hill 

The Ruins of the Temple at Pafhos. 

(Before the recent excavatiuiis.) 

bears a couchant ram, a crux ansata, and an inscription 
translates in the catalogue (page 154). 

Then of Paphos, a coin nearly as ancient as the last [No. 759a]. A bull 
on one side, an eagle on the other, with an inscription (page 153). 

Two coins of Amathus [756a and b]. Lion's head with inscriptions. 

As in Rhodes, every temple of classic times has disappeared, and every 
trace of the wealth of ancient art has been destroyed or removed. What 
the Romans spared the Moslems broke to pieces, so we now only find 
fragments of the sculptures of the Hellenic times. The Gothic churches seem 
to have been spared by being converted into mosques. 

Zeno, the founder of the Stoic School of Philosophy, was born at Citium. 
The exact date of his birth and death is unknown, but as he lived at the Court 
of Antigonus Gonatas of Macedon, he must have flourished about 260 B.C. 

The First Silver Coins struck for Cyprus at the London Mint 



Ruins of a Temple, Latakia. 

(The ancient Laodicea.) 



( 303 ) 


Distant View of Antioch. 


" And Tyre's proud piers lie shattered in the main." — Byron. 

The series of coins, extending over two hundred and fifty years, which 
numismatists designate under the head of " Syria," really represent a much 
wider district. 

The catastrophe of Alexander's early death left in a dazed unsettled 
condition that eastern world which he had overrun with his conquering 
armies. There were still, scattered over a vast region, great military organisa- 
tions under experienced generals trained by him. 

But none of the generals was able to fill Alexander's place. He had 
said it was " for the most worthy " — none of them felt himself fit to rule the 
world, each concerned himself with the district he best understood, and in 
the space of a dozen years, there were nearly as many independent 

Seleucus was the son of Antiochus, one of the officers of Philip of 
Macedon. He was one of Alexander's most efficient generals in his Indian 
campaign, and when ultimately a partition of the Macedonian Empire was 
made among them, the province of Babylon fell to the lot of Seleucus, as a 
sort of satrapy under Macedonian rule. 

Eventually, however, Seleucus became sole ruler of this province and its 
dependencies, and in 312 B.C. founded the royal line, afterwards known as the 
Seleucid Dynasty. In 301 B.C. Seleucus and Lysimachus together conquered 
AntigonuS. Lysimachus fell, fighting against Seleucus, 281 B.C. 

( 396 ) 



Syria, and a great part of Asia Minor, from the Euphrates to the Mediter- 
ranean, came to Seleucus in the division of the spoil. Increased westwards 
as well as eastwards, thus was formed the great Seleucid Empire. It at first 
extended to what had been Persia, to Parthia, and as far as Bactria, but these 
coiintries were never tightly held, and broke off their allegiance early. 

Lysimachus being conquered and slain, Seleucus intended to seize the 
throne of Macedonia and crossed the Hellespont with a great army ; but was 
murdered on his way to Macedon. His son and successors contented them- 
selves with the Syrian and adjacent provinces. They seem soon after to have 
neglected Babylon as a capital, and established Antioch as their headquarters 


aad founded other cities near the Mediterranean. Thus they came to be 
regarded as Syrian potentates. 

But it is strange how little we know of the life of these remarkable men. 

Amid much internecine strife and domestic quarrels and tragedies they 
managed to continue their sway for nearly 250 years. Their coins afford 
us a series of historical portraits, unequalled by those of any country the 
world ever knew. We seem to gaze upon the men themselves. But of 
their life, we know little, of the cities where they resided, we know almost 
nothing. In so far their personal history is a sealed book, or rather a lost 
record. We know infinitely more of the Pharaohs who ruled Egypt several 
thousand years before their time. Indeed, by recent discoveries we begin 
to know more of the kings of the I. to III. Dynasties of Egypt — of 6500 


The (so-called) Sarcophagus of Alexander, Constantinople. 

(Found near Sidon.) 

years ago, than we know of the doings of the Seleucid Kings, who came into 
existence when Egypt's life, as an independent nation, was no more. 

Mr. MahafFy has given us a fascinating volume on " The Empire of the 
Ptolemies " ; Mr. Oman one equally interesting on " The Byzantine Empire." 
We have many works on Ale.xander's conquests and explanations of his 
grand ideas for universal sway. But will none of these historians give us 
" The Seleucid Empire " ? Until they do we must remain in ignorance. And 
when the time comes let the tale be told by one who knows the region where 
these powerful rulers held their sway ; let him illustrate for us by good photo- 
graphs, or sketches taken on the spot, the present condition of the ancient sites. 

Till then not much can be known beyond what we learn from the portrait 
gallery of these wonderful men (Plates XIX., XX.). One piece of light suddenly 
shone forth to dazzle our minds, a 
few years since. This was quite 
enough to whet the edge of appetite. 

In 1887, an ancient necro- 
polis near Sidon was accidentally 
discovered. It was found to con- 
tain a collection of sarcophagi, 
mostly of marble from Pentelicus, 
near Athens, and therefore pre- 
sumably of Attic sculpture, not the 
work of Syrian artists. The coffins 
were empty, save one of Egyptian 
stone, which contained the body 
of a Sidonian king, with hieroglyphics showing that it had been brought 
from Egypt, and a text in Phoenician with his name and curses upon those that 

D D 

The Sarcophagus of the Weeping Women, 
(Found near Sidon.) 




should dare to disturb his peace. There were no inscriptions on the other 
marble sarcophagi, whose intended occupants remain a mystery. 

The sculpture was of the highest merit, of the style of the third century 
B.C. The battle-scenes shown on the finest sarcophagus, being evidently from 
the life of Alexander, at first gave rise to the idea that this might be the 
long sought-for tomb of the great Macedonian. But this was found to be 
impossible — he was buried at Memphis and his coffin was subsequently removed 
to Alexandria, where Augustus saw the corpse. Caligula stole the Great 
Alexander's breastplate, that he might decorate himself therewith when 
presiding over the National Games at Rome. 

In these days of survivals, we may yet stumble on the ruins of the great 
man's mausoleum at Alexandria, certainly it will not be found by the shores 
of lonely, deserted Sidon. 

Saide — (S(DO.s) : The Crusaders' Fort. 

These magnificent sarcophagi were very near coming to the British 
Museum. But, unfortunately for us, the Turks began to see that it might pay 
to preserve classic antiquities better than to smash them up for road-making 
or to burn them for lime. A member of the Constantinople governing classes, 
Hamdi Bey by name, who had been educated in Paris, advised the Sultan to 
bring these marble relics of Greek art to Constantinople. Here an old mosque 
has been converted into a museum for them, and for all future things of the kind 
that may be discovered in Turkish realms. This is unfortunate — for doubtless 
Constantinople will one day be bombarded by some union of the Christian 
powers. The fate of these treasures will then be that which befell the Parthenon 
in time of war. 


Babylon — "The Kask." 

(Ancient ruins of unknown date.) 

I went specially all the way to Constantinople to see these sarcophagi and 
they are well worthy of a long journey. The sculptures are perfect and at 
least one of the figures is intended to represent Alexander. 

The original colouring, done with great delicacy and taste, remains in many 
places, and adds much to the beauty of the work. Professor Ernest Gardner 
thinks that the sculpture is from Attic hands and states ^ that " it is 
certainly the most perfect in preservation of all the monuments of Greek art 
that have survived to our time." He also truly adds " much is learnt from the 
sight of the originals in the museum at Constantinople, which they have at 
once raised to a very high rank among the collections of Greek antiquities." 

The discovery of these important specimens of Hellenic art on a lonely 
deserted coast, shows what we may expect to be found through the length and 
breadth of the wide realm of the ancient Seleucid Empire. Only let us hope 
that when more such finds come to the light of day they may bear some 
inscription to explain their mysterious origin. 

There were several other marble sarcophagfi found in this site at Sidon. 
One of a satrap has the top of the tomb in shape like the Lycian one in the 
British Museum from Xanthus. Another, with expressive figures of weeping 
women, shows a good period of Greek art. The figures are touching and 
refined in effect and evince deep grief without being melodramatic. It is in 
design the model of an Ionic temple, of purest taste, and like the other one 
' Handbook of Greek Scti/pture (Macniillan). 

D D 2 


we have described, is of Pentelic marble. Like it also, this tomb bears no 
trace whatever of an inscription. 

Antioch in Syria was one of many cities of the name founded (by 
Seleucus in memory of his father) about 300 B.C. It is probable that many of 
the coins of the Seleucids were struck here, though some have the mark of the 
Babylonian mint. The kingdom of Seleucus extended for more than 1,000 
miles east and west. Babylon was near its centre, and thus remained an im- 
portant capital, and must have still been a splendid city. But the Macedonian 
origin of the Seleucids inclined them to keep near the Mediterranean. They 
founded many new cities towards the west, and gradually neglected ancient 
Babylon, which soon fell into decay. Thus Antioch became a prosperous city, 
and its situation in a beautiful valley on the fine river Orontes made it a 
favourite residence of the Seleucid monarchs. Antioch has still a striking 
appearance and possesses its ancient walls and extensive catacombs, but no 
ruins of importance. In the midst of lovely scenery and fertile plains it should 
be prosperous, but Turkish rule has paralysed it. It is now called Antakia. 

The early coins of Seleucus bore types of Alexander the Great [763, 764, 
Plate XVIII.], heads of Herakles and Zeus Ammon, with Zeus enthroned on the 
reverse. The crest of Seleucus, an anchor, was frequently introduced. There 
were also symbols to denote their origin in far-ofif Macedon, or monograms to 
denote the mints. 

The coin 764 bears the name of Seleucus, while an almost identical coin, 
No. 392 on Plate IX., bears the name of Alexander, aud was possibly struck 
at the same mmt. This shows the difficulty of classifying coins of this un- 
settled period. Perhaps the great Alexander's name was still most powerful in 
some districts. Nos. 765-768 show quadrigas or bigas of elephants driven by 
A.thena, and possibly point to the time of the alliance of Seleucus with Ptolemy. 
The elephants seem to be of the African species, which could be tamed in those 
days, though it is certain Seleucus had plenty of Indian elephants in his armies 
for guarding the oriental frontiers. 

Alexander's race was now extinct, by the murder of his son. His weak- 
minded half-brother Philip had also been put out of the way.^ 

Seleucus on No. 770 gives his own head — a fine portrait. This is one of 
the earliest coins with a king's likeness on it. Hitherto it had always been the 
semblance of a deity, a solemn calling of a god to witness that it was of correct 
weight and pure metal. The little Nike erecting the trophy is possibly com- 
memorative of his victory over Antigonus. Antiochus I. now reigns, having 
been given the rule of the empire east of the Euphrates during his father's 
lifetime, 293-281 B.C., and reigning alone 281-261 B.C. 

' Note G — Alexander IV., Philip Arrhidaeus, etc. 



No. 775, Plate XIX., is an exceedingly rare gold coin of Antiochus, and a 
very beautiful one. It shows Apollo, as on the silver coins, but the king's 
portrait is much finer. 

No. 776 gives an older type of portrait, very fine. The Apollo seated on 
the Omphalus, on these coins, is excellent work. 

Antiochus II. now appears, represented by a fine portrait. No. 777. 
No. 778, with Antiochus as Hermes, is believed to have been struck in Ionia. 

It was during the reign of Antiochus II. that Bactria (under DiODOTUs), 
and Parthia as well, revolted and set up kingdoms of their own. DiODOTUS, as 
we shall see later, copied the coins of the new Bactrian kingdom from those of 
his late master. 

Beyrout and the Lebanok Range. 

Seleucus II. was taken prisoner by the Parthians, No. 779 ; this is a 
youthful portrait before his captivity. 

Antiochus Hierax, No. 780, revolted against his brother Seleucus and 
declared himself king of Asia Minor. 

Seleucus III. [No. 781] shows a boyish face with slight beard. 
Antiochus, son of Seleucus III., is shown as quite a child [782], having died 

Now we come to Antiochus the Ureat [783], of whom we have a 
youthful portrait. He had a long reign and a vast extent of sway. A rare 
variety of his coins has an elephant on the reverse. [784.] He warred against 
Egypt, but made peace with Ptolemy, and gave part of Syria as a dowry with his 
daughter, whom he married to Ptolemy V. as Cleopatra I., 198 B.C. He crossed 


over to Europe, 196 B.C., and took possession of the Thraeian Chersonese. This 
brought him in contact with the Romans, who ordered him to restore the 
Chersonese to Macedon, but he refused, by the advice of Hannibal who had 
arrived at his Court. Hannibal pressed him to invade Italy, but he delayed, and 
did not cross over to Greece till 192 B.C. 

The Romans defeated Antiochus at Thermopylae and destroyed his fleet. 
He was finally beaten by the Romans under Scipio and compelled to sue for 
peace, giving up all his dominions east of Mount Taurus, and undertaking to 
pay an enormous fine and to give up all his elephants and ships of war. 
Hannibal, however, escaped. Antiochus attempted to rob a temple at Elymais 
to pay the Romans, but the people of the place killed him, 187 B.C. The career 
of this remarkable man seems to bring the Syrian dynasty nearer to European 
history, connecting it with Hannibal and the Romans. 

Seleucus IV. succeeded his father. His portrait is on No. 785. [PI. XIX.] 

Of Antiochus IV. we have a fine portrait ; he was given as a hostage to the 
Romans in 188 B.C. [No. 786]. This coin has a noble figure of enthroned Zeus, 
a winged Nike with a wreath alighting on his right hand. Some of his coins 
bear a portrait of his sister Cleopatra, widow of Ptolemy V. of Egypt. It was 
this king who unsuccessfully endeavoured to crush the Jews under the Maccabees. 

Of Antiochus V., who only reigned two years, we have [787] a youthful 
portrait. He was only nine years old, and was put to death by Demetrius I., 
who seized the throne, 162 B.C. ; we have this worthy's portrait on No. 788. 

Then another usurper, Alexander Balas, reigned for five years, and had 
his portrait on the coins [789, 790]. The latter coin bears the Ptolemaic eagle, 
which the Romans subsequently adopted as their standard. Mr. Head says the 
Seleucid rulers took the Egyptian badge for purposes of trade in the Mediter- 
ranean. This coin was struck in Tyre. 

Demetrius II. was young when he came to the throne, as shown on his 
coins [Nos. 791 and 792]. He was made prisoner in Parthia, and when he got 
free regained the throne, ever afterwards wearing his beard, as shown on No. 
796 (Plate XX.). In his long absence the throne was filled by Antiochus VI., 
who was only seven years old, and is shown as a child, with radiate crown 
denoting his early death, No. 793 and 794. The Dioscuri appear on this coin, 
exactly similar to the Bactrian pieces of same date. 

Antiochus VII. reigned next, when Demetrius was still a prisoner in 
Parthia. He besieged Jerusalem, and captured it, 133 B.C. Then Demetrius 
came to his own again, as has been told, and ruled for five years, " bearded like 
a pard." 

Alexander II. was set up by Ptolemy, and ruled long enough to give 
us his portrait on coins [797, Plate XX.]. 


Cleopatra was a daughter of Ptolemy VI., by his wife (another Cleopatra, 
who was his sister). There are coins of hers with her own portrait alone. But 
the one in my collection shows this enterprising lady's portrait [798] beside 
that of her son, Antiochus VIII., who was nicknamed Grypus — or the " hook- 
nosed." This lady not caring for her eldest son, put him to death, and ruled 
Syria along with her son " Grypus." He, in his turn, grew tired of his mother 
and poisoned her. 

Grypus was a powerful king, and ruled thirty years. I have several 
portraits of him [798-800.] [Plate XX.] He was assassinated, 96 B.C. 

The MujELtBE — Babylon. 

Antiochus IX. (Cyzicenus) was called from Cyzicus, where he was reared 
[801]. But he fell in battle, with the .son of Grypus, 95 B.C. The reverse of coin 
No. 801 was struck at Tarsus, and is curious. It represents the altar, or 
funeral pyre of Sandan, with peculiar devices in addition. 

Antiochus X. was son of Cyzicenus and reigned nine years after having 
slain the potentate who had killed Ids father. 

Philippus, second son of Grypus, ruled for seven years [803-804]. We 
have two good portraits of him. 

The great Seleucid dynasty was well-nigh effete ; marrying their near kin, 
poisonings, assassinations, and war between brothers did not seem to agree with 
them, and so their last king, Antiochus XII. (the last of the five sons of old 
" hook-nose ") had to appeal to TiGHANES, king of Armenia, for protection 
against his relations. This Tigranes accorded. He quietly took possession of 



the Syrian Empire, and ruled over Armenia, Meso- 
potamia, Cappadocia, and Ciiicia (83-69 B.C.). 

But the Romans came on the scene and were 
too much for him. Lucullus defeated Tigranes 
69 B.C., and wiped out the great empire of the 

The coin of Tigranes is curious [805]. [PI. XX.] 
He wears a golden Persian tiara. On the reverse 
is Tyche of Antioch seated, the river Orontes repre- 
sented as a female swimming at her feet. This 
device seems a rude attempt to portray a cele- 
brated statue of the Tyche, or Fortune of Antioch 
by the sculptor EuTYCHiDES, now in Rome. 

In Roman times, Mark Antony and Cleopatra 
(VII) ruled at Antiocheia ad Orontem, the district 
then being called Seleukis and Pieria. Unfortu- 
nately this coin [No. 806] has never been a good 
I subjoin a portrait of the celebrated Egyptian queen 

The Fortune of Antioch. 
(Vatican Museum.) 

one and is much worn 
(from the British Museum) showing her at about this epoch. It is the only re- 
liable portrait of this wonderful woman, except what is found on the few coins 
of hei-s. But the nose has been restored, and may be a quite incorrect feature. 
The intellectual head is shown, but it bears little trace of the beauty which 
proved fatal to all who came within its influence. One who could converse 
with any foreign ambassador to her Court 
in his own language, and whose manners 
and voice possessed an irresistible charm, 
as Plutarch tells us, must have been a most 
remarkable woman. 

Egyptian Coin of Cleopatra VII. 

As another memorial of Roman rule 
in this part of the world I have a coin of 
Antiocheia bearing a good portrait of 
Augustus, whom Cleopatra might possibly 

Cleopaiha VII. 
(Biltl* JIuseum ) 


have enslaved, had she been younger [No. 807]. We have Tyche of Antioch 
seated on a rock. She wears the turreted crown and veil. At her feet is 
the Orontes swimming [as in 805]. This is another rendering of the cele- 
brated statue engraved above. The lengthy inscription is in Greek, although 
issued by Latin conquerors. 

Seleukeia was the port of Antioch. On coin No. 808 we have the bust 
of Seleukeia with turreted crown. On the reverse a quaint representation 
of a thunderbolt on a throne, with various adjuncts [PI. XX.]. 

Damascus — Remains of a Classic Buildini; 

Damascus is a most ancient city but seems to have been eclipsed by 
Antioch in the Seleucid period, though many coins of that dynasty were struck 
there. Its splendid rivers make it still a populous and a prosperous place and 
there are ruins of classic times which have never been properly explored. 

The Empire of the Seleucids had absorbed or blotted out all that remained 
of ancient Phoenicia. Aradus was an old town on an island off the Phoenician 
coa-st, the most northern of that old state. The Phoenicians had no money of 
their own, but began to coin for purposes of trade, about the same time in Tyre 
and Sidon, in the end of the fifth century B.C. No. 809 is one of these early 
pieces. The figure of their fish-god Dagon, and their galley with its row of 
shields, the dolphin and hippocamp all evince their maritime proclivities. 

Their god Melkart [810] looks like a portrait of some hero, and on the 



reverse we again have the galley, with figure at the prow, and Semitic inscrip- 
tion, while 811 has similar, but better style of work. A later coin, No. 812, 
shows a monetary convention with Ephesus, with the attributes of its Artemis- 
worship, a bee and a stag, with a palm tree to show its Syrian connexion. 

Byblus, a town at the foot of Mount Lebanon, affords a strange coin of the 
fourth century — a galley with a lion's head, three shields above the bulwarks, 
a hippocamp under, a lion devouring a bull, part incuse, part in relief, a very 
extraordinary style, bearing a Phoenician inscription. 

Tyre and Sidon seem naturally to be mentioned together. 

Of Tyrus, No. 817, Plate XXI. is one of its earliest coins, 450 B.C. Melkart 
riding on a hippocamp, and an owl, with flail, sceptre and crook, very curious, 
almost Egyptian symbols. The later piece, No. 818, is very different : a fine 
head of the Tyrian Hercules, possibly from a noted statue, and the Egyptian 
eagle on the reverse. 

Of Sidon, we have a fourth century coin [814] with galley and its row of 
shields. On the reverse King ArtaxErxe.s in a car drawn by three horses, very 
curious. Of later times, 815 gives us a fine head of Tyche of Sidon with 
turreted crown and the Egyptian eagle. 

Tripolis was formed of colonies from the three cities of Aradus, Tyrus 
and Sidon. We have a remarkable piece with the jugate heads of the 
Dioscuri. Tyche with long inscription on the reverse [No. 816, Plate XXI.]. 

TdE Port of Tripoli, Syria. 

Tyre, Sidon and Tripoli exist but in miserable condition compared with 
their former magnificence. Tripoli has still considerable trade and is in the 
centre of well-cultivated groves of orange, lemon, and mulberry trees. Noble 
plane trees and poplars, and sweet-scented shrubs give a pleasing aspect to 


the surroundings, but it is an unhealthy region. The mosques have all 
been Christian churches, and there are Gothic arcades through the town, but 
no classic antiquities as yet discovered. 

Tyre, " whose merchants were princes, whose traffickers the honorable of 
the earth " (EzeJciel xxvii, Isaiah xxiii, 8), is now a mean, paltry town, its 

Ruins ok Tyke. 

harbour silted up, the very picture of utter desolation. Red granite pillars, 
once part of a temple or palace, and the ruins of the old cathedral, are all 
the ancient remains to be seen. 

SiDON, now called Saide, is still a striking-looking place from outside, with 
walls and towers. A bridge of seven arches leads to the island on which the 
castle stands. It has still considerable trade, but modern Beyrout has greatly 
eclipsed it and has become one of the busiest ports in the Levant. 

A coin of Babylon under Seleucus, No. 820, may be mentioned here. The 
windy wilderness, and poisonous swamp, that Babylon has now become, is 
difficult to account for. In the time of Seleucus it was a flourishing centre of 
a rich and prosperous district. Possibly the neglect of the irrigation works 
when it fell from its position of a capital, and failure to keep the Euphrates 
within bounds, has gradually effaced all the dikes and canals on which Babylon's 
very existence depended. The desolation of the site of Babylon is awful to 
behold. Enormous mounds, mountains of masonry indeed, rise up, miles apart, 
out of the marshy plain. Only partial investigation of such a vast district, 
once the site of the greatest city in the world, has been made, and for so far, no 
remains of the time of the Seleucid dynasty. But in their day it was an 
important and flourishing place. For that matter, there are no remains of 



Seleucid towns, castles, or palaces as yet unearthed. We know little of this 
great line of princes themselves, and nothing yet of their abodes. Asia 
Minor and Syria are full of sculptured rocks and slabs, and inscriptions abound 
in Hittite (and other lost languages) as well as in Greek and Latin. 

An Egyptian inscription exists, cut in the rock, by the Dog River near 
Beyrout, on which Rameses the Great records his victories in these parts. On the 
same rocky wall is a record of Esarhaddon of Assyria. With these memorials of 
1000 years before the Seleucid time, one would suppose that there are also 

SCU1.PT0RED Rocks on the Doti River, near Beyrout. 

The great inscription is of Rameses II., about 1260 B.C. The figure is one of Esarhaddon, of Assyria. On the opposi 
side of the ravine is an inscription of Nebuchadnezzar, about 600 B.C. 

records to be found to tell us something of these once powerful successors of 

When in Syria we may mention the coin of Jerusalem [No. 819, 
Plate XXI.], of the date of the revolt of Simon Maccabeus, 143-135 b.c. This 
is a shekel, the earliest Jewish money.^ As such it is one of the " pieces of 
silver " mentioned in the New Testament. The Hebrew inscription translates 
'■Jerusalem the Holy." 

' When Alexander the Great entered .Jerusalem in 332 B.C. on his conquering march, he is 
said to have treated the High Priest with great courtesy, being impressed with the dignity of his 
demeanour, and therefore spared ami protected the ancient city which he had meant to destroy 
because the inhabitants had refused submission to him. 



The Indus (whence Alexander's Admiral, Nearchus, sailed for the Persian Gdlf). 


( 401 ) 



The Site ok Spsa (the Shushan of the Prophet Daniel). 


" Mark Alexander's life well." — Shakespeake. 

" Is he then dead ? Can great Doolkarnein die ? 
Or can his endless hosts elsewhere be needed ? " ' — Leigh Hunt. 

It may seem foreign to the study of Greek Numismatics to ramble so far 
afield as Persia, Ariana,^ Parthia, Sogdiana, Bactria and India. And yet, 
though few coins with any claim to Greek origin ever found use in those 
countries, Bactria possesses such a splendid collection of true Hellenic mintage 
that we may be pardoned for saying a few words about the links in the chain 
that connected a remote colony, far beyond the limits of the Indian Caucasus, 

' I hoi)e my digression may be pardoned, but it seemed a wide leap of 2000 miles from Europe 
to Bactria, and I thought to fill in the gap by mention of places at intervals along Alexander's 
wonderful journey from his native Macedonia to the Indus. Those who know it already can 
skip this part of the )x)ok. 

- Note Q — Doolkarnein. 

' Abiana was the general name of the eastern provinces of the ancient Persian Empire lying 
between Assyria and India. SooDlANA was the north-eastern province lying beyond Ariana and 
Bactria, and had been conquered by Cyrus for the Persian Empire. 

( 4U ) 


with ancient Hellas. I therefore propose to say a few words about Alexander's 
wonderful marches into Asia, even if, in so doing, I may seem to go over some 
ground which we have already trodden. I append a map of the countries 
traversed by the Greek armies, from 333 to 323 B.C., when the death' of the great 
Macedonian terminated all his ambitious schemes for conquering the world. 
Doubtless, had his life been spared, this pioneer of commerce — founder of 
scores of " Alexandrias," each chosen for its position for commanding trade — 
would have left many consolidated states, such as Bactria, which had, from its 
isolated position, to take care of itself after the departure of the conqueror's 
armies. Bactria was for seventy years considered a part of the Seleucid 
Empire. Parthia, Persia and the rest seem never to have come under Hellenic 
influence in the same manner, although they had coins — some of them with 
Greek inscriptions — after the break-up of the ascendency of the Seleucid Empire 
beyond the Tigris. Alexander came of a warlike race and was bred to the 
enterprise of his life. His father, Philip, had him specially trained in athletics, 
inured to active military life, practised in manoeuvring the Macedonian phalanx 
and in rapid movements of cavalry. Nor was his literary education neglected. 
Aristotle, the greatest of philosophers, was his tutor, and he was made to 
associate with other literary men whom Philip drew to his court at Pella. 
Philip, after vanquishing the older Greek states one by one, stood out as the 
champion of united Hellas. Demosthenes in his famous " Philippics " strove 
to rouse the Greeks' antipathy to him. But he played his game so well, that 
in a congress held at Corinth in 338 B.C. he was actually selected (by every 
state but Sparta) to lead the Greeks against their common enemy, the Persians. 
Meantime Philip had trained his soldiers well and conquered all his northern 
neighbours. He also acquired the rich gold and silver mines near Philippi 
which filled his war chest. 

Had Philip been satisfied with his one wife Olympias, he might have lived 
to carry out his ambitious views, but he offended her by espousing also 
Cleopatra, the daughter of one of his generals. Olympias was a king's daughter, 
a beautiful and high-spirited woman. She left Philip's court in indignation 
for that of her brother (the King of Epirus). Alexander deeply loved his 
mother and warmly espoused her cause. Shortly after this Philip was assassin- 
ated, 830 B.C., and not without blame being thrown on Olympias and her son. 

Alexander became king of Macedon at twenty, and his mother returned 
to Pella. The Greeks assembled at the Isthmus of Corinth, and (with 
the exception of Sparta) confirmed the command against Persia. When he was 
absent in the north, quelling the barbarians on his frontier, Thebes revolted 
against Macedon. By night marches Alexander descended on them, and 
destroyed their city, sparing only the house of Pindar. The unfortunate 


Thebans were either killed or sold into slavery, 335 B.C. The Spartans he 
never even noticed. From this time onward, Alexander was acknowledged as 
the leader of Hellenism, and gradually the old Grecian states lost their in- 
dividual importance. 

The Battle of Issus. 

(Mosaic from Pompeii. Naples Museum.) 

Alexander crossed the Hellespont, 334 B.C., with 35,000 trained soldiers. 
The Persian satraps had assembled a great army, but the Macedonian attack 
was irresistible and the rapidity of Alexander's action completely routed them, 
at the Granicus, in Mysia. One by one all the great towns of Asia Minor sub- 
mitted. Halicarnassus made a stand under the Persian general, the Rhodian 
Memnon, but succumbed in the autumn of the same year. Alexander now 
marched into Phryoia and Pamphylia, and cut the famous knot at Gordium. 
Darius collected a second army, and these Alexander utterly defeated at the 
river I.S.SU.S, beyond Tarsus, the " Great King " escaping, leaving his wife and 
family prisoners. Alexander treated them with extreme gentleness and respect. '^ 

Alexander conquered Phoenicia and Syria and marched into Egypt, 

where he remained long enough to plan Alexandria, and make a pilgrimage 

to the oasis of Zeu.s Ammon in the Libyan desert. Here the Oracle saluted 

' Alexander married one of the daughters of Darius 325 B.C., to secure the allegiance of the 

E £ 



hitn as the SoN of Ammon. In 331 Alexander again set out to meet Darius, 
who had collected another great army, half a million of armed men. These 
Alexander utterly routed at Arbela, in Assyria, having pursued the flying host 
for fifty miles. Darius fled to Ecbatana. 

Alexander conquered Babylon, Susa, and Persepolis. Early in 330 b.c. 
he followed Darius into Media and Parthia, where Darius was murdered by 
Bessus, satrap of Bactria. 

Persepolis, present State of the Ruins. 

Rapidly moving his army eastwards, he subdued Parthia, Ariana and 
in 329 B.C. crossed the Hindoo Koosh Mountains, across Bactria and SoG- 
DIANA, and seized Bessus, who was put to death. The Oxus and Jaxartes were 
crossed. Bactria gave him trouble, and this region was not subdued till 328 B.C. 

In 327 he captured a mountain fortress where a prince of Sogdiana had 
deposited his wife and daughters. Alexander himself was captured by the 
extreme beauty of Princess Roxana,^ whom he married. (She was the mother 
of his only son, Alexander Aegus, born after his father's death.) This con- 
nexion with Bactria, and the remoteness of the place, away behind the Indian 

' Note R — Roxaiia and Olympias, etc. 


mountain chains, may have led to its importance as an advanced outpost of 
Hellenic civilisation, and to its preservation of the Greek customs, religion and 
language, which it retained for several centuries. Alexander's nature underwent 
a change at this period. He assumed the manners of an Oriental despot, and 
possibly his mind began to give way, for he was subject to fits of ungovernable 
rage. Plots were formed against his life, which he crushed with cruel severity. 
At the Hydaspes, in the Punjab, he was opposed by Porus, an Indian king, 
whom he conquered, and reinstated in his kingdom. To this day India is full of 
stories of his great deeds. One of these appears in RuDYARD Kipling's 
latest work, Kim, (p. 47), published October 1901 — and is of course authentic : 

" ' The last of the Great Ones,' said the Sikh with authority, ' was Sikander 
JuLKARN (Alexander the Great). He paved the streets of JuUundur and built 
a great tank at Umballa. That pavement holds to this day ; and the tank is 
there also.' " (Note Q. — Julkarn.) 

Alexander meant to conquer all India, but in the Punjab his soldiers, worn 
out with long marches and constant militar}' service, mutinied, and he was 
obliged to lead them back to Europe (327 B.C.). He built a fleet of ships on the 
Hydaspes (now known as the Julum river) and embarking 8,000 men sailed 
down the Indus to the Indian Ocean, which he reached in the middle of 826 B.C. 
All the states he passed submitted to his rule, most of them without a struggle. 
Nearchus was sent homeward with the ships to the Persian Gulf, while 
Alexander marched to Persepolis and SusA, which he reached in 325. Here 
he rested and allowed 10,000 of his troops to take native wives. He also 
enlisted many Asiatics in his army and taught them Macedonian tactics. He 
entered Babylon early in 323 B.C. He determined to make Babylon the 
capital of his empire, and was planning a conquest of Arabia and the Western 
world, when he died, after an illness of eleven days, at the age of 32. 

Alexander was the most wonderful man, not only of his age, but, in his 
peculiar qualities, of all time. Had he lived a few years he would undoubtedly 
have conquered Carthage and nipped the growing power of Rome. What 
Western Europe would have been, had it been HeJlenized, it is impossible 
to imagine. He was no bloodthirsty tyrant. His progress was not marked 
by rapine and ruin, as was that of Asiatics. He carried Greek literature 
and civilisation wherever he went, to counteract the brutal barbarism of the 
" Great King's " rule.' He cultivated the sciences and encouraged learning of 

' What Asia might have V>een had he been spared ! He contemplated a Holilla for the great 
void Caspian 8ea, thus anticipating the Russians by 2,2(J0 years. He had undertaken the canali- 
sation of the Euphrates, which would have saved Babylon, and had planned a line of vessels 
from the river's mouth, by the Persian Uulf, to India. 

E £ 2 


every kind. Through him India was made known to the West, and a way 
opened to it for trade in the products of the remote East. He founded com- 
mercial centres for peaceful trade at every important point. He was brave, 
chivalrous, generous, and just by nature. His mother, whom he much 
resembled, had shown touches of mental disorder at times. An over-worn mind 
and want of rest produced mental aberrations and wild actions in the later 
days of her son. The stories of his excesses at the wine-cup are possibly 
fictions, and his naturally robust constitution, with proper medical attention, 
should have saved him. He may have been poisoned, for he was surrounded 
by ambitious men, each of whom only thought of himself when his illness 
deprived him of the power of action. 

Alexander is not much loved by numismatists. He destroyed Greek 
autonomy, and after his time few good coins were struck. But had he lived long 
enough he might, with his vast intellect, his culture, and his zeal, have given 
the world an interesting series of coins. This part of his renown was unfulfilled. 

I now return to my coins. Persia kept to its ancient issue of Darics, 
called from the great Darius (Hystaspes), who lived (521-486 B.C.) down to 
the time of Darius Codomanus (338-336), who was conquered by Alexander the 
Great. Herodotos tells us that the first Darius issued coins of pure metal and 
true weight, and that Asia Minor was full of them ; Xerxes having four millions 
of these gold coins with him there. But as these have no inscriptions and are 
much alike it is impossible to fix their date. 

The coinage of ancient Persia has nothing artistic about it. But in the 
days of Croesus, and afterwards, Darics are often heard of and were much 
used in commerce. No. 821, PI. XXL, dates from the fifth century B.C., 
and is one of these. It shows the " Great King " bearded, running, right, in 
Persian dress, with bow and spear in his hands. Not much art in this piece, 
but solid bullion of good weight. A silver piece [No. 822] of similar period, 
is a SiGLOS, another specimen of Persian currency of rather barbaric aspect 
[Plate XXI.]. 


This was originally a province of the Seleucids, and thus was in a 
manner an offshoot from that wide Empire. Bactria lay between India and 
Tartary and is possibly now represented by Balkh. This outlying province of 
north-west India was subdued by Alexander the Great, and formed part of the 
Seleucid Empire until 248 B.C. when its governor, Diodotus, revolted from 
Antiochus II. and founded the Greek kingdom of Bactria, which at one time 


extended from the Oxus to the Ganges. This lasted for two centuries when it 
succumbed to the irruption of Scythian barbarians. Bactria was well watered 
by the Oxus, and seems in those days to have been fertile and well cultivated. 

It had been an ancient place and was called the " Mother of Cities." The 
ruins extend over twenty miles, but not a single Greek inscription, and no 
classic remains, have ever been found upon the site. The place seems to be 
no earlier than Mohammedan times. The present Balkh is only a large 
village, surrounded with a mud wall, but it was, 2000 years ago, the centre 
of a large and independent kingdom. Alexander settled his Greek mercenaries 

Plains north of the Himalayas. 

(The mountains crossed by Alexander's army on the way to Sogdiana.) 

there, and his disabled Macedonian soldiers. It retained the Greek language 
and issued Greek coins for several centuries, till the Hellenic tongue and 
civilisation gradually became debased and were at last extinguished. 

The Hindoo Koosh mountains separated Bactria from Alexandria (now 
Kandahar) which Alexander had intended to be the metropolis of this part of 
his Indian Empire. The very existence of Bactria was forgotten, and it is 
never mentioned in history as an independent Greek state. 

The fact of its existence for several centuries as such was mainly brought to 
light in a most extraordinary manner, in recent times. Major-General 
Cunningham, when quartered lin the north-western provinces of India, found 



silver and bronze coins with Greek insoriptions in circulation in the bazaars, 
getting them in exchange for British money, when small pieces were required 
to pay the troops. He collected all the types he could find among these, 
and they were found in hundreds, still in circulation. 

Cunningham was a numismatist; and from these ancient pieces he even- 
tually pieced out a History of Bactria ! and became the authority on the sub- 
ject, publishing several scholarly essays in the NumisTnatic Chrmiicle and 
elsewhere on the matter. These essays are still regarded as important text- 
books on Bactrian coinage and history. Cunningham's collection is now mainly 
preserved in the British Museum, but many of my best specimens came from 

his cabinet, which was dispersed at his 

Armlet, one of a pair, solid gold. 

(One in the British Museum, among other objects found 
with it ; the second armlet is at South Kensington 

death. The whole thing is a numis- 
matic romance. We seem unlikely to 
learn more about this forgotten people, 
unless some discoveries be made on the 
spot. A settlement of Greek origin, 
retaining its language and civilisation 
for centuries, must have left some 
traces of Hellenic art behind them, 
one would hope, but nothing has 
reached us yet. It seems to me that 
the spade, properly used, would un- 
earth ruins of Greek temples which 
such cultivated people would cer- 
tainly have built. 

A great treasure of prehistoric 
gold ornaments, said to have been dis- 
covered on the banks of the river 
Oxus, came to the British Museum 
some ten years ago ; but their style 
is barbaric, although some are beau- 
tiful and bear traces of having been 
inlaid with precious stones or enamel. 
There is no inscription, however, on any of them, and the native dealer who 
brought them to England would not tell, if he knew, the precise locality whence 
they came. 

The inscriptions on the early Bactrian coins are in good Greek and the art 
is excellent. Some of the portraits are the finest ever found on coins, and are 
most characteristic. Later, the quality of the art gradually deteriorates. The 
Greek lettere become queer, or incorrect ; then the spelling is wrong and the 

ARMLET, gold, massive, and penannular ; a curved 
cylinder terminating in representations of fabulous 
monsters combining the forms of birds and animals. 
Parts of the surface are hollowed out, and other parts 
fitted with cloisons, formerly enriched with jewels or 
filled in with some kind of enamel. Found on the 
banks of the Oxus about 1879-80. 



fabric of the coin becomes poor and the weight deficient. Afterwards only- 
one side bears Greek, and the other side has the translation in another language 
of native India. Finally, about the first century of our era, the Greek dis- 
appears altogether. 

It is a sad picture of the heroic struggles of a Greek colony, gradually- 
dying off, surrounded by illiterate aborigines ; their children and grand- 
children losing their ancestral tongue, and finally being swallowed up by 
brutal, ignorant, uncultivated surroundings. 

My first coin of Bactria is a rare possession, gold coins of the country 
being seldom found. It is a gold coin of DiODOTUS [823, Plate XXI.], the first 
independent Greek king. Diodotus had been governor of the country, but 

Hindoo Koosh (Indian Caucasus) Mountains. 

(Alexander's army penetrated this range of mountains on its way to Bactria.) 

revolted from Antiochus II. of Syria, 248 B.C. It is in perfect condition, and 
bears a striking portrait of this founder of the kingdom, a fine head of a 
shaven Greek. Zeus is shown in fighting attitude, with aegis and thunder- 
bolt, eagle and wreath. 

EuTHYDEMUS I. (contemporary with Antiochus III. of Syria) gives a 
silver coin [824] with a fine portrait as a young man ; on the r. a good figure 
of Herakles. No. 825 shows the same king in middle life. No. 826 supplies 
his portrait in old age. 



The next monarch represented in the collection, Agathocles [827] 
though on a small coin, is a good portrait. The reverse is peculiar — Zeus 

The Khyber Pass. 

(Traversed by Alexander's armies.) 

holding a statuette of Hecate with torch in each hand. Agathocles seems to 
have been contemporary with the next king — perhaps ruling a separate province. 


Antimachus [828], whose portrait is remarkable. The broad Macedonian 
helmet or kausia, with the king's strong features underneath it, make one of the 
finest portraits of the time (190-160 B.C.). 

EucRATiDES gives a wonderful set of portraits [829-833]. The one with 
bare head [829] reminds us of Louis Quatorze, while the same king in helmet of 
peculiar form [831], like a modem pith sun-helmet, is very striking. The 

Distant View of old Kandahar (anciently Alexandria). 

(From Sale's Defence of JeUalabad. Lent by the India Office.) 

Dioscuri on horseback on the reverse are almost identical with those on 
coins of Syria of forty years later [794]. The smaller coins of Eucratides [830, 
832, 833] are all varied, but bear similar portraits. 

Heliocles, the next ruler, was the last Greek king. His date is known — 
160-120 B.C. His portrait [834] shows the strong family likeness to his 
predeces.sor.s. The smaller coins of this monarch tell the tale of decay — 835 is 
almost barbarous in style, and 836 has the Greek inscription blundered. 

Greek was dying out. 

The coins of the next king, Antialkidas [837-842], show further decadence 
of Hellenic knowledge ; still the portraits are good. Greek is only on one side 
of the coins now, and translations into various native languages on the other. i_:,| 

Greek was becoming an unknown tongue. 



Then we have Lysias, with his portrait [843] and bilingual inscription 
Apollodotus I. and Apollodotus II. [849.] Bilingual inscriptions, and the 
Indian humped bull introduced. 

Menander [851, 852], two remarkable portraits. Hippostratos [854], 
Hermaios [855], with four portraits, but the fine Greek work no longer 
obtainable. Menander is mentioned by Strabo. 

Successive monarchs' names are found on coins, mostly in defective Greek, 
viz., Maues, Azes, Azilises, Gondophares, Soter Megas, Kadaphes, 
Kadphises, Kanishka, Huvishka [858-879], and show a gradual deterioration 
of art, and growing ignorance of Greek. These coins probably come down to the 
first or second century a.d., and show how the Greek element was lost from 
want of communication with Europe and the West. 

Bactria was the great depot for the silk trade in early times. The opening 
up of the Red Sea route to India had brought the silks to Egypt, instead of 
across Asia by caravans to the Euphrates and Byzantium. 

News has been brought to India recently (1890-1) by officers of the Indian 
Educational Department, of the discovery of lost, deserted cities in Chinese 
Turkestan in which traces of Greek civilisation have been found. So we may 
hope that successful researches will yet be made in Bactriana, and the sites of 
lost Greek cities be found there, with inscriptions, sculptures and buildings 
of their time. Light may thus be thrown on the life of the forgotten Indian 
colonies founded by Alexander the Great. 

At present we have only their coins, which have taught us what we know, 
and make us wish for more knowledge. 

Kandahae, the Indian Alexandria — the Ancient Citadel. 
(From Sale's Defence of Jdlalabad.) 



Alexandkr thk Great. 
(Bronze statue from Uerctilaneum, Naples Museum.) 


( 423 ) 

Thk City i'i.aknkd hy Alexander the Great, akd its relation to the modern 


(Lent hy Mr. John Murray.) 

( ■121 ) 



I'uE Canal ikum the Xile, Alkxaxdkia. 


" It flows through old hush'd Egypt and its sands 

Like some grave mighty thought threading a dream, 
And times and things, as in that vision, seem 
Keeping along it their eternal stands." — 

Leigh Hunt. 

We are now back again to the Mediterranean, and land at Alexandria — 
the only city of the name now maintaining its importance. For the great 
Alexander had great belief in his own name, and every country, almost every 
province he conquered had its Alexandria. 

This wonderful man, the most extraordinary and most picturesque outcome of 
Hellenism, would have left behind him a still greater fame had his life been 
spared for a few years.^ 

Alexandria he meant to be the model emporium of the trade between 
East and West. It is said he drew the plans of the city and port with his 
own hand. The ancient port, or much of it, has sunk beneath the waves ; of 
the city something may yet be recovered by judicious excavation. 

Mr. John Murray has kindly lent me the accompanying map, from his 
Guide to Efjypt, which gives some idea of what the Alexandria of the days of 
the Ptolemies may have been. Deinochares was the architect employed to 
give effect to Alexander's plans, but it is difficult to trace out the position of 
the lost city, in the confused, irregular, incongruous Alexandria of to-day. 

If so little is known of Alexander's city, still less is known of its great 

' He chose Alexandria for the commercial centre of the world. It was his intention to 
conquer the Carthaginians and make the Mediterranean an Hellenic Lake. 

( 425 ) 



originator. Most of the stories of his later life seem untrustworthy, and it is 
probable that he was not the sensual and impulsive madman that some 
biographers represent. We have even no authentic portrait of the hero. One 
bust, preserved in the British Museum, was found at Alexandria, and may be 
the work of Ljsippus, 'or a copy of a bronze by him. Another, preserved at 
Naples and found at Herculaneum, may be also after Lysippus ; while one, at 
Florence, called the " Dying Alexander," resembles this sculptor's work, 
but may not be the hero's likeness at all. Another, in the Louvre, though duly 
labelled in old Greek lettering, seems to differ much from the other portraits. 
On page 246 the "Tarsus medallions" are engraved, which give characteristic 

(The ancient port lies to the east of this, and is unfit for modern trade.) 

portraits of Alexander and his father. These have an air of life about them, 
while several of the coins, notably that of Lysimachus [No. 431, PI. XI.] is 
generally supposed to be the finest portrait coin of the great Macedonian. The 
equestrian bronze in the Museum of Naples is very fine. It was found at 

There is nothing left to us of the Alexandria of the early Ptolemies. No 
city has been more completely blotted out. Its only classic monument, Pompey's 
Pillar, is but a Roman adaptation of an Egyptian obelisk. Its two celebrated 
obelisks, long known as Cleopatra's Needles, have been in our own days carried 
off to London and New York ; but they were relics of ancient Egypt of 
thousands of years before the days of the Ptolemies. 

Alkxa.ndkk the Great. 

Marble Bust found at Alexandria (British Museum). 
By Lysippus (?) 


Marble Bust. 
(I.ouvre Museum, Paris.) 

Alexander the Great. 

.Marblf! Bust from Herculaneum (Xaples Museum). 
By Ly«ippu8(?) 

"The Dying Alexander." (?) 

.Marble Bust (Ufflzi Gallery, Florence). 
By Lyaij)pua (?) 

p. 20. 



"We may safely say that of the great buildings of the early Ptolemies nothing 
perfect remains in Lower Egypt. If we want to see their work— and great 
works they did— we must visit the temples of Edfou, of Denderah, of Esneh, of 
Philae, far up the Nile. In Nubia there are several still remaining. 

All over Egj-pt, the Ptolemies re-erected great temples for the use of the 
Egyptian people, their priests, and their peculiar faith. This they did with 
taste and zeal. These structures (in which 
Egyptian art and architecture was carefully fol- 
lowed) must have cost millions sterling; many 
are destroyed, but many remain. In Alexandria, 
however, everything, whether Egyptian, Ptole- 
maic, or classic, has disappeared in a quite un- 
accountable manner. 

For several generations the Ptolemaic rulers 
were excellent guardians, and Egypt flourished 
under their care ; they fostered learning, and 
encouraged the arts after Alexander's time, and 
really ruled their country well. The earlier 
Ptolemies founded the great Museum, and its 
famous Library drew many great scholars and 
philosophers to Alexandria. The Sefpuagint 
(the Hebrew Bible translated into Greek for the 
benefit of the Jews who spoke that tongue) was 
done at the cost of the Ptolemies. Euclid 
achieved his fame there, and Theocritus^ and 
his pastoral school of poets forsook Syracuse for 
the new capital of the Muses. 

Afterwards the Ptolemies became corrupt in every possible way, and by 
the time the Romans came on the scene the Egyptian moral tone was de- 
based in every sense. The line of Greek rulers ended with Cleopatra. Egypt 
became a mere province of the Roman Empire, after an independent existence 
of 6,000 years. Then Egypt became Christianised, and for ages was a strong- 
hold of Christianity, which penetrated from the Mediterranean to Nubia, and 
as far as Abyssinia. The Copts, the remnant of the ancient Egyptians, have re- 
tained their Christianity through all Moslem persecutions to our own day. But 
the Greek religion, the Jewish faith, the old Egyptian (and that incongruous new 
worship of Sarapis), these, as well as Neo-Platonism, all co-existed in the 
crowded cosmopolitan Alexandria. Each had its own quarter of the great city, 
and there were often armed combats among them. The condition of Alexandria 
at this time is well shown in Kingsley's talented historical novel " HyPATIA." 

' Note S — Theocritus. 

Pomi'Ey's Pillar, Alexamjkia, 
(Made fi-om an Egyptian obelisk.) 



The power of Egypt as a nation has gone, it sank with the early fortunes of the 
Western Empire. Then came the Moslem, with his blighting rule, and 
Alexandria fell into ruins, its port neglected and deserted. Now after 2000 
years of decay the dream of its great founder is being realised, and Alexandria is 
fast becoming a great seaport. But the Suez Canal prevents it from ever 
having the trade of India and the Far East, for which Alexander designed it. 

Possibly the first coined money used by Egypt was struck here by Ptolemy 
Lagos, acting as Regent for Alexander IV., the child of Roxana, 316-311 
B.C. The coins struck by the early Ptolemies show fine portraits, and are 
generally of good workmanship. But their art soon deteriorated, as indeed was 
the case with most Greek coins at this time. They display less and less good 
taste after Alexander's ambitious attempt to Hellenize the world. 

No. 880 (PI. XXI.) bears the head of Alexander the Great, wearing 

the elephant's skin, 
varied thus for Africa. 
The reverse bears the 
seated Zeus. The por- 
trait may have been an 
attempt to represent the 
young king. 

No. 881 (PI. XXII.) 
was possibly struck at 
Rhodes ; it is a very 
beautiful head, and if it 
be not intended for the 
unfortunate son of Alex- 
ander himself, is possibly 
an attempt to give him 
a likeness to his mother, 
the lovely Roxana. The 
Athena Alkis,in fighting 
attitude on the reverse, is 
excellent, and 882 is lit- 
tle inferior. (PI. XXII.) 
The Temple of Denderah had been begun in the time of the early 
Ptolemies, but the sculptured decoration was not completed till after the 
reign of Augustus. So we find a list of all the Roman Emperors of the 
time done into Egyptian hieroglyphics. There are portraits of Cleopatra VII. 
and her son by Julius Caesar, carved on its outer walls. 

Ptole.maic Imit.vtion of Egyptian Architecture — The 
Temple of Denderah. 


We must now return to our coins. 884 and 885 have portraits of 
Ptolemy, well-executed, with the Egyptian eagle. The Romans afterwards took 
this eagle as their emblem, in this respect claiming continuance of the oldest of 
empires — that of HoRUS of early Egypt. [Plate XXII.] 

These early coins with the portrait of Ptolemy [883-885, PI. XXII.] are 
very interesting. This astute man was said to be a half-brother of Alexander ; 
he was brought up at Philip's court at Pella, and possibly studied philosophy 
under Aristotle along with the king's son. He was the truest of all the 
generals in his allegiance to the unfortunate Macedonian line, and for a 
dozen years struck coins for Egypt (its first coined money) of the Alexandrian 
types. But when Alexander Aegus was murdered by Cassander, Ptolemy 
had no choice but to put his own head on the coins, and thus the first 
actual portrait of a mortal was placed upon a piece of money. The head of 
Alexander had been used as that of a god — the son of Zeus f Ammon. 
But the Egyptians cared nothing for the Hellenic Jove ; that deity was naught 
to them. They had been taught to regard their king as the representative of 
God upon earth, who after death passed direct to heaven, thus becoming 
himself divine. So Ptolemy was solemnly deified, and his wife Berenice as 
well, and a large gold coin was struck to commemorate the event [No. 886, 
PI. XXII.]. And on Nos. 883-885 even finer portraits of Ptolemy are shown. 
It is hard for us to realise how very late in the history of numismatics the 
human portraits came into use as guarantees for the genuineness of national 

The gold piece [883] has an excellent portrait of Ptolemy Soter, and 
is a coin of rare occurrence. The reverse has an elephant chariot, with 
young Alexander in it as Zeus Ammon. We know that the African ele- 
phant was tamed, and used in every way for which the Indian animal is 
now employed. It is to be regretted that this cannot now be done, as Africa 
possesses vast herds, annually sacrificed for their tusks. There is, however, 
some chance that enclosures for the taming of elephants may be erected 
in Uganda. There is a tame African elephant in the Gardens, Regent's 
Park, a clever animal, which shows a capacity for being taught as well as any 
Indian one. 

The wealth of the early Ptolemies was enormous. At this time all the 
trade of India came through Egypt, as the wars of Alexander had upset the 
caravans through Persia, while Egypt had still command of the Red Sea route, 
and could levy what toll she pleased. 

The large gold coins of the Ptolemies show their wealth. The coin with 
four portraits of Ptolemies I. and II., with their wives, is remarkable [886] ; 
this fine piece was struck by Ptolemy II., to commemorate his father and his 

F F 



Ptolemaic Architecture — iiiE Iemi'i.k (if Ksxeh. 

mother Berenice, when 

they were proclaimed deities 

in Egyptian fashion, after 

their death — E n N — 

above their portraits. The 

other side has portraits of 

Ptolemy II. and Arsinoe 

with AAEA4)nN above. 
Arsinoe II. has her 

portrait on a gold coin 

[887], which was found in 

the Fayum, where a temple 

and nome were named after 

her. The double comuco- 

piae on the reverse with 

grapes and ears of corn 

testifies to the richness of 

Upper and Lower Egypt. 
The large silver coin 

[888], with head of the same 

queen, is a dekadrachm. 

Arsinoe is shown with the horn of Zeus Ammon, a curious decoration for a 


A good portrait of Ptolemaios III. is represented on the fine gold piece 

No. 890, with the heavenly radiate crown, and the cornucopia is also radiated. 

[All on Plate XXII.] 

The Ptolemies here- 
after became careless 
about their coinage, 
working from old dies 
or copies of old dies 
bearing indifferent por- 
traits of Ptolemy I., in 
fact after this time little 
artistic or historical 
interest attaches to the 
Egyptian coinage. 

The coin of Ptolemy V. [894], is, however, a better coin than usual and 
evidently displays his own portrait. 

Cleopatra I., Regent for Ptolemy VI., gives us a good coin [896] 

FTouiMAKj Akcuixkciukk, Xemple UK I'hilae, Egypt. 


(Xaples Museum.) 

(Zeus Sarapis and Isis, jugate heads), of better art than expected, possibly 

accounted for by being struck at one of their foreign possessions, Phoenicia. 

There is a fine bronze bust of Bere- 
nice (which was found at Herculaneum) 
in the Naples Museum. This is possibly 
the lady who was given one of the constel- 
lations in the heavens, to immortalise her 
beautiful hair (" Coma Berenices "), which 
she had dedicated for her husband's safe 
return from his Syrian expedition in 
the temple of Arsinoe at Zephyrium near 

It is known that Alexandria had a great 
school of art in engraved glass, almost all 
fine examples of which are lost, but frag- 
ments can be seen in the new Museum at 

The Portland Vase is believed to have 
been executed by Greek artists in Alex- 
andria about the second century B.C. and carried off to Rome. This unique 

piece of engraving was found in a Roman tomb. It is composed of a dark 

blue, or purple glass. It must have been dipped 

in molten white glass and the pattern formed 

by cutting away the outer coating, in the same 

manner as a sardonyx gem is engraved on the 

wheel by means of diamond dust, or corundum. 

It is actually a specimen of gem-engraving of 

the finest artistic quality and is the best work 

of the kind known to exist. 

This kind of art was also practised by the 

ancient Egyptians. I have a fragment of a cup 

found at the Pyramids of Gizeh, Egypt, which 

shows a similar method of engraving or cutting 

away by the wheel, of a superficial coating of what 

is called " paste." This is supposed to be of the 

XVIII* Dynasty— about 1250 B.C. So the Port- 
land Vase may be the .survival, under Greek 

artists employed at Alexandria, of an Egyptian art of a thousand years 


The Portland Vase. 

(British Museum.) 

F F 2 



When Alexandria sank so low that the famous Museum and Library was 
of no account, it shows how dark the aspect of civilisatioii had become. All 
the precious manuscripts of the world had been drawn there by the wealth and 
ambition of the early Ptolemies. Yet we hear nothing about it for several 

centuries, and 
no reliable 
account is 
given of its 
Not a vestige 
of it or its 
thousands of 
volumes was 
saved. All 
perished with 
the dark 
period of 
Egypt's de- 
clining years. 
Now after 
1000 years of 
existence her 
ancient tombs 
are giving us 
back some of 
the lost trea- 

Egypt was 
a sealed land 
to all other 
nations till 

(iKEEK Terracotta Heads found at Nauceatis. 
(Fifth and Fourth Century B.C.) 

the time of 

chus about 660 B.C. The old country was well-nigh effete. Twenty-five dynasties 
had come and gone and the martial spirit of its natives had sunk so low that 
Greek mei-cenaries had to be employed to repel invasion. These had 
penetrated a thousand miles up the Nile, we are told by Herodotos, and I have 
seen a Greek inscription, carved on the leg of one of the colossal statues of 
Rameses the Great, at Abu Simbel in Nubia, by one of these soldiers. 




The ancient seclusive laws of Egypt against foreigners were relaxed in the 
days of Amasis, and Greek traders were allowed to build a town on the western 
branch of the Nile, not very far from where Alexandria now stands. The 
site of Naucratis was forgotten for 2000 years, till the indefatigable Petrie 
discovered it in 1884. The city had been colonised by Milesians about 
550 B.C. It was the only place at that time in Egypt where Greeks were 
permitted to settle and trade, and at one time must have been a place 
of importance and wealth. Naucratis had its literary side as well, and 
gave birth to Athenaeus, Lyceas, Phylarchus, Polycharmds, and Julius 
Pollux. The neglect of the ancient canals, however, had changed the aspect 
of the country, and the founding of Alexandria gave it its death-blow. Mr. 
Petrie's discoveries were conducted with difficulty owing to the whole district 
having become an agricultural one and most of it under water during the 
" high Nile." He found the sites of the celebrated Temple of Aphrodite and 
proved that long before the Greeks came, it had been an Egyptian town of 
some importance. Mr. Griffith and Mr. Ernest Gardner (and more recently Mr. 
Hogarth) have followed up the researches on the spot, and the last named 
scientist described his important discovery of the Great Temenos, in the Report 
of the British School at Athens for 1898-99. 

The governor left by Alexander in charge of the new city of Alexandria, 
Cleomenes, was a native of Naucratis. The place never had any fine archi- 
tectural buildings ; it was a depot for trade, and though a populous place, and 
undoubtedly rich, it never was much more than a factory planted in a foreign 
land. Petrie found a few coins — one of Naucratis being a head of Aphrodite, 
beneath NAY, and on the other side a female head with short flying hair and 
AAE, possibly standing for Alexander, for the coin was struck at the time that 
Ptolemy Soter was ruling the country in the name of Alexander IV., son of the 
conqueror, B.C. 305. The coin is in the British Museum, and Dr. Petrie found a 
duplicate. There were also coins of Side, Cnidus, Phaselis, Erythrae, 
and Cyprus. All were of bronze, and nine bronze coins of Alexander the 
Great were also found, and hundreds of the Ptolemies, mostly in poor condition. 
Roman coins from Augustus to Diocletian were also picked up, all of bronze or 
"potin," and three of the early Byzantine mintages. Quantities of weights 
were found — evidently from the old Greek traders' stores. But in a silver- 
smith's shop Mr. Petrie found fifteen archaic silver coins, of Mallos, Lycia, Chios, 
Samos, Aegina, Athens, Cyrene, and 42 oz. of roughly cast and cut-up silver. 
Many vases and fragments of Greek inscriptions came to light, and quite a 
number of terracotta figures, mostly broken, a scarab factory with its moulds, 
and many figures carved in soft stone or alabaster, also glazed pottery of 



various ages. As by the system of the Egypt Exploration Fund the " finds " 
are distributed among various museums, they cannot all be seen together. 
But those who are members of this Society can obtain the volumes describing 
and illustrating them for the annual subscription of £1. The publications alone 
are worth double the money. 

There are five or six fine engraved Greek gems in the British Museum 
Collection which I believe came from Naucratis, of about the fourth century B.C. 


Dr. Petrie has made many discoveries in Egypt, but none more wonderful 
than the localisation of the site of the Labyrinth in this ancient province. 
This was in 1888-89, and among other discoveries interesting cemeteries 

Scene on the " Bahr Yusuf 


were investigated. These contained many coffins macje of " cartonnage," a sort 
of cardboard made of quantities of papyrus pasted together. These on being 
examined were found to be made of ancient cast-off MSS., possibly derived from 
dealers in old materials in Alexandria. Many dated papyri and beautifully 
written documents were discovered. One was a large roll of papyrus, 
containing the greater part of the second book of the Iliad of Homer. It was 
found in the coffin of a lady, rolled up and placed under her head. The roll 
and the lady's skull, and a tress of the unknown Hypatia's black hair, are now 
to be seen in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. All the earliest texts of the 
Iliad have come from Egypt. Many of the coffins found in the cemetery of 
Hawara had excellent portraits, in oil or wax, painted on panels outside the 



Grkbk Portrait — Fayum. 

coffins. A number of these are in the British Museum and Royal Academy, 
London. They are the only specimens of Greek portraiture, or indeed of Greek 
painting in oils, known to exist, and many of them 
possess considerable merit. It is evident that the 
coffins, thus decorated, containing the bodies of the 
departed ones within, were kept in the houses of 
the living, displaying the portraits as we now display 
framed pictures on our walls, for a considerable time 
after death, and then later were consigned to the 
family tomb. Many of the coffins are very ornate, 
and must have cost considerable sums of money. 
The inmates lived in the first to the third cen- 
turies of our era. 

Regarding the Labyrinth, it had entirely dis- 
appeared, but for several miles the desert was strewn 
with its chippings. All the stone had been quarried up 
and despatched to build ALEXANDRIA or other modem 

towns. The people who lived in the adjoining town 
for two centuries or more were stonecutters ; when the 
source of their gains was gone they took themselves off 
and the place has been deserted ever since. I visited 
this district recently ; I found all the remains of the 
wonders that are described in Dr. Petrie's two in- 
^^^^^ teresting volumes. One hot afternoon I rested from a 

r "'H^B^r ^^ ^°"S desert ride in a rude steam corn-mill worked by 

an enterprising Greek. The area of his house was 
^^^ ^^^ stored with piles of coffins from the adjoining cemetery, 
fc. .^^flp^v^^^l ready for firewood, to many of which the tattered oil- 
'B^ ■ vv^Vyt^B portraits of the poor remnants of humanity still re- 

mained. There are no Inspectors of Antiquities here- 
abouts, and the relics of the dead have scant respect. 
Few coins were found of any interest in this district ; 
a few Pegasi of Corinth, and about 3,000 early Roman pieces, some coin moulds 
for forgers' use — of the time of Constantino — were discovered. 

Greek t I'avum. 


In another old town, south of the Fayum, Messrs. Grenfell and Hunt, 
working for the Egypt Exploration Fund, found an immense deposit of Greek and 
Roman papyri. These came from the rubbish-heap of a Greek town of 2,000 
to 1,700 years ago. Enough documents were discovered to fill seventy boxes, 



and it will require perhaps twenty years to decipher and translate. Meantime 
the Egypt Exploration Fund has opened a separate branch for " Graeco-Roraan " 

Fragment of the Oldest MS. of St. Matthew's Gospel. 

tireek Tapyruti froiu Oxyrliyiiclius — Egypt. 

discoveries, and annual subscribers of £1 can obtain the volumes being gradually 
issued, each worth double the money. Pages of an unknown Gospel, of Homer, 

Homer's "Iliad" IL, line 730, &c. 

CDK - - - 




-I-. t 

Gruek Papyrus from 0,\yrliynchu8 — Egypt. 

Herodotos, Plato, Sappho (an unknown Poem), Thucydides, Euclid, Demosthenes, 
St. Matthew, St. Mark, Vergil, &c.. Wills, Accounts, Leases, Actions at Law, 

Thucydides, Book IV. 

Greek Papyrus from Oxyrhynchus — Egypt. 

r-.' I'M Ny rt iT , TA-STittVj 
^ • ■•-1 Mnt^- ''-*^ ^'^ 

! t-Kv. -.1 


-l.^/-i.»J.i y .' -^« ^AliAiM .^.. 


Sales of Land — too many varieties to enumerate. The MSS. of the Gospels are 
the earliest known to exist. I give photographic illustrations of small pieces 

Fragment of an unpublished poem by Sappho. 

•0 C J „■>.•- 

Greek Tapyrua fruui UxyrhyucliUb— Egypt. 

of several of the documents. This success has stimulated the search for more 
papyri, and no doubt the dry sands and sheltered tombs of Egypt may yet yield 
wonderful results of a similar kind. 

Egypt, the oldest civilised country in the world, seemed worn out 2,500 
years ago, when her sons would not fight her enemies, and king Psammetichus 
had to enlist Greek mercenaries to repel invasion and even to keep his own 
subjects in order. That step paved the way for the adventurous Hellene to 
carry his language and his trade — his art never found much scope in Egypt, 
save in Alexander's city — to the old worn-out land of the Nile. But Egypt 
revived under the Ptolemies and for a time under the Romans and Byzantines. 

Then, after many vicissitudes, it seemed utterly crushed by Mohammedan 
misrule, and its poor people — always slaves, even under their early kings — were 
twenty years ago in worse plight than ever— ground down with debt, the 
taxation at its farthest limit, and the whole country pledged to greedy 
money lenders. But this brought about its salvation. England was one of its 
guarantors, and the only one who stood by " old hush'd Egypt " in her last 
extremity — all the rest forsook her and fled. 

The financial troubles of Egypt were brought about by the extravagances 
of Mehemet Ali and his grandson Ismail. More borrowings from Europe 
became impossible. Matters had grown so bad that the Egyptian army, 
under Arabi Pasha, revolted, and England requested France to help to crush 
this revolt by a military and naval demonstration. The French agreed but 
backed out of their engagements and left England to fight it out alone. So we 
have remained there ever since, and shall remain till Egypt can do without us. 

Lord DufFerin was at the time of the Arabi outbreak our ambassador at 
Constantinople. Lord Granville had a vast opinion of his diplomatic 


skill, and left everything in Lord Dufferin's hands, being as he said " a 
minister who never made a mistake." Lord Dufferin by his tact prevented 
the Turkish fleet from being sent to Alexandria. The Sultan was a secret 
sympathizer with Arabi, and would have supported his revolt. The 
whole story is told in the Blue Books on Egypt 1882-1883 — how Lord 
Granville (after Tel-EL-Kebir had been fought, Alexandria bombarded and 
Arabi made a prisoner) asked Lord Dufferin to visit Egypt, and reside for a 
time to report on our position there, and if the land of the Nile should be 
supported or abandoned to its fate. 

Lord Dufferin made his Report, one of the most masterly (Lord Milner 
states in his England in Egypt) ever made by statesman. He advised our 
remaining in Egypt — till it could govern itself; and we are there still, and 
likely to remain. Lord Cromer, Sir W. Garstin, Major Hanbury Brown, Mr. 
Willcocks (the Engineer of the Nile Reservoirs), Sir Colin Scott Moncrieff, and 
many others, all were brought by Lord Dufferin's advice, " officers ' with 
experience of our Indian system of government, and especially with a knowledge 
of irrigation, on which the life of Egypt depends." 

The country is now free, the people never were so prosperous since Egypt 
was a nation, the Nile is being made to do double its beneficent work, and 
the arable land will be far greater in extent than it was in the days of the 
Pharaohs. I quote the following from a work recently published : " On the 
eve of Tel-el-Kebir the Unified Debt, which was then 5 per cent., stood at 
£48 per £100 bond ; at the present time the debt only bears 4 per cent., its 
price being £105 for the £100 bond. . . . With the most perfect order reigning 
from Cairo to Khartoum, who shall say that we are not performing our 
mission in the Land of the Pharaohs with exemplary ability, or that we have 
failed to maintain the rights of the bondholders ? " 

Thanks to Lord Dufferin's wise counsel we grasped the nettle, took the 
responsibility, and saved the old land and its people. Under British guidance, 
with Lord Cromer and his small band of good men and true, the revenue of 
the country increases by leaps and bounds, while taxation is remitted, and the 
fellahin of the " Black Land " were never before so prosperous. The Nile-water 
is stored for the benefit of the poorest landowner, equally with the richest, and 
no rent has to be paid till the crop is realised, a state of affairs that never 
existed before ; while great public works give well-paid employment to every 
able-bodied labourer. The cowardly natives have been made into good soldiers, 
under British officers, and were able to crush the Mahdi and his fanatical hordes. 

Scene ix Crete. 


Regarding ancient and modern British connexions with the Greeks, it is 
probable that they knew little about each other. It is possible that the 

Gold Stater of 

Philip of Macedon. 

Gaulish and British Imitations of Philip's Coin (made in pure gold). 

necessary tin required for the manufacture of bronze came from Britain. Greek 
money of the time of Philip II. of Macedon has been found in Gaul, and 
barbarous imitations of his gold staters have been found in both, showing how 
far Greek commerce extended. 

These possibly were made to facilitate trade with the Mediterranean 
Venturers. They, however, do not concern us much, but only serve to show 
how far the influence of Hellenic coinage penetrated. 


(Page xxvi.). 

Lord Dufferin's first foreign service for the State was in 1859-60 (he had 
been to Vienna under Lord Russell in 1855), when he was sent as Commissioner 
to Syria to mediate between the Maronites and the Druses, who had been 
much given to massacring each other, and the Sultan was quite unable to 
control them. 

This work he did with such tact and moderation that the semi-savage 

( 439 ) 


people have never quarrelled since, and their country is prospering (as well 
as anything can under Turkish Rule) as never before known. Ambassador 
to Russia 1879, Ambassador to Turkey 1881, Special Commissioner to Egypt 
1882-3, Governor General of India 1884, Ambassador to Italy 1888. His 
services in France and Canada, we do not mention here. If a statesman with 
his refined taste, versatility in literary matters, and with such widespread know- 
ledge of classic lands would only write his experiences, what an entertaining 
volume it would be ! 


The present busy port of Cadiz, beyond the " Pillars of Hercules," was 
an ancient colony established by the Phoenicians long before the period of classic 
history. Its present name is almost the same as the ancient Gades. None of 
its coins bear Greek inscriptions, but they have an Hellenic appearance. All the 
legends are in Semitic text, almost the same as Hebrew characters. They 
doubtless were struck in imitation of Greek money, or to facilitate trade with 
Greek merchants. The coins bear the head of the Tyrian Hercules, and were 
struck about 300 B.C. 

AND POETRY (Page 191). 

For an amusing, interesting, and condensed, sketch of Sicily, its History 
and Literature, I know of nothing so excellent as Leigh Hunt's " Jar of Honey 
from. Mount Hybla." All the other works on Sicily are heavy in comparison 
with this charming volume. Many of us are not classical scholars ; and here 
the old Homeric tales of Sicily, the poems of Pindar, Theocritus and his school, 
the stories of Grecian, Roman and Norman times, are told in simple and 
elegant style. 

It is now a scarce book, but in these days of reprints no doubt will be 
republished. If it be, let us hope that " Dicky Doyle's " charming vignettes 
may appear with the elegant text of Leigh Hunt. He traces the pastoral vein 
and style of Virgil, Dante, Milton, and Shakespere, all back to the Idylls of 
Theocritus, of whom we must speak later. 


Hieron I. attracted Aeschylus, Pindar, Bacchylides, and Simonides to 
his court, all the way from old Greece. Xenophon wrote a work upon his 
friendship with Simonides, this was of early date and shows that Sj'racuse 
could hold its own with Athens in literary taste. 

Simonides was the greatest lyric poet of his time, and died as Hieron's 
guest, 467 B.C. In 473 B.C. Pindar, the great lyric poet, visited the court of 
Hieron I., and remained four years. Plato the philosopher also visited 
Sicily (in 389 B.C.), attracted thither by his friendship with DiON, who 
introduced him to Dionysius the Elder. But he soon fell out with that 
tyrant. However, Plato visited Sicily a second time in 360, in hopes of 
converting the Younger Dionysius to his view of government. 

The second Hieron, two hundred years later, seems to have had an equally 
brilliant literary society about him. Theocritus, Bion, Moschus, all produced 
their exquisite pastoral verses here, and at this time Syracuse vied with the 

NOTES 441 

scholars of the Alexandrian Library. Theocritus was, however, tempted to 
leave Syracuse, and many of his important poems were written at Alexandria. 
His famous ode to Hieron is still extant, and his later poems on Ptolemy and 
on Arsinoe referring especially to Egypt. 

HIERON II. (Page 214). 

There is a description of the wonderful ship built by Archimedes in the 
pages of Athexaeus, an historian or anecdote-monger of Naucratis. This ship 
was so large that, like the Great Eastern of modern times, she " stuck " when 
they tried to launch her. Whereupon Archimedes devised his screw, used 
it as a means of propulsion, and launched the huge vessel easily. But the strain 
had made the big ship leak, and she became waterlogged. Another develop- 
ment of his wondrous screw and she was quickly pumped dry and the leaks no 
doubt were caulked securely. This ship had real gardens of great extent, a 
wrestling ground, rooms full of pictures and statuary, floors of tesselated 
marble decorated with subjects from HoMEU. It possessed barracks for 
soldiers and stabling for cavalry, and carried, besides an enormous cargo of 
grain, eight fortified towers ! When it was completed, there was no harbour in 
Sicily fit to hold it, and .so Hieron made a present of the costly toy to Ptolemy 
Philadelphus of Egypt. We unfortunately do not know its measurements, but 
it must have been a monster, and was the greatest ship the world had ever seen. 
Ptolemy had also built a great vessel of which we have measurements, but the 
Syracu.san ship eclipsed it. Ptolemy's ship was 425 feet long and 60 feet beam, 
72 feet deep, and seems to have been a vessel of war, while Hieron 's was 
intended to carry grain ; there was a famine in Egypt, and he sent the ship, full 
of grain, to Alexandria. 

It is worth noting the size of the Celtic, the greatest ship of our time, built 
in Belfast in 1901. Its designer, the Right Hon. W. J. Pirrie, LL.D., has 
given me the following particulars. Length 700 feet, breadth 75 feet, depth 
49 feet. The "displacement" when at full load draught is 37,700 tons! 
Messrs. Harland and Wolff have not as yet introduced gardens, statuary or 
wrestling grounds into their vessels, but no doubt those may come in time. 


etc. (Pages 248, 400). 

When Alexander the Great went off on his Eastern conquests, he left his 
trusted friend Antipater regent in his absence. Cassander was Antipaters' 
.son, a cruel and ambitious man ; he had married a daughter of Philip. He soon 
showed his intention of usurping the throne, and seized Athens and many other 
cities of Greece. Olympias, Alexander the Great's mother, who had been holding 
Macedonia for her grandson, Alexander's posthumous son, was imprisoned by 
Cassander and murdered. Roxana (Alexander the Great's widow) and her 
son he kept prisoners at Amphipolis. He promised to be their faithful 
guardian till the lad (known as Alexander Aegus) came of age. He fulfilled 
his trust by putting them both to death, 311 B.C. Philip Arrhidaeus had been 
assa.ssinated (317 B.C.) by Olympias, who thought he was in her grandson's 
way, as he had been proclaimed king by the soldiers. The royal line of 
Alexander was thus extinct. Cassander died in 297 B.C., and his only son a 
few years later. 



NOTE H.— BATTLE OF ACTIUM, Bay of Arta, Epirus (Page 258). 
Augustus here utterly routed Mark Antony and Cleopatra, Sept. 2, 
B.C. 31. (It was one of the greatest naval victories of the time, and secured 
Octavian's ultimate elevation as first Emperor of Rome.) As Julius Caesar's 
grandnephew and heir, he thus became master of the Roman world. Antony 
and Cleopatra fled to Alexandria, where Antony put an end to his own life, 
when Octavian appeared before the city, B.C. 30. The new Emperor built 
NiCOPOLlS in memory of the battle of Actium; there had been no town there 
before, only a celebrated Temple of Apollo. 

Athens — The Parthenon— The Erechtheum. 


In very ancient times this seems to have been the playful or poetic name 
of Athens. It evidently arose from a sort of pun upon the city's reputed 
origin. loN (a violet) was the name of a great chief, who came from " lONiA " 
to found the city of Athens, where he was crowned King — thence Ion-crowned 
or " Violet-crowned." 

Aristophanes (e.g. 427) mentions the city thus several times in his comic 
plays " The Knights" a,nd"The Acharnians," using the word |oSTECJ)ANoS 
to express the city's pet name, 

" On the citadel's brow, 
In the lofty old town of immortal renown. 
With the noble Ionian violet crown." 

And again, 

" Of violet crowns and Athenian glory ; 

With sumptuous Athens at every word." — (Hookhain Frere' s Translatimi.) 

Any one who has visited the spot must have been struck with the appro- 
priateness of the simile in a pictorial sense. The shadows of Attica, in the 
morning and evening light, are of most exquisite violet tints, and when the 
Parthenon and Propylaea were perfect, the purple shadows of the marble 
buildings must have been even more evident and deserved this title. Sir 
Rennell Rodd has written elegant verses on this subject. But he gives the 
violet tints to the surrounding hills. I think the " Violet Crown " was the 
Acropolis itself, and when trying to paint the Parthenon ruins, I have often 
been struck with the beauty of the violet tints of the shadows of the columns 
in contrast with the " old gold " colour of the marble. In his Rambles and 
Studies in Greece, Dr. Mahafify's description of the first view of the Acropolis 
is very fine. 



PHEIDIAS (Pages xix., 265). 

Among my collection of portraits of celebrated Greeks, I had hoped to 
include one of Pheidias, the sculptor of the finest works of the Parthenon, 
which are now safely lodged in the British Museum. 

Acquired in Athens by Viscount Strangfokd 

(British Museum. 



But the only one to be found was that on a copy of the shield of the 
famous statue of Pallas Athene, which was the wonder of the ancient world. 
Mr. Arthur Smith's description of this interesting relic is so good that with his 
permission I give it in full on the next page, from the British Museum Hand- 
book to Sculpture. 


Statue of Athene Parthenos. 
The colossal statue of Athene Parthenos by Pheidias was placed within the 
central chamber of the Parthenon. The figure was made of gold and ivory, and 
was, with its base, about 40 feet high. Athene stood, draped in chiton and 
aegis. In her left hand she held her spear and shield. Between her and the 
shield was the serpent Erichthonios. On her outstretched right hand was a 
winged Victory, six feet high, holding a wreath. The helmet of the Goddess 
was adorned, according to Pausanias, with a Sphinx and Gryphons. 


B.M. No. 302. — Fragment of shield supposed to be a rough copy from the 
shield of the statue of Athene Parthenos. Pliny {H. N. xxxvi. 18) and 
Pausanias (i. 17, 2) state that the outside of the shield was ornamented with 
the representation of a battle between Greeks and Amazons. Plutarch adds 
{Pericles, 31) that one of the figures represented Pheidias himself as an old 
bald-headed man raising a stone with both hands, while in another figure, who 
was represented fighting against an Amazon, with the hand holding out a spear 
in such a way as to conceal the face, the sculptor introduced the likeness of 
Pericles. This story is probably of late origin, and invented to account for two 
characteristic figures on the shield. 

A head of Medusa, or Gorgoneion, encircled by two serpents, forms the 
centre of the composition on the fragment. Below the Gorgoneion is a Greek 
warrior, bald-headed, who raises both hands above his head to strike an 
Amazon with a battle-axe. This figure has been thought to correspond with that 
of Pheidias in the original design. Next to him on the right is a Greek who 
plants his left foot on the body of a fallen Amazon and is in the act of 
dealing a blow with his right hand ; his right arm is raised across his face and 
conceals the greater part of it. 

The action of this figure again presents a partial correspondence with 
that of Pericles as described by Plutarch. To the right of the supposed 
Pericles are two Greeks : the one advances to the right ; the other seizes by 
the hair an Amazon falling on the right. Above this group is an Amazon 
running to the right and a Greek striding to the left. His shield has the 
device of a hare. Above him are three armed Greeks, and the remains of 
another figure. 

On the left of the figure described as Pheidias is a Greek who has fiillen 
on his knees. Further to the left is a fallen Amazon who lies with her head 
towards the lower edge of the shield. Near her is a wounded Amazon supported 
by a companion, of whom but little remains. The lower part of a third figure, 
probably that of a Greek, is also seen. All the Amazons wear high boots and a 
short chiton, leaving the right breast exposed ; their weapon is a double-headed 

Red colour remains on the two serpents which encircle the Gorgon's head, 
on the shield of one of the Greeks and in several places on the draperies. 

NOTE K.— PINDAR (Page 280). 

Pindar (522-442 B.C.), perhaps the greatest lyric poet of the Greeks, left 
a reputation that lasted for many centuries. His Odes to the Victors of the 
Olympic Games and his eulogy of Hieron I. of Syracuse (whose friend, visitor, 
and admirer he was), are still extant. This great king, whose armour was 



dedicated to the Gods at Olympia, and whose helmet still remains with us to 
prove it (page 203), had won a chariot race at the Olympian Games, and Pindar 
thus apostrophises him, 

"Proud of his stud, the Syracusan king 

Partook the courser's triumph. Through the plain 
By Lydian Pelops won, his praises ring — " 

But now 'tis mine the strain to raise. 

And swell th' Equestrian Hero's praise. 
To crown with loud Aeolian song 

A Prince, whose peer the spacious earth 
Holds not its noblest chiefs among — " 

Pindar's odes to the victors from Akragas, Catania, Himera, Camarina, 

LocRis, Rhodes, Corinth, Aegina, Orchomenos, Cyrene, Thessaly, Thebes, 

Athens, Tenedos, are still preserved. Pindar thus glorifies Theron, the heroic 

King of Agrigentum (Akragas), on his winning a chariot race at Olympia. 

" Theron, whose bright axle won, with four swift steeds the Chariot Crown. 

. . The prop of Agrigentum's fame . . Whose upright rule his prosperous States proclaim." 

The dekadrachm engraved on p. 220 is doubtless in commemoration of this 
great event. Pindar's fame lasted long. Even the rude Spartans spared 
his house and his people, when they devastated Thebes, and Alexander 
the Great paid similar veneration to his memory — two hundred years after 
his death. 


From Rawlisson's "Herodotus 
(Lent by Mr. Murray.) 


(Page 283). 

The cut on the left shows its present state, and the 
introduction of the figure gives its scale. In 1682 the 
English traveller, Wheler, saw it and gave a drawing of 
it (which is reproduced on the right). It has evidentl}' 
been done from memory and is incorrect, but shows the 
three heads of the serpents, which were intact in his 
time. The Golden Tripod which it carried was never 
at Constantinople, but Constantine may have set up a 

copy of it. Lady Mary 

W. Montagu saw the three 

heads on the serpent in 1718. 

The names of the states in- 
scribed on the monument 

are : Spartans, Athenians, 

Corinthians, Tegeans, Sicy- 

onians, Eginetans, Mega- 
roans, Epidaurians, Orcho- 

menians, Phliasians, Troeze- 

nians, Hermionians, Tiryn- 

thians, Plataeans, Mycen- 

aeans,Eretrians, Chalcidians, 

Styreans.Eleans, Potidaeans, 

Leucadians, Anactorians, 

Ambraciots, Lepreats, Man- 

tineans and Paleans. There 

G o 


were other names, showing that all who came into collision with the Persians 
were to be honoured, whether they fought at the battle of Plataea or not. — 
Frazer's Patisaniaa. 

(Pages xxv., 292). 

Sir Rennell Rodd's touching lines are worth reproducing, from the Violet 
Crown and other Foems. 


The rosy dawn broke from her ocean bed — 
A sailor pointed to the north, and said 
The one word, " Misolonghi ! " Lifted high, 
Between the mists of water and of sky. 
In the mirage of sunrise, there it lay. 
The heart of Hellas in her darkest day. 

And there and then, across that morning sea. 
The eager heart went throbbing back to thee, 
For here, dead poet of my dreams of youth. 
Thy long denial learned the one hard truth. 

Oft with thee since, my poet, where the steep 

Of Sunium sees red evening dye the deep. 

Where broad Eurotas cleaves the garden lands, 

That knew no walls but Spartan hearts and hands, 

Where snowy -crested into cloudless skies 

The two throne-mountains of the muses rise ; 

Mount up, oh poet, still they seem to say. 

Pathless and lonely winds the starward way, 

Look never back, thou hast thy song to sing. 

Thy life is winter, so thy death be spring. 

Oft with thee after, when the sun went down 

Behind Morea, through the violet crown, 

Seen from the broken temples, when the ray 

Transforms Hymettus from noon's silver grey 

To one rose jewel, when the islands be 

Like broken sapphires on a milky sea. 

And still thy mute voice echoes near, but most 

A moment later when the light is lost. 

And Athens sobers in the afterglow » 

Of such a spiritual twilight as I know 

No other spot of sea and earth can show ; 

Thou art grown one with these things, and thy fame 

Links a new memory to each sacred name. 

Yet, let me think here by these haunted seas, 

Too fair to need their dower of memories ; 

Here, where the whisperings of spring-tide eve 

Bring kinship with the infinite, and weave 

Bright rosaries of stars, where never fails 

Incense of thyme, and hymn of nightingales, 

That oft the beauty of this fair world stole 

Across the tumult of thy lonely soul, 

Till the ice thawed, and the storm broke in spray. 

The cold heart warmed, and knew the better way, 

To see some hope in human things, to crave 

That late remorse of love men lavished on thy grave. 

Sir Rennkll Rodd. C.B. 




A new interest in this remarkable man's works has been awakened by the 
splendid edition of his journals, with full commentaries and elucidations of the 
text, by Prof J. G. Frazer of Trinity College, Cambridge. Dr. Frazer 
spent many years upon the work, and made many pilgrimages to the recently 
discovered sites of cities supposed to be lost. This monumental work 
{Macviillan & Co., 1898) has put the veracity of Pausanias beyond a 
doubt. For a century or more his " descriptions " were regarded as mere 
travellers' tales, a kind of Robinson Crusoe's adventures in fact. He seems to 
have been by origin a Greek, born in Lydia, but was settled in Rome in the 
time of Marcus Aurelius. Some of the work is missing, for it seems to have 
neither head nor tail, but what is preserved offers a wonderful picture of the 
greatness of the Grecian world, even when merged in the Empire of Rome. 
He must have been a man of fortune to voyage so extensively, for there were, in 
those days, no " MuRRAYS " or " Baedekers " to exploit his wanderings for 
publication. I have to thank Dr. Frazer for many kind hints, and for the use 
of quite a number of photographs of old Greece. 


It is reported that Mr. Evans has made even more wonderful discoveries 
this year (1901). I was anxious from an artistic point of view to give small 
reproductions of the frescoes with processions of ladies, which were publicly 
exhibited at Mr. Evans's lectures, but I was unable to obtain them. 

Mr. Hogarth's wonderful discoveries in the Cave of Zeus have also been 
publicly shown, but no photographs were available. However, I am able to give 

Tank and Stone Breahtwork in Throne Room. 

Maoazine, with Great Jars and Receptacles. 

some small engravings (from the published Report of the British School) to 
show the importance of the work on which Mr. Evans is engaged. Of " The 
Throne of Minos " I could not obtain a photograph ; it is one of the most 
interesting finds of the whole enterprise. 

G G 2 



The Pillar Stone bearing the Double Axe symbol is remarkably 
interesting to numismatists, as it is the same which is the crest of Tenedos 
which is found on the coins (No. 635, page 103) and on other pieces from Asia 
Minor, this axe borne by the figure of Zeus Labraundeus on the Carian 
pieces. The fragment of beautiful Classic Ornament from the Palace of 

Pillar of thk 

Classic Rosette RELiEt-s or Frieze. 

Minos is peculiarly interesting, carrying such fine Grecian Ornament back 
to a period much earlier than was generally supposed. 

The devotion of Mr. Arthur Evans, Mr. Bosanquet, and Mr. Hogarth to the 
antiquities of Crete deserves all encouragement, and it is to be hoped that their 
efforts may be backed with largely augmented funds, while the opportunity of 
developing the mystery of Cretan antiquities is open to us. 


348, etc.) 

Translation of two of the Treaties, kindly supplied hy Lord Diifferin. They ail are much alike in 
style ; the shortest and one of the longest are given. 

(Decree) of the Eleuthernaeans. 

Whereas the Teians, being our friends and kinsmen through their 
ancestors, have sent a decree and ambassadors to us, ApoUodotus and Kolotas, 
who having come before the assembly (recalled) the friendship and kindred 
which exists between us and them, and furthermore spoke well and honourably 
concerning the god and the consecration of their city . . . and country . . . 
agreeably to what was set forth in the decree and begged us, continuing to keep 
our friendship and good will, to be ever the promoters of any good to them, and 
still further to increase the favours already granted them, and since the like 
request is made by Agesander son of Eucrates the Rhodian the ambassador 
sent from King Antiochos for the termination of the war, showing no lack of 
zeal and earnestness in any wise, and also in like manner by Perdiccas the 
ambassador sent from King Philip. Be it enacted by the magistrates and the 
city of the Eleuthernaeans, to answer the Teians their friends and kinsmen. That 

NOTES 449 

we also reverence the worship of Dionysos and we salute and commend your 
people, because they have continued to act well and piously and worthily 
towards the gods, not only observing what they have received from their 
ancestors, but even adding much more, wherefore also from us goodly and costly 
offerings have been given to the god, and we declare the Teians and their city 
and country sacred and inviolable, and we will endeavour to promote their 

(Decree) of the Polyrrhenians. 

The magistrates and the city of the Polyrrhenians, to the people and 
the council of the Teians, greeting. Having received the decree from you we 
have read it and we have listened to the ambassadors Apollodotus and Kolotas 
pleading with all zeal and earnestness, agreeably to what was set forth in the 
decree. Wherefore, be it enacted by the magistrates and the city of the Poly- 
rrhenians to answer the Teians. That we also worship Dionysos, and these 
having been given to the god . . . and we leave the city and country of the 
Teians sacred and inviolable both now and to all time, and that there be also 
safe conduct to the Teians by land and sea for all time. 


NOTE Q.— "CAN GREAT DOOLKARNEIN DIE?"i (Pages 411, 415). 

" In eastern history are two Iskanders, or Alexanders, who are sometimes 
confounded, and both of whom are called Doolkarnein, or the Two-Homed, in 
allusion to their subjugation of East and West, horns being an oriental symbol 
of power." " One of these heroes is Alexander of Macedon, the other a conqueror 
of more ancient times, who built the marvellous series of ramparts on Mount 
Caucasus, kno\vn in fable as the wall of Gog and Magog, that is to say, of the 
people of the North. It reached from the Euxine Sea to the Caspian, where 
its flanks originated the subsequent appellation of the Caspian Gates. See 
(among other passages in the same work) the article entitled ' Jagioug et 
Magioug,' in D'Herbelot's BihliotMque Orientale." — Leigh Hunt. 


The fate of the beautiful young Bactrian princess RoXANA, whom Alexander 
had married among the mountains of India, is peculiarly sad. Her infant son 
(Alexander's only child) was born a month after the Conqueror's death. 
Olympias, the haughty mother of Alexander, seems to have transferred the 
deep love she always had had for her only son to his child-widow. Finding 
Roxana surrounded by enemies to Alexander's race, she invited her to 
Macedonia, where the two princesses lived together in mutual love and esteem. 
But OLYMPIA.S, the daughter of a kingly race, could not brook opposition to her 
grand.son's future, and when the soldiery had set up the idiotic illegitimate son 
of Philip (known as Philip Arrhidaeus) as sovereign — she declared war against 
him and had him killed, as a usurper. Olympias ("a splendid old savage 
queen," as Dr. Mahaffy calls her) ^ had spoken out fearlessly against all the 

' Rudyard Kipling gives the name in use in the Punjab now as " Julkarn." 
" Mahaffy's Alexander's Umpire (Uswin). 


pretenders, and so had made herself unpopular all round. Cassander found an 
excuse for killing the grand old queen, and then persuaded the assembled 
generals to name him guardian of the young prince and his mother. As has 
been already told, he cleared them both out of his way, and died himself, reaping 
no advantage from his selfish brutality. It seems the poor little prince was 
cruelly used and done to death, while nominally king of all the world. I have 
seen his titles emblazoned on the temples of Egypt, at Luxor and at Denderah, 
" the Great King, Blessed Lord, living for Ever, Alexander." Alexander the 
Great left one sister, Cleopatra, widow of the King of Epirus (at whose 
wedding her father was murdered). She was young, beautiful, and talented. 
She resided long at Sardes, and had many suitors, but at last consented to 
marry Ptolemy of Egypt.. He was a good man and would have treated her 
well. But Antigonus, under whose care she lived, had her murdered, that 
Ptolemy might not gain more ascendency, as being connected still more directly 
with the Great Alexander's family She was the last of Alexander's race. 


(Page 427). 

Theocritus, the earliest and undoubtedly chief of the pastoral poets, was 
a great favourite at the court of his native Syracuse, where Hieron II. 
seems to have vied with Alexandria in attracting literary men and artists 
from all Hellenic lands. Of Hieron, Theocritus had written — 

. . . "On Libya's heel. 
The bold Phoenicians shuddering terror feel ; 
For Syracuse against them takes the field, 
Each with his ready spear and willow shield ; 
Against them arms heroic Hieron, 
Equal to heroes of the time foregone," &c. 

But the greater fame of the famous Museum of Alexandria, and no doubt 
rich promises, too, drew Theocritus, like most of the literary giants of the 
time, to the court of Ptolemy Philadelphus. Here is a verse from a lengthy 
poem in the praise of Ptolemy, which has come down to us. 

" In many a region many a tribe doth till 

The fields, made fruitful by the showers of Zeus ; 
None like low-lying Egypt doth fulfil 

Hope of increase, when Nile the clod doth loose, 
O'erbubbling the wet soil ; no land dotli use 

So many workmen of all sorts, enrolled 
In cities of sucli nmltitudes profuse. 

More than three myriads as a single fold 
Under the watchful sway of Ptolemy the bold." 

Theocritcs (Chapman's Translation). 

(There was also one in adulation of Berenice, but it is lost, all but a 



{References to Pages of the Catalogue where not otherwise stated!) 

Abdastart, k. of Sidon, 133 

Abdera, 64 

Abydos, i02, 153 

Achaia, 83 

Agathokles, k. of Baktria, 130 

Agathoklea of Syrakuse, 48, 49 

Aigai (Achaia), 83 

Aigiale (Amorgos), 93 

Aigina, 80 

Ainianes, 68 

Ainos, 65, 152 

Aiolis, 103 

Aitne-Inessa, 21 

Aitolia, 73 

Akanthos, 57 

Akarnania, 73 

Akragas, 21,25(no. 162) 

Akroathon, 59 (no. 386) 

Alexander Jannaeus, 34 (no. 231) 

Alexander the Great, 60 

Alexandreia Troas, 102 

Alexandres, k. of Epeiros, 72 

Alexandres IV., k. of Makedon, 142 

Alexandres I., k. of Syria, 128 

Alexandres II., k. of Syria, 129 

Alyattes, k. of Lydia, 108 (no. 671) 

Amsistris, 96 

Amathus, 153 

Ambrakia, 72 

Amisos, 95 

Amorgos, 93 

Amphiktiones of Delphoi, 75 

Amphipolis. 58, .59 (no. 384) 

Amphora-letter on Athenian coins, 79 (no. 505) 

Amyntas III., k. of Makedon, 59 

Anaktorion, 73 

Antialkidas, k. of India, 137 

Antigonos Uoson, 62 


Antigonos Gonatas, 62 
Antigonos, k. of Asia, 61 
Antiinachos, k. of Baktria, 136 
Antiocheia (Seleukis), 132 
Antiochos I., k. of Syria, 125 
Antiochos II. , k. of Syria, 125 
Antiochos III. , k. of Syria, 126 
Antiochos IV. , k. of Syria, 127 
Antiochos V. , k. of Syria, 127 
Antiochos VI., k. of Syria, 128 
Antiochos VII. , k. of Syria, 129 
Antiochos VIII. , k. of Syria, 130 
Antiochos IX., k, of Syria, 130 
Antiochos X., k. of Syria, 131 
Antiochos Hierax, k. of Sj-ria, 126 
Antiochos, son of Seleukos III., k. of Syria, 126 
M. Antonius, triumvir, 107, 132 
ApoUodotos I., k. of India, 138 
ApoUodotos II., k. of India, 139 
ApolIonia(Illyri8), 70 
Apollonia Pontike, 65 
Aptera, 89 

Arados, 60 (no. 391), 132 
Archelaos I. , k. of Makedon, 59 
Argolis, 86 
ArgoB, 86 

Ariarathes I V. , k. of Kappadokia, 120 
Ariarathes VI. , k. of Kappadokia, 121 
Ariarathes VII., k. of Kappadokia, 121 
Ariarathes IX. , k. of Kappadokia, 121 
Ariobarzanes I. , k. of Kappadokia, 121 
Ariobarzanes III., k. of Kappadokia, 122 
Arkadia, 87 

Arsinoe II., queen of Egypt, 143 (no. 886), 144 
Aspendos, 117 
Athens, 78 

Attalos I., k. of Pergamon, 101 
I Attika, 78 

4.^1 ) 



Audoleon, k. of Paionia, 64 
Augustus, Emperor, 33, 132 
Azbaal, k. of Kition, 122 
Azes, k. of India, 140 
Azilises, k. of India, 141 

Baalmelek II. , k. of Kition, 122 

Babylon, 60 (no. 392), 123 note,S13o 

Baktria, 135 

Barke, 146 

Berenike I. , queen of Egypt, 143 (no. 886) 

Birytis, 103 

Bithynia, 96 

Boiotia, 75 

Bracteate copied from Athenian coin, 80 (no. 506) 

Brettioi, 14 

Bruttium, 14 

Brutus the Elder, 66 

Byblos, 133 

Byzantion, 66 

Calabria, 4 

Cales, 2 

Caligula, Emperor, 89 

Campania, 2 

Capua, 2 

Chalkidian League, 29 (no. 192), 58 

Chalkis (Euboia), 77 

Chersonesos (Krete), 89 

Chios, 109 

Cumae, 3 

Damastion, 71 

Datames, satrap, 119 

Delphoi, 75 

Uemetrios I. , k. of Syria, 127 

Demetrios II., k. of Syria, 128, 129 

Demetrios Poliorketes, 62 

Dies- (two ononefian), 34 (no. 231) 

Diodotos, k. of Baktria, 135 

Dion of Syrakuse, 30, 85 

Dionysios, tyrant of Herakleia, 96 

Dyrrhachion, 71 

Egypt, 142 

Eleusis, 80 

Eleuthernai, 89 

Elis, 83 

Elpaal, k. of Byblos, 133 

Epeiros, 71 

Ephesos, 106 

Epidauros, 87 

Pjretria, 77 

Erythrai, 107, 153 

Euagoras I., k. of Salamis, 123 

Euainetos, engraver, 42 f., 45 (op. no. 177a) 

Euboia, 77 

Euelthon, k. of Salamis, successors of, 154 

Eukleidas, engraver, 43, 46 
Eukratides, k. of Baktria, 136 
Eumenes, engraver, 41, 42 
Eumenes I., k. of Pergamon, 101 
Eumenes II., k. of Pergamon, 101 
Euth . . . , engraver, 43 
Euthydemos I., k. of Baktria, 135 

FibtUa on S. Italian coins, 16 (no. 101) 

Gaul, 1 

Gela, 23 

Gelon, tyrant of Syrakuse, 36 

Gelon the Younger, 51 

Gondophares, k. of India, 141 

Gortyna, 89 

Graffiti : Nos. 442, 505, 620, 543, 880, 881 

Oroma, supposed, on S. Italian coins, 10 

Halaisa, 24 

Hekatomnos, dynast of Karia, 108 

Heliokles, k. of Baktria, 137 

Herakleia (Bithynia), 96, 152 

Herakleia (Lucania), 7 note, 8, 16 (no. 101) 

Herakleia Minoa, 54 

Hermaios, k. of India, 139 

Hermione, 87 

Hidrieus, dynast of Karia, 112 

Hiempsal II. , k. of Numidia, 150 

Hierapytna, 90 

Hieron I. of Syrakuse, 38 

Hieron II. of Syrakuse, 51, 52 

Hieronymos of Syrakuse, 52 

Hiketas of Syrakuse, 50 

Himera, 24 

Hipponium, 18 

Hippostratos, k. of India, 139 

Histiaia, 78 

Huvishka, k. of India, 142 

Hybla Megala, 25 

Hyria, 3 

lUyris, 70 

India, 135 

Ionia, 106 

Italic Confederacy, 1 

Italy, 1 

Itanos, 90 

luba I., k. of Niimidia, 150 

luba II. , k. of Mauretania, 150 

Kadaphes, k. of India, 141 

Kadphises II., k. of India, 142 

Kafara, 54 

Kaisareia (Kappadokia), 122 

Kalchedon, 96 

Kalymna, 112 

Kamarina, 26 



Kameiros, 113 

Kanishka, k. of India, 142 

Kappadokia, 120 

Karia, 60 (no. 390), 110 

Karthago, 148 

Karthago Nova, 1 

Karystos, 78 

Kassandroa, k. of Makedon, 61 

Katane, 26 

Kaulonia, 16 

Kelenderis, 118 

Kentoripa, 28 

Kilikia, 118 

Kimon, engraver, 44 f. 

Kition, 122 

Klazomenai, 107 

Kleopatra I., queen of Egypt, 145 

Kleopatra VII., queen of Egypt, 132, 146 

Kleopatra, queen of Syria.^lSO 

Knidos, 110 

Knosos, 91 

Kolophon, 107 

Korinth, 18 (no. 115), 81 

Korkyra, 72 

Kos, 112 

Koson (Thrakian prince ?), 66 

Krete, 89 

Kroisos, 115 

Kroton, 16 

Kyklades, 93 

Kyme (Aiolis), 103 

Kypros, 122, 153 

Kyrenaika, 146 

Kyrene, 146 

Kyzikos, 97 

Lakedaimon, 86 

Lakonia, 86 

Lamia, 68 

Lampsakos, 99 

Larisa (Thessaly), 69 

Latos, 91 

Leontinoi, 28 

Lesbos, 104 

Lete, 58 

Leukas, 73 

Libya, 148 

LilyVjaion, 30 

Lindos, 113 

Lipara, 55 

Lokroi (Epizephyrian), 18 

Lokroi (Opuntiau), 74 

Lucania, 8 

Lydia, 115 

Lykia, :M (no. 231), 116 

Lykkeios, k. of Paionia, 64 

Lysias, k. of India, 138 

Lysimachos, 67 
Lyttos, 92 

Magnesia (Ionia), 108 

Makedon, 57 

Mallos, 118, 120 

Mamertinoi, 32 

Mantineia, 88 

Maroneia, 66 

Massalia, 1 

Maues, k. of India, 140 

Mauretania, 150 

Maussollos, dynast of Karia, 111 

Mazaios, satrap, 119 

Megalopolis, 88 

Megara, 77 (no. 487), 80 

Melita, 150 

Melos, 93 

Menandros, k. of India, 139 

Messana (Sicily), 30 

Messene (Peloponnesos), 86 

Metapontion, 8 

Methynma, 105 

Miletos, 108 

Minoa (Amorgos), 93 

Mithradatea the Great, 95 

Motye, 53 

Myndos, HI 

Myrina (Aiolis), 103 

Mysia, 97 

Mytilene, 106 

Nagidoa, 118 

Naxos (Sicily), 33 

Neandreia, 103 

Neapolis (Campania), 3 

Neapolis (Makedon), 58 

Nikokles I., k. of Salamis, 123 

Nikokreon, k. of Salamis, 123 

Nikomedes III., k. of Bithynia, 97 

Nola, 4 

Nuceria Alfaterna, 4 

Numidia, 150 

Octavia, sister of Augustus 107 
Olynthos, 58 
Orthagoreia, 59 

Paionia, 64 

Pamphylia, 117 

Panormos, 33 

Paplilagonia, 96 

Paphos, 153 

Parion, 100 

Parme . . . , engraver, 46 

Patrai, 83 

Patraos, k. of Paionia, 64 



PeiraieuB (Amisos), 95 

Pella, 59 (no. 385), 60 (no. 388) 

Pellene, 83 

Perga, 117 

Pergamon, 101 

Perikles, dynast of Lykia, 116 , 

Perseus, k. of Makedon, 63 

Persia, 135 

Phaistos, 92 

Phalanna, 70 

Pharkadon, 70 

Pharsalos, 70 

Pheneos, 88 

Philip II., k. of Makedon, 59 

Philip III., k. of Makedon, 61 

Philip v., k. of Makedon, 57, 63 

Philippos Philadelphos, k. of Syria, 131 

Philistis, queen of Syrakuse, 51 

Phintias, k. of Akragas, 23 

Phistelia, 4 

Phleius, 82 

Phoenicia, 132 

Phokis, 75 

Phrygillos, engraver, 43, cp. no. 71 

Pixodaros, dynast of Karia, 112 

Plataiai, 76 

Pnytagoras, k. of Salamis, 154 

Pnytos, k. of Paphos, 153 

Polyrhenion, 152 

Pontos, 95 

Poseidonia, 10 

Priansos, 92 

Prusias I., k. of Bithynia, 97 

Prusias II., k. of Bithynia, 97 

Ptolemaios I., k. of Egypt, 142, 145 (no. 895) 

Ptolemaios II., k. of Egypt, 143 

Ptolemaios III., k. of Egj-pt, 144 

Ptolemaios IV., k. of Egypt, 144 

Ptolemaios V., k. of Egypt, 145 

Ptolemaios VI., k. of Egypt, 145 

Ptolemaios VIII., k. of Egypt, 145 

Ptolemaios X., k. of Egypt, 145 

Ptolemaios, k. of Kypros, 146 

Pumiaton, k. of Kition, 123 

Pyrrhos, k. of Epeiros, 50 

Ras Melkart, 54 

JRestricck coim, nos. 115, 149, 569, 579, 727 

cp. no. 231 
Rhaukos, 93 
Rhegion, 19 
Rhodos, 113 

Rhoikos, k. of Amathus, 153 
Romano-Campanian coins, 2 

Salamis (Kypros), 123, 164 
Samnium, 1 
•Samos, 110 

Segesta, 34 

Seleukeia (Syria), 132 

Seleukis, 132 

Seleukos I., k. of Syria, 123, 135 

Seleukos II., k. of Syria, 126 

Seleukos III., k. of Syria, 126 

Seleukos IV., k. of Syria, 127 

Selinus, 23 (no. 149), 35, 151 

Sicily, 21 

Siculo-Punic coins, 53, 152 

Side, 117 

Sidon, 133 

Sikyon, 82 

Sinope, 96 

Smyrna, 109 

Soloi, 119 

Solus, 35, 54 

Soson, engraver, 41 

Soter Megas, k. of India, 141 

Spain, 1 

Sporades, 93 

Straton II., k. of Sidon, 133 

Suessa Aurunca, 4 

Sybaris, 11 

Syrakuse, 36, 151 

Syria, 60 (nos. 387, 389), 123 

Tanagra, 76 
Taras, 4 
Tarsos, 119 
Tatar coins ? 142 
Tauromenion, 53, 151 
Tatlithivaibi, dynast of Lykia, 116 
Tenedos, 103 
I Tenos, 93 
Teos, 109 
Terina, 20 
Thasos, 67 
Thebes, 76 

Theron of Akragas, 25 
Thessaly, 68 
Thrace, 64 
Thurioi, 11 

Tigranes I., k. of Syria, 131 
Timotlieos, tyrant of Herakleia, 96 
Torch, cross-headed, on S. Italian coins, 10 
Traianus, emperor, 122 
Tripolis (Phoenicia), 134 
Troas, 102 
Tyros, 128 (nos. 790, 792), 134 

Velia, 13 

Vespasianus, Emperor, 154 

Vibo, 18 

Zakynthos, 85 
Zankle, 17 (no. 105), 30 
Zotiinos, k. of Amathus, 153 



(^References to the Numbers of the Coins in the Catalogue.) 

'A7. , Syrakuse, 312 

'A.ya96K\(ios, Syrakuse, 320, 322 

'\yaeoKXioi $a(n\fos, Syrakuse, 323 f. 

' AyaeoK\tovs $aaiK(os, Baktria, 827 

'Aypevs, Korkyra, 462 

'ASe\<paiv, Egypt, 886 

'ASpanov, Alessana, 219 

'A(i\i(Tou, SaaiXiws Pa(ri\fui> MeyiKov, India, 867 

'Afou, /3a(riAe'a>s $aaiX(uv VityiKoa, India 859, f. 

"ASo., Herakleia Luc. 45 ; Metapontion, 54, 56 

Ai., Syrakuse, 317 

Afaj, Lokris, 471 

AiymAfoT, ^jrl, Abdera, 414 

AA., Egypt, 880 

'A\e., Herakleia Luc, 46 

'AA.€{<£»8poi/, Makedon, 388, 390 f. : Egypt, 880 f. 

' A\f(<lvSpov 0aiTi\fms, Makedon, 389 ; Syria, 790, 

'AXf^ivipov Sfoir^Topos EvfpyfTou^ ^atnAeois, 

Syria, 789 
' AKf^ivSpau rov HfOTrroKffiOv, Epeiros, 460 
A/1., Metapontion, 5"2 
'Afiftfias, Rhodos, 714, 715 
' Aiiffavi^s], Katane, 177 A 
'A/iiyTa, Makedon, 383 
'Aii(piSdiias, Kos, 705 
'Aya^iSoTOs, Rhodos, 719 
'Aya^iKkrit, Abydos, 625 
' Avipo., Apollonia 111., 451 
""AySpayot, Apollonia 111., 451 
'AyToios, Rho<los, 718 

'AmoAKi'Sou, floffiXe'ioj yiKri(p6pov, India, 837 f. 
' AyTty6yov,&a(TiK(ws, Makedon, 402, 403 
'Ayri\ox-, Atiiens, 504 
'AvTi/zt^xowj $affi\ftas 0coi/, Baktria, 828 
'AyTiuxos, Atliens, 504 

'Aynoxou, /3offiAe<of, Syria, 775 f., 780, 782 f., 798 
'AxTKix"" 'Eiri<))0>'oCt, 0a(Ti\(as, Syria, 799, 800 

( ■'•'5 

'AvTioxov 'Evitpavovs J\iovvtrou, ^airiKfws, Syria, 

793, 794 
Aurtoxou EvepyfTou, ^atriXfwi, Syria, 795 
AvTioxov EinraTopos, $a(TtK4ws, Syria, 787 
*AyTt6xov Ein7€$ovs iiKoiraropos, ^afftXius, Syria, 

Ayriix'"' ©'"■' 'Ewafiavovs, flocriAfois, Syria, 786 
'Ayrwxov ^i\6traTopos, /3a<ri\€'ws, Syria, 801 
*AyT(t>yios avTOKpirotp rpiroy rpiuv aySpay, Antio- 

cheia Syr., 806 
Ajt. , Metapontion, 53 
'AiroXA., Taras, 35 

'Attq\\oS6tou, ffaatXitas ^onripos, India, 850 
'AiroWoS6Tov, ^atxt\4(i3S SoJTTjpos Kal ^iKotrdTopos, 

India, 849 
^Atro\\oS6Tov SwT^pos, &a<Tih4u>s, India, 844 f. 
'AiroWciSeopor, Magnesia Ion., 670; Smyrna, 676 
Ap., Knosos, 574, 575 
'ApiBoaa, Syrakuse, 296 
'ApeoSy Messana, 218 
'ApiBav, Taras, 28 
Api. , Taras, 26 
'Apiapa. , Athen?, 505 

'ApiapiSou 'Eittfayovs, ^aatKeas, Kappadokia, 749 
'AptapaBov Ei<rf$ovs, /SoffiAews, Kappadokia, 

745 f., 752 
'ApiapiBou *i\oij.iiTopos, SaaiKfws, Kappadokia, 

750, 751 
*Apio0apidyov Evff€$ovs ♦tAopw/taiou, /SacriAews, 

Kappadokia, 755 
' Apio8ap(dyou 4>iAopw/iaIav, 0airi\(a)s, Kappadokia, 

753, 754 
Apitr., Amisos, 583 
'ApiiTTaySpas, Hierapytna, 571 
'Apio-Ttos, Amisos, 582 
'Apianir. , Taras, 31, 32 
' ApKTToKKTJs, Taras, 38 
'Ap!ny6ris *iKaSt\<l>ov, Egypt, 887 f. 



ApTffiiios Hfpyaias, Perga, 732 

'Apxayera, Tauromenion, 353 

'Apxf\io, Makedon, 382 

'Ao-., Nagidos, 737 

\i., Metapontion, 55 

AvSu\(ovros, Paionia, 412 fl 

AuTo/cpoTTjj, Knidos, 689 ft 

'Ax-. Syria, 770 

BItuv, Kos, 703 

FeAoj, Gela, 148 f. 

r^Kafos, /3a., Syrakuse, 339 

r. Ka7(rap2($. Ttp/i. 'Apx- Kty. Atj/x. 'E{ou."Tjra., 

Krete, 565 a 
FAoK., Athens, 503 
TovSo(pfppov, $a7i\ea)S, India, 868 
Topydiras, Thessaly, 433 
ri;.,Taras, 31,34 

Aajua<7ioj, Patrai, 529 

A7);U7)Tpioj, Smyrna, 675 

Arii^riTplou 0a<Tt\4us, Makedon, 399 f. ; Syria, 788, 

Arj/iT/Tpiou @eov NiKaropos, $a<Ti\fais, Syria, 796 
Ar]fjL'rjTpiov ^i\aS4\(pov NtKaropos, ^affiKtas, Syria, 

Ai., Taras, 31, 36, 38 ; Egypt, 890, 896 
AioSc^Tou, 0a<n\fais, Baktria, 823 
Atoyvaiov, Herakleia Bith. , 590 
Aiovvaov SwTrjpos, Maroneia, 427 
Ai<iiro/ii7ros, Miletos, 673 
Aihs 'EK\aplov, Syrakuse, 328, 329 
Aiaivos, Zakynthos, 548 

'Eko., Miletos, 672 

'EKfuStpios, Zeis, Syrakuse, 305, 310, 311 

•EWavlov, Albs, Syrakuse, 328, 329 

EtSyofios, Chios, 682 

'Etto., Taras, 26 

'ETTOfi., Thebes, 485 

'Epfialov, Paai\fas 'S.TripoaiTv, India, 857 

'Epiiaiou, BaiTiKias SoiT^poj, India, 855, 856 

Eu. , Taras, 36; Herakleia Luc, 46; Syrakuse, 

277, 307 ; Rhodes, 709, 710 ; Soloi, 738 
Etroi., Katane, 177 A ; Syrakuse, 280 
Euoii/e., Syrakuse, 294, 295 
Evaivero, Syrakuse, 279, 282 
Eve., Syrakuse, 281 
EufluS^/iou, 0ain\eais, Baktria, 824 f. 
EvK\ei., Syrakuse, 282 
EuKpuTiSov, &aai\ta>s, Baktria, 829, 830 
EvKpariSov, $a.<ri\ea)S K(yd\ov, Baktria, 831 f. 
EvKT'fifLuv, Kyuie Aiol. , 636 
Eufievov, Syrakuse, 278, 279 
Evfii^vov, Syrakuse, 274 f. 
EipvK\(i., Athens, 505 

Ev<t>a., Thurioi, 74 
'Ex«. , Athens, 503 

CAS, Taras, 28 
Fao-T. Thebes, 486 

Zei-s 'E\fvefpios, Syrakuse, 305, 310, 311 

Zfvs Koffios, Korkyra, 462 

ZijvTis, Kolophon, 667 

Ziji'aii'os, M, Maroneia 426 A 

105, Taras. 30 

Zoi., Taras, 33, 35 

'HKioKKfovs AiKaiov, jSatriAewf, Baktria, 834 f. 
"HAios, India, 875 
Hp., Athens, 503 
'HpaKhfi., Atliens, 505 
'HpaK\4ovs SwTjjpos, Thasos, 429 
'H((>ai<rT((\eo)S, Abydos, 625a (p. 153) 

H I , Neapolis Camp. , 15 
H, Taras, 35 

0(oSo., Athens, 505 
0t(i5(opoj, Myndos, 692 
@e6yvTiTos, Miletos, 674 
@fuv, Egypt, 886 

'ISptf'ajs, Karia, 696 
If., Velia, 84, Syria, 771, 799 
'Upavos, Syrakuse, 336, 340 f. 
'Upaviixou, $a<n\4os, Syrakuse, 345, 346 
I iKfTa, 4ir\, Syrakuse, 330 
'Iv-KoffTpdrov, 0a(ri\4ws MeyaKov ^wrripos, India 

la., Neapolis Camp, 14, 15 
"Iffi., Syria, 797 

KaS(pi<rris, $a(n\fvs $airi\4<i>i' 'Sairrip Me-yos OOHM, 

India, 873, 874 
Kaiaapos Se^offToC, Antiocheia Syr. , 807 
KaAAiSo^as, Abdera, 413 
Kifftos, Zfvs, Kork3'ra, 462 
Kaa-aavSpov, Makedon, 394 
Kacra-tivSpou, Paa-i\4ws, Makedon, 395 f. 
K€., Kyrene, 914 
K.e<t>d\ov, Abydos, 626 
Kri<t>t., Damastion, 454 
K(., Syrakuse, 336, 338 
Ktfi., Syrakuse, 290, 292 
KlpLwy, Syrakuse, 290, 291, 296 
KX., Taras, 26 
KAei., Larisa, 442 
KAeicos, Kos, 704 
KAf'iViros, Thessaly, 433 
K\€iTo. , Ainianes, 435 



KAcoirciTpa 6€^ vturepa, ^airtXio'o'a, Antiocheia 

Syr., 806 
K\fOTaTpas &a(ri\iatni$, Egypt, 902 
K\€oiraTpas &eas, $atri\iaar]Sf Syria, 798 
[K l]Kfi<pfiaip, Ephesos, 657 
KKfuSiipov, Velia, 82 
K\«ux-, Side, 733 
K6pas, Syrakuse, 320 f. 
K6auv, Thrace, 426 
Kti;. , Amisos, 584 
KiiSios, Kyrene, 908 

\e6(ppa>y, Ephesos, 657 

Aei)/(0(Tjris, Syrakuse, 278, 298 

AeuKiiriros, Metapontion, 52 

Afbf^iSoiv, Chios, 681 

Au., Syrakuse, 344 

AvK^vos, Taras, 37 

AukiVkos, Epeiros, 456 

AvKK€iov, Paionia, 410 

\vKovpyos, Lakedaimon, 551 

Aufftfidx""' Saai\iu>s, Thrace, 430 f. 

tivaiov, fiatriKius ' AviKT)T0Vy India, 843 

Mai'ou, BatTiKfuts, India, 858 

MautradWo, Karia, 693 f. 

MfvdvSpov, f.afTi\io3s Swr^pos, India, 851 f, 

McKcffiirir. , Abydos, 627 

Vi'viaaKos, Ephesos, 660 

MeiTffoia, Messana, 211, 212 

MTjTpiiSet'pos, Klazomenai, 665, Kolophon, 668 

Ml., Syrakuse, 346 

Mi0paSaT3v EiiiraTopos, ^affihias, Pontes, 586 

Mo\o<r(r6s, Thurioi, 77 

fieoitTo\ffiov, 'AXe^avSpov tov, Epeiros, 460 

Nevfiv., Taras, 33 

Ni., Syrakuse, 316, 318 

Ni'ita, Brettioi, 97 

NiVopxoS) Messene, 549 

'SiKri(p6pos, Rhodos, 720 

NiKoy., Athens, 504 

Ni)c<5|uoxoi, Leukas, 466 ' 

NiKo/i^)5ot/, 8a(n\fais 'Eiri(f>oi'oCj, Bithynia, 593 

ttovfi-itmos, Abydos, 628 

OlKiaris, Kroton, 106 
"OfiTipo!, Chios, 683 

Ovf<nTa(riavhs Kcuaap^ AiiroKpaTutp, Kypros, 762 A 
(p. 154) 

na., Sikyon, .526 

nanKkfos iiirl Ti. ) rb y', Melos, 581a 

Tlaput., Syrakuse, 297 

narpaov, Paionia, 411 

ntiiTiir. , Lakedaimon, 550 

n«Aoiri5))s, Erythrai, 662a 

ne\apias, Mesaana, 217 

riep^oias, 'Apre'iUiSoj, Perga, 732 

TlfptKKf., Ainianes, 436 

nepfffws, $a(n\fas, Makedon, 409 

ni^wSapov, Karia, 697 f. 

ni'. , Salamis, 761 a, b (p. 154) 

na\., Kyrene, 909 

noAu., Taras, 33 ; Thessaly, 434 

UofffiSuv, Poseidonia, 66 

ripo., Metapontion, 53 

Upouiriov, 0a<n\4as, Bithynia, 592, 592a 

I\paTay6pas, Abydos, 629 

UTo\efiaiov SaaiKews, Egypt, 883 f . 

nvBayopas, Ephesos, 659 

nietos, Kolophon, 669 

Uvppuv $airi\4as, Syrakuse, 331 f. 

2a., Taras, 25, 28 

Sdl^avos, Taras, 34 

SfSaffTov, Kaiaapos, Antiocheia Syr., 807 

S(\(vKov, Pergamon, 623 

2€\fvKov $a(Ti\fais, Syria, 763 f. , 779, 781, 785 

SfAii/os, Selinus, 235 

2i., Egypt, 881 

2i\av6s, Akragas, 138 

2iM- , Thurioi, 79 

2to., Syria, 794 

XrrjpoffffVy see 'Ep/xaiov 

2u. , Taras, 37 

S<poSpia, iirl, Byzantion, 425 

2,01., Taras, 36 ; Syria, 764 

2w(rio, Syrakuse, 302 

2»o'iiroAij, Gela, 155 

2u<rui>, Syrakuse, 273 

2iiT6ipo, Syrakuse, 303, 324, 325 ; Kyzikos, 

606 f. 
2(WT^pos ; see Aiovvtrov, 'HpanKeovs 

Tapos, Taras, 20 f. 

TeA.'as, Knidos, 690, 691 

Ti^poi-ou, ffacriXfas, S}"ria, 805 

Ti/UT)>'., Apollonia 111., 451 

Ti/i(i9eoj, Rhodos, 716 

Tino$iov, Herakleia, Bith. 590 

Tpaiav. 2fS. r^pfi. (Air. Kalcr.), Ariixapx- 'E|., 

"TiroT. y'. , Kaisareia Kapp. , 756 
Tpu, Syria, 794 

•Ti(.oj, Selinus, 237a (p. 151) 

*oT., Sinope, 588 

*!., Velia, 87, 88 

♦lAeraipoi/, Pergamon, 620 f. 

*iAi7rirou, Makedon, .384 f. 

■tiXiwnov 0a(n\4ois, Makedon, 393, 404 f. 

*iAiiriroy 'ETTKpavovs ^iKaS4\(pov, ^otTiAewy, Syria, 

803, 804 
*iAi(TTi5os, (Soo-iAiViros, Syrakuse, 337, 338 



♦iXo. , Herakleia Luc. , 47 
♦ii^io, $a(n\(os, Akragas, 145 
♦pu., Thurioi, 71 
*pvyt\\., Syrakuse, 281 

Xalpios, Kyrene, 906, 907 
Xdpris, Abydos, 630 
Xipfi-ns, Erythrai, 663 

E-vFe-\f-To-To-<T(, Salamis, 759 B (p. 154) 
Za-TL-iiu, Amathus, 756 A (p. 153) 
nv-vv, Paphos, 759 A (p. 153) 
Po, Amathus, 756 B (p. 153) 


K O Z O A A , India, 872 
K A AC()l[CHC], jSoffAtir $a(rt\4a>v 2a>TJ;p 

Miyas O O H M , India, 873 
KANHPKI, 3o<7i\€i;y ea<ri\euy, India, 875, 

MIOpO, India, 876 
oooHPKI, PAoNANo P A o, India, 877 

n-fPEKAt Lykia, 729 
TtXXEFtEBE Lykia, 728 

Aesillas Q., Makedcn, 374 

M. Antonius Imp. Cos. Desig. iter, et tert. 

IllVir. U. P. C, Ephesos, 662 
Cn. Dom. Proc. IlVir. ; Panormos, 226 
A. Laeto. IlVir. , Panormos, 226 
luba, rex, Numidia, 933 ; Mauretania, 934 

T"inbj?n. Tarsos, 741 f. 
naVn^n ■'J^n*'' Numidia, 933 
'jh'ohv'llh' Kition, 758 
irT'QD '-\h'ch' Kition, 759 
'rj^lTJ^':'' Kition, 757 
""TPO' Tarsos &c., 741 f. 
ljr> Sidon, 814 
p2ir\' Tarsos, 740 



Abdera, 245 

Abydos, 342 

Acanthus, 245 

Acamania, 258 

Achaia, 291 

Aci Reale, 199 

Actaeon sculpture, 229 

Aegae (Macedon), 248 

Aegina, 285, 288 

Aetolia, 258 

Aenus, 244 

Aeschylus, 269 

Aesculapius, nee Asklepios 

Agathocles, 212, 213 

Agrigentum, see Akragas 

Aigai, 292 

Ainanes, 251 

Aitne-Inessa, 201 

Ajax on coin, 284 

Akragas, 220, 221 

Alexander the Great, Asiatic Campaigns of, 

Alexander the Great, Portraits, 246, 247 

On coin, 249, 428 

Sarcophagus, 397 
Alexander of Epirus, 253 
Alexandreia-Troas, ;J42 
Alexandria, 425 
Amasia, 340 
Aniastris, 341 
Ambracia, 253 
Amenanos on coin, 201 
Aniisos, 340 
Amorgos, 325 
Amphipolis, 245-247 
Amphissa, 284 
Amphitrite on coin, 178 
Antigonus, 249, 395 

,, Gonatas, 250 

Antioch, 395, 396 
Antiochus I. -XII., 400-3 
Apelles, 354 
Aphrodite on coins, 360, 375, 392 

Head, 378 

of Capua, 164 

of Cyrene, 329 

of Melos, 325 

Temple of Paphos, 387 

Apollo on coins, 162, 178, 183, 188, 195, 200, 
202, 212, 226, 236, 245, 249, 250, 258, 
274, 284, 323, 326, 342, 344, 349, 350, 
353, 359, 363, 391, 401 
from Temple of Zeus, Olympia, 300, 302 
Fountain of, Cyrene, 330, 332 
Temple of, Selinus, 227 
Temple of, Phigalia, 305, 307 
Apollodoros, 345 
ApoUonia (Cyrene), 331 

(Epirus), 258 
Aptera, 323 
Aradus, 248, 405 
Arcadia, 309 
Archimedes, 214, 441 
Ares on coins, 178, 247, 354, 376 
Arethusa on coins, 208, 209, 211 
Argolis, 311 
Argos, 310, 311 
Ariana, 410, 411 
Aristophanes, 442 
Aristotle, 247 
Arta (Gulf), 253, 258 
Artaxerxes on coin, 406 
Artemisia, 358 

Artemis (Diana) on coins, 178, 212, 226, 309, 
351, 375 
Statues of, 350 
Temple of, Ephesus, 352 
Asia Minor, 339 
Asinarian Games, 211 
Asklepios, on coins, 314, 325 
Statues of, 312, 314, 325 
Temple of, 312 
Aspendus, 374 

Athena on coins, 163, 168, 173, 174, 178, 213, 
219, 248, 249, 250, 251, 322, 344, 346, 375, 
Athena and the Giant, metope, 229 
Temple of, Aegina, 288 
Selinus, 228 
Athens, 264-266 

Athenian war with Syracuse, 215 
Athos, Mt., 245 
Audoleon, 249 

Babylon, 399, 403, 407 
Bactria, 401, 409, 411, 416, 422 




Balkh, 416 

Barce, 331, 335 

Bassae, see Phigalia 

Berlin Museum. Head from Pergamon, xii 

Altar from Pergamon, 346 
Beyrout, sculptures near, 408 
Birytis, 342 
Bithynia, 342 
Boeotia, 279, 280, 281 
British Museum. Alexander, Head of, 247 

Aphrodite from Cyrene, 329 

Aphrodite from Satala, 378 

Asklepios, 325 

Bronze relief from Corinth, 291 

Capital from Salamis, 389 

Cleopatra, Head of, 404 

Colunm, 370 

Cuirass, 174 

Demeter, .statue of, 361, 362 

Diadumenus, 312 

Fragment of Colossal Bronze, 188 

Girl, Head of, 363 

Heads, from Cyrene, 328, 335 

Helmet, 203 

Hera, Head of, 217 

Hippodamia, Heads of, 224 

Lion of Cnidus, 361 

Marsyas-bronze, 292 

Nereid Monument, 372 373, 374 

Pelops, Head of, 224 

Phigalian Frieze, 308 

Portland Vase, 431 

Sculpture from Ephesus, 351 

Sculpture from the Mausoleum, 358, 359, 

Sicilian Greek coins, 191 

Terracotta Figures, 168, 201, 262, 280 

Tomb of Payava, 373 
Broussa, 339 
Bruttium, 177, 178, 181 
Brutus, 258 

Budrum, «ee Halicarnassus 
Byblus, 406 

Byron, Lord, xxv, 258, 446 
Byzantium, 242, 283 

Cadiz, see Gades, 440 

Calabria, 171 

Calchedon, 243 

Cales, 163 

Callimachus, 334 

Calymna, 354 

Camarina, 219 

Cambridge Museum. Torso, 382 

Statue from Salamis, 388 
Campania, 162 
Cappadocia, 378 
Capri, Greek types of, xvi, xx, xxiii 

Capua, 163 

Cartagena, 159 

Carthage, 236 

Caryatids at Akragas, 222 

Carystus, 263 

Cassander, 248, 429, 441, 450 

Castle of Asia (Dardanelles), 241; of Europe, 242 

Castor and Pollux, Temple of, at Akragas, 223 

Catania, 199-201 

Caulonia, 183 

Celenderis, 376 

Centoripa, 201 

Ceos, 325 

Cephalonia, 258 

Cerigo, 256, 296 

Chaeroneia, 280 

Chalcidice, 202, 245 

Chalcis, 164, 191, 193, 199, 261, 262 

Charles V., 177, 182, 206 

Charybdis, 187 

Chersonesus, 323 

Chios (Scio), 349, 350 

Cicero, 168, 215, 276 

Cilicia, 375 

Clazomenae, 350 

Cleopatra, 363, 404 

Cnidus, 360 

Cnosos, 318, 320 

Colophon, 349 

Colossus of Rhodes, 363 

Constantino, 238 

Constantinople, 241 

Museum Sarcophagi, 397 
Copais (lake), 282 
Corfu (Corcyra), 255, 258 
Corinth, xviii, xix, 287, 290, 291 
! Cos, 354 
Crathis River, 175 
Crete, x, 315-325 
Croesus, 351, 369, 371 
Croton (Cotrone), 177, 178, 181, 183 
Cumae, 164, 208 

Cunningham's Bactrian Coins, 418 
Cj'bele on Coin, 347 
Cyclades, 325 
Cydnus, 369 
Cydonia, 321, 323 
Cyme, 343 
Cyprus, 381-392 
Cyrene, 329-336 
Cyzicus, 243 

Dagon on coin, 405 
Damiiretion, Damarete, 207 
Damascus, 405 
Damastion, 258 
Daphne, 269 
Dardanelles, 241 



Darics, 416 

Datames, satrap, 376 

Dekadraclims, 220, 223 

Delos, 325 

Delphi, 283, 284 

Delphic Tripod, 283, 445 

Demeter, Statue of, 361 

Sculptured mantle of, 309 
Temple of, at Velia, 168 
on coins, 202, 284, 309, 314, 321 
and Persephone, Terracotta, 201 

Demetrius, Poliorcetes, 178, 250 

Demos on coin, 188 

Demosthenes, 412 

Diadumenus, 312 

Diana, .se^ Artemis 

Diodotus, First King of Bactria, 419 

Diogenes, 340 

Diomedes on coin, 314 

Dion of Syracuse, 258 

Dione on coin, 253 

Dionysius, of Syracuse, 184, 193, 211, 212, 440 

Dionysos on coins, 178, 196, 376 
„ Temple of, at Teos, 348 

Dodona, oracle of, 253 

Dufferin, Lord, Teos marbles, 323-325, 348 
,, his Eastern Experience, xxvi, 339, 438, 439 

Durazzo, 258 

Easter Dances, xxiii, 272, 273 
Egypt, 423, 425, 438 
Eleusis, 267, 275 
Eleutherae, 279 
Eleuthernai, 323 
Elgin, Lord, xix, 264 
Elis, 296, 304 
Empedocles, 223, 226 
Emporiae, 160 
Epaminondas, 280, 309 
Ephesus, 340, 3.J0-352 
Epidanmus, 258 
Epidaurus, 312, 314 
Epimenides, 323 
Epirus, 253-258 
Eratosthenes, 334 
Eretria, 262 
Eros on coin, 375 
Erythrae, 349 

Etna, 188, 193, 194, 199, 210 
Euainetos, 201, 208, 210 
Euboea, 259, 261 
Eukleides, 209 
Eumenes, 208 
Europa and the Bull, 228 

on coin, 322 
Euth.. , 208 
Euxine, 242, 336, 340 

Evans, Arthur, xxii, 172, 192, 196, 2(J(), 210, 
211, 318, 320, 447, 448 

Fair Havens (Crete), 319 

Famagusta, 379, 389 

Fayum, 434-7 

Fountain of Arethusa, 209, 216, 262 

Gades, 440 

Galen, 345 

Garibaldi, 186 

Gaul, 159, 160 

Gela, 219 

Gelon, 207-8 

Gerace, 184 

Giardini (Naxos), 193 

Gioiosa, lee Caulonia 

Girgenli (Akragas), 219-223 

Golden Horn, the, 243 

Gorgias, 202 

Gortyua, 321, 322 

Greater Greece, 160 

Greeks and Amazons, combat of, 1 74 

Greeks gave us Arts and Literature, xv 

Grotto del Cane, Cumac, 164 

Halicarnassus, 357-360, 413 

Hannibal, 166, 171, 182, 185, 343, 402 

Head, B. V., xvii, xxxiv (Portrait) 

Helen of Troy by Zeuxis, 181 

Hellenic Coins, a fascinating study, xvii 

Helicon, 283 

Helmet of Hieron, 203, 208 

Hephaistos on coin, 238 » 

Hera on coins, 163, 183, 282, 296, 304, 314, 322 

Hera, Head of in B. M., 217 

Hera, Temple of, at Akragas, 222 
at Argos, 311 
at Olympia, 302 

Herakleia, 173, 342 

Heracleia Minoa, 235 

Herakles and Hippolytus, 229 

Herakles on coins, 174, 183, 209, 219, 248, 249, 

309, 323, 342, 350, 354, 391, 400, 419 
Herakles, Temple of, at Selinus, 227 
Hercules, .see Herakles 
Hermes on coins, 244, 309, 401 
of Praxiteles, 297, 298, 303 
Hermione, 314 

Herodotos, 176, 177, 284, 353, 370, 371 
Hesperis, 331 
Hierapytna, 317, 322 
Hieron I, 208 
Hieron II, 213 
Hieronymus, 214 
Hiketas, 213 
Hill, G. F., xvii, 1-155 
Himalayas, 417 
Himera, 224, 225 

Hindoo Koosh Mountains, 414, 419 
Hipparchus, 343 
Hippocrates, 354 

H H 



Hipponium, 185 
Histiaia, 263 

Homer, 198, 347, 349, 350 
Hunt, Leigh, 440, 449 
Hyria, 163 

Ictinus, 308 

Ida, Mount, 318, 323, 343 

Imitations of (Jreek Money, 439, 440 

India, Indus, 409-422 

Ion, 350 

Ionia, 347 

Ionian Islands, 255-258 

Issus, Battle of, 377, 413 

Italy, Colonies in Southern, 160 

Itanos (Crete), 322 

Janina, 254 

Janus head on coin, 163 

Jerusalem, 408 

Juba II., 237 

Julius Caesar, 442 

Jupiter, .see Zeus 

Kandahar, 417, 423 

Karthago Nova, see Cartagena 

Katane, 199-200 

Kimon, 209, 210 

Kipling, Rudyard, 415, 449 

Knight, Richard P., 191 

Knucklebones, girls playing, terracotta, 168 

Kyrenia, 390 

Labyrinth on coin, 321 
Laconia, 311 
Lamia, 251 
Lampsacus, 244 
Laocoon, 364 
Larissa, 251 
Lainaca, 385 
Latakia, 393 

Latomiae of Syracuse, 216 
Leighton, Lord, xxi, xxiii 
Lentini, 201 
Leontinoi, see Lentini 
Lesbos, 233 
Lete, 246 
Leukas, 258 
Libya, 237 
Lilybaion, 236 
Limassol, 381, 390 
Lindus, 363, 360 
Lipara, 238 
Lissos on coin, 202 
Locri Epizephyrii, 184, 185 
Locris, 284 

Louvre Museum. Portrait of Philip II. of 
Macedon, 246 
Portrait of Alexander, 246 

Louvre Museum. Nike of Samothrace, 249 

Aphrodite of Melos, 325 
Lucania, 169 
Lycceius, 249 
Lycia, 372 

Lycurgus, on coin, 311 
Lydia, 369 

Lysimaohus, 248, .344, 395, 397 
Lysippus, 162, 291 
Lyttos, 322 

Macedon, 246-251 

Magna Graecia, 160-188 

Magnesia, 352 

Malea (Cape), 255, 299 

Mallus, 376 

Mamertinoi, me Zankle 

Mantineia, 309 

Mark Antony on coins, ,351, 404 

Maroneia, 244 

Marseilles, 159 

Marsyas, 292 

Massilia, 159 

Mauretania, 237 

Mausoleum, 355 

MaussoUus, 353, .357-359 

Mazaios, satrap, 376 

Megalopolis, 309, 310 

Megara, 270, 274 

Melita, 238 

Melos, ,325 

Melkart on coin, 405 

Messana, 187, 191, 193 

Messene, 311 

Messina, 187, 191 ; strait of, 186 

Straits of, 186 
Metapontion, 174 
Meteora, 252 
Metliynnia, .343 
Miletus, 352 

Minos, Minotaur, 318, 447, 448 
Misolonghi, 258 
Mithradates, 340 

on coin, 341 
Monreale, 234 
Motye, 235 
Mujelibe, the, 403 
Munich Museum, coin of Akragas, 220 

Dying warrior, 288 

Figure from Aegina, 289 
Murray, Dr. A. S., 162, 3,30, 352 
Mycenae, 313 
Myndus, 361 
Myrina, 343 
Mytilene, 343 

Nagidos, 375 
Naples, 159, 164, 165 

Mitseum, Venus of Capua, 164 



Naples Museum. Psyche of Capua, 164 

Herodotos, 176 

Homer bust, 349 

Toro Faruese, 364 
Naucratis, 433 
Naxos, 193, 196 
Neanrlreia, 34'2 
Neapolis, 24.') 
Xeinea, 309 
Nereid Monument, 372 
Nicomedes, portrait on coin, 343 
Nicopolis, 258 
Nicosia, 384, 385 

Nike on coin, 162, 163, 178, 18.3, 213, 248, 249, 
375, 4f)0 
of Samothrace, 249 
of Paeonius, 299 
Nola, 163 
Nuceria, 163 
Numidia, 237 

Odysseus on coin, 244 
Olontion, 321 
Olympia, 295-304 

Museum, Hermes, 296 
Nike, 299 
Apollo, 300 
Olympias, Mother of Alexander, 412, 449 
Olympus, 252 
Olynthus, 245 
Oracle of Amnion, 335, 413 
Orthagoreia, 246 
Oxyrhynchus Papyri, 435-7 

Paeonia, 249 

Paestum, 165, 167 

Palermo (Panormus), 232-236 

Pamphylia, 374 

Pan on coin, 2;50, 309 

Paphos, 386, 387, 392 

Papyrus at Syracuse, 216 

Parnassus, Mt., 283 

Parthenope, w-« Naples 

Parthia, 412, 414 

Patrai, 292 

Patras, 258, 295 

Patraus, 249 

Paul, Apostle, 317, 390 

Pausanias, 271, 283, 296, 447 

Pelion and Ossa, 252 

Pella, 247 

Pellegrino, Monte, 235 

Pellene, 292 

Peloponnesus, 307-314 

Pelops and Hippo<1aniia, 224 

Peneius, 252 

Pcrga, 375 

Pergamon, 344 

Persepolis, 414 

Persephone on coin, 236, 284 

Perseus and the Gorgon, 229 

Perseua (King), 250 

Persia, 411, 416 

ip — engraver of Thurioi, 177 

Phaistos, 322 

Phalanna, 251 

Pharsalus, 252 

Pheneus, 308 

Plieidias, 264, 443 

Phigalia, 307 

Philetairos, 344 

Philip II. of Macedon, 246, 247 

Philip v., 250 

Philippi, Ruins at, 244 

Philistis, 213, 214 

Phistelia, 163, 164 

Phlius, 291, 309 

Phocis, 282 

Phoenicia, 405 

Phrygillos, 208 

Phyle, 279 

Pindar, 184, 190, 223, 280, 444 

Piraeus, 263, 265 

Plataea, 281, 282 

Plato, 275, 302, 440 

Pluto, Grotto of, 275 

Policoro, 173 

Polycleitus, 312 

Pompeii and Herculaneum, xix, 165, &e. 

Pompey, 252 

Pompey's Pillar, 427 

Pontus, 337, 341 

Portland Vase, 431 

Poseidon on coins, 167, 178, 250 

bronze, 157 

Temple of, Paestum, 166 
,, Hermione, 314 

Poseidonia, 167 

Poynter, Sir E. J., xx, xxi, 163 
Prusias, portraits on coin, 342 
Psyche of Capua, 164 
Ptolemaic Architectui'e, 415, 417, 427 
.Ptolemais, 331 
Ptolemies, 248, 425 &c. 
Pyrrhus, 174, 182, 183, 213, 253 
Pythagoras, 181, 182 

Reggio, 187, 188 
Rhaukos, 322 
Rhotla, 160 
Rhodes, 362-366 
Rocella lonica, 182 
Rome, 161, 162 
Roxana, 414, 441,449 

Sacred Way, Athens, 269 
Saide, nee Sidon 
Salamis, 272 


Samnium, 163 
Sanios, 188, 192, 353 
Samothrace, 239 
Nike of, 249 
Santa Maria (hoard), 200 
Sappho, 344 
Sardes, 369 
Sart, 367 
Scopas, 351, 358 
Scilla, 185, 186 

Scylla on Helmet of Athena, 173, 174, 177 
Segesta, 230-232 
Seilenos on coin, 196, 200, 225 
Seleucid Empire, 395-408 
Selevicus I-V, 395-402 
Selinus, 166, 225-230 
Selinus on coin, 226 
Shipbuilding in Sicily, 441 
Sibari, see Sybaris 
Sibyl of Ciimae, 164 
Sicily, 189 
Sicyon, 290, 291 
Side, 375 

Sidon (Saide), 398, 406, 407 
Silphium, 335 
Simonides, 325 
Sinope, 340 

Smith, Arthur H., xxv, 330, 359, 373, 443 
Smith and Porcher's Drawings of Cyrene, 329, 

Smyrna, 347 
Sogdiana, 411, &c. 
Soloi, 376 
Solon, 371 
Solus, 225 
Soson, 208 
Spain, 159 
Strabo, 205, 340 
Strangford Shield, 265, 443, 444 
Stromboli, 186, 237 
Stymphalos, 309 
Styx River, 164 
Suessa, 163 
Suli, 253 

Sunium, Bay of, 261 
Susa, 411, 414 
Sybaris, 166, 175 
Syracuse, 205-216 

Tanagra, xx, 280, 281 
Tanagra Figures, xix, xx, 281 
Taormina, 189, 194, 195 
Taranto, see Taras 
Taras, 169, 171-173, 178 
Taras on coins, 172, 173 
Tarsus, 377 

Tarsus Medallions, 246 
Telephos, 347 

Tempe, Vale of, 250 
Tenedos, 342 
Teos, 323, 348, 448 
Terina, 185 

Terracotta figures, 163, 201, 262, 280 
Teuchria, 331 
Thasos, 245 
Thebes, 280 

Theocritus, 350, 440, 450 
Theopompos, 350 
Thermopylae, 261 
Theseus, Temple of, 266 
Thessaly, 251-255 
Thurioi (Thurium), 176, 177 
Tigranes, K. of Armenia, 403-4 
Timoleon, 201, 212 
Tiryns, 313 

Tripod, Consecration of, 282 
Pedestal of Delphic, 283 
Tripolis, 406 
Troas, 341 

Tyche of Antioch, 404 
Tyre, 406-7 
Tyrus, 406 

Vaphio, Oold cups from, xviii, xix, 311 
Vatican Museum. Aphrodite, 361 

Athlete, 290 

Cicero, 276 

Fortune of Antioch, 404 

Laocoon, 364 
Velia, 168 

Venus, see Aphrodite 
Vibo, 185 
Victory, see Nike 
Vodhena, 248 
Volo, 252 

Wady Sebaiath, 327 

White Mountains, Tripiti, .320 

Wroth, W., 191 

Xanthus, 372 

Xerxes, Throne of, 270 

Yenidje, 247 

Zaffarano, Cape, 233 
Zakyntlios, (Zante), 255, 258 
Zankle, 191-193 
Zeno, 168, 392 

Zeus on coins, 163, 178, 244, 248, 253, 296, 304, 
309, 335, 342, 359, 400, 412, 419, 420, 429 
Zeus, Temple of, at Girgenti, 221 

at Nemea, 308, 309 

at Olympia, 300, 303 
Zeus, Altar of, at Pergamon, 346 
Zeuxis^ ix, 181, 342 


By the same Author— Fifth Thousand. 

Dedicated hy permission to EARL CROMER, G.C.B., dec. 



With an Introduction by the REV. PROFESSOR SAYCE, D.U., LL.D., &c. 

Foolscap 4to, 308 pp., 320 Illustrations. 7s. 6d. Net. 



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Jttst Puhlished. Handsome Maid Binding, 10s. 6d. net. 






With Jive hundred examples of Scarabs, Plaques, and Cylinders. 


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Waxd, John 

Greek coins and their 
paxent cities.